Billings, Russia

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Billings (English)
Биллингс (Russian)
Валкыран (Chukchi)
-  Rural locality[1]  -
Selo[1]
Биллингс.jpg
Nighttime view of Billings
Map of Russia - Chukotka Autonomous Okrug (2008-03).svg
Location of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug in Russia
Billings is located in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug
Billings
Billings
Location of Billings in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug
Coordinates: 69°52′N 175°45′E / 69.867°N 175.750°E / 69.867; 175.750Coordinates: 69°52′N 175°45′E / 69.867°N 175.750°E / 69.867; 175.750
Administrative status (as of June 2009)
Country Russia
Federal subject Chukotka Autonomous Okrug[1]
Administrative district Iultinsky District[citation needed]
Municipal status (as of October 2010)
Municipal district Chaunsky Municipal District[2]
Rural settlement Billings Rural Settlement[2]
Administrative center of Billings Rural Settlement[2]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census) 211 inhabitants[3][4]
Population (January 2016 est.) 193 inhabitants[5]
Time zone PETT (UTC+12:00)[6]
Postal code(s)[7] 689380
Dialing code(s) +7 42737[8]
Billings on Wikimedia Commons

Billings (Russian: Би́ллингс) is a rural locality (a selo) in Iultinsky District of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Russia. Population: 211 (2010 Census);[3] [4] Municipally, it is incorporated as Billings Rural Settlement in Chaunsky Municipal District.[2]

History[edit]

Eighteenth century[edit]

Like Mys Shmidta, Billings is named after a nearby cape, which in turn was named after British Captain Joseph Billings (1758—1806) who was at the service of the Russian Imperial Navy during Catherine the Great's reign. The cape itself marks the point of separation between the Chukchi Sea and the East Siberian Sea.[9] Joseph Billings was an English-born member of the Russian navy who in 1785, together with C. G. Sarychevym, was part of the expedition that mapped and researched the coast of North-Eastern Siberia.[10] Using reindeer, he crossed Chukotka as far as Kolyuchinskaya Guba and mapped the area.[10]

The local Chukchi people originally called the place "Valkyran", meaning a dugout of whale jaws.[11] This is in reference to the remains of an ancient Inuit camp consisting of a number of homes dug into the soil and constructed of wood and the bones of the Greenland whale.[9]

Twentieth Century[edit]

In 1935, a polar station was established on the site of the village for the first time,[10] and two years later the first national council was established in the area named Valkyran after their traditional name for the area.[10] In 1948, the local Chukchi herders were collectivised and named their new Sovkhoz after Lenin.[10]

Geography[edit]

Billings is located on the coast of the East Siberian Sea, part of the Arctic Ocean, just east of Cape Billings. Other than the mining settlements of Leningradsky and Mys Shmidta, Billings is one of the few populated areas in this part of Russia between Cape Shelag and Cape Dezhnyov. Billings is situated near the former Chukchi settlement of Gytkhelen.[citation needed]

Demographics[edit]

The population of the village according to the most recent census data is 211,[3] of whom 109 are male and 102 female,[4] a significant decrease on a 2006 estimate of 324.[9]

Administrative and municipal jurisdiction[edit]

Billings was part of Shmidtovsky Municipal District of Chukotka until that district was merged into Iultinsky Municipal District in 2008. On December 15, 2009, Billings was transferred to Chaunsky Municipal District.[2] Administratively, however, Billings remained under the jurisdiction of Shmidtovsky Administrative District until the latter was merged into Iultinsky Administrative District in 2011 and ceased to exist.

Climate[edit]

Billings has a Tundra climate (ET)[12] because the warmest month has an average temperature between 0 °C (32 °F) and 10 °C (50 °F).

