Blue-winged pitta

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Blue-winged pitta
Pitta moluccensis - Kaeng Krachan.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Pittidae
Genus: Pitta
Species:
P. moluccensis
Binomial name
Pitta moluccensis

The blue-winged pitta (Pitta moluccensis) is a passerine bird in the family Pittidae native to Australia and Southeast Asia. It forms a superspecies with three other pittas, the Indian pitta (P. brachyura), the fairy pitta (P. nympha) and the mangrove pitta (P. megarhyncha). A colourful bird, it has a black head with a buff stripe above the eye, a white collar, greenish upper parts, blue wings, buff underparts and a reddish vent area. Its range extends from India to Malaysia, Indonesia, southern China and the Philippines. Its habitat is moist woodland, parks and gardens and it avoids dense forest. It feeds mainly on insects and worms. It breeds in the spring, building an untidy spherical nest on the ground, often near water and between tree roots. A clutch of about five eggs is laid and incubated by both parents, hatching after about sixteen days.

Taxonomy[edit]

The blue-winged pitta was described by the German naturalist Philipp Ludwig Statius Müller in 1776 and given the binomial name Turdus moluccensis.[2] Statius Müller's description was based on a plate showing the "Merle des Moluques" published by Comte de Buffon in his Planches Enluminées D'Histoire Naturelle.[3][4] The French name and the specific epithet moluccensis refer to the Moluccas (the Maluku Islands). This was an error as the range of the species does not extend as far east. The type locality was amended in 1963 to Malacca on the Malay Peninsula.[5][4] The species is now placed in the genus Pitta that was introduced by the French ornithologist Louis Jean Pierre Vieillot in 1816.[6] The species is monotypic.[7]

The blue-winged pitta forms a superspecies with the Indian pitta (P. brachyura), fairy pitta (P. nympha) and mangrove pitta (P. megarhyncha). Alternate common names include: lesser blue-winged pitta, the little blue-winged pitta, the Moluccan pitta, the brève à ailes bleues (French), the Kleine Blauflügelpitta (German) and the pita aliazul (Spanish).[8]

Description[edit]

Sunning with spread wings

Measuring 180 to 205 mm (7.1–8.1 in) in length, the blue-winged pitta has a black head with a buff-coloured supercilium, white chin and buff underparts. The shoulders and mantle are greenish, the wings are bright blue, and the vent is reddish.[9] The bill is black, eyes are brown and the legs pale pink.[10] It has a very short tail.[11][12] Juveniles have similar patterned plumage but are duller. It resembles the mangrove pitta but can be distinguished by its shorter bill. The loud call has been transcribed as taew-laew taew-laew.[9]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

The blue-winged pitta is regularly found in Brunei, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam, and has been found to be vagrant in Australia, Christmas Island, Taiwan and Hong Kong.[1] Habitat is subtropical and tropical moist lowland forests.[13]

P. moluccensis is found in a variety of habitats, up to an altitude of 800 m (