Climate data for Billings, Russia
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) −4
(25)
−1.7
(28.9)
−2
(28)
3.2
(37.8)
8
(46)
18.5
(65.3)
28
(82)
19
(66)
14
(57)
15
(59)
−0.2
(31.6)
1.4
(34.5)
28
(82)
Average high °C (°F) −16.4
(2.5)
−18.6
(−1.5)
−18.8
(−1.8)
−13.8
(7.2)
−3.8
(25.2)
0.8
(33.4)
3.8
(38.8)
3.1
(37.6)
0.2
(32.4)
−6.4
(20.5)
−13.9
(7)
−16.9
(1.6)
−8.4
(16.9)
Average low °C (°F) −19.5
(−3.1)
−22.9
(−9.2)
−23.7
(−10.7)
−18.2
(−0.8)
−7
(19)
−1.5
(29.3)
1
(34)
0.8
(33.4)
−1.5
(29.3)
−8.9
(16)
−16.5
(2.3)
−19.6
(−3.3)
−11.5
(11.3)
Record low °C (°F) −53
(−63)
−48
(−54)
−45
(−49)
−37.3
(−35.1)
−28
(−18)
−53
(−63)
−9
(16)
−22
(−8)
−16.3
(2.7)
−30
(−22)
−40
(−40)
−52.9
(−63.2)
−53
(−63)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 6
(0.24)
3
(0.12)
0
(0)
3
(0.12)
3
(0.12)
3
(0.12)
9
(0.35)
12
(0.47)
15
(0.59)
6
(0.24)
6
(0.24)
6
(0.24)
72
(2.83)
Average snowy days 12 9 8 11 9 3 2 3 10 16 14 12 109
Source: [13]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Law #33-OZ, Article 13.2
  2. ^ a b c d e Law #46-OZ, Article 5.1
  3. ^ a b c Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  4. ^ a b c The results of the 2010 Census are given for Billings Rural Settlement, a municipal formation of Chaunsky Municipal District. According to Law #148-OZ, Billings is the only inhabited locality on the territory of Billings Rural Settlement.
  5. ^ Chukotka Autonomous Okrug Territorial Branch of the Federal State Statistics Service. Численность постоянного населения Чукотского автономного округа по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2016 года (Russian)
  6. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03 июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of July 03, 2016 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  7. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (Russian)
  8. ^ Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation Chaunsky Municipal District (Russian)
  9. ^ a b c Strogoff, p. 143
  10. ^ a b c d e Information on Billings Official Chaunsky District Website
  11. ^ V.V. Leontev and K.A. Novikova, Топонимический словарь северо-востока СССР (Toponymic Dictionary of the Northeastern USSR) (1989) Magadan. p.95
  12. ^ McKnight and Hess, pp.235-7
  13. ^ "Weather Averages for Billings, Russia from meoweather.com". meoweather.com. Retrieved October 3, 2012. 

Sources[edit]

  • Дума Чукотского автономного округа. Закон №33-ОЗ от 30 июня 1998 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Чукотского автономного округа», в ред. Закона №55-ОЗ от 9 июня 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Чукотского автономного округа "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Чукотского автономного округа"». Вступил в силу по истечении десяти дней со дня его официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Ведомости", №7 (28), 14 мая 1999 г. (Duma of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug. Law #33-OZ of June 30, 1998 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, as amended by the Law #55-OZ of June 9, 2012 On Amending the Law of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug". Effective as of after ten days from the day of the official publication.). (Russian)
  • Дума Чукотского автономного округа. Закон №46-ОЗ от 29 ноября 2004 г. «О статусе, границах и административных центрах муниципальных образований на территории Чаунского района Чукотского автономного округа», в ред. Закона №125-ОЗ от 2 декабря 2011 г. «О внесении изменений в Приложение 2 к Закону Чукотского автономного округа "О статусе, границах и административных центрах муниципальных образований на территории Чаунского района Чукотского автономного округа"». Вступил в силу через десять дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Ведомости", №31/1 (178/1), 10 декабря 2004 г. (Duma of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug. Law #46-OZ of November 29, 2004 On the Status, Borders, and Administrative Centers of the Municipal Formations on the Territory of Chaunsky District of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, as amended by the Law #125-OZ of December 2, 2011 On Amending Appendix 2 of the Law of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug "On the Status, Borders, and Administrative Centers of the Municipal Formations on the Territory of Chaunsky District of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug". Effective as of the day which is ten days after the official publication date.). (Russian)
  • McKnight, Tom L; Hess, Darrel (2000). "Climate Zones and Types". Physical Geography: A Landscape Appreciation. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-020263-0. 
  • M Strogoff, P-C Brochet, and D. Auzias Petit Futé: Chukotka (2006). "Avant-Garde" Publishing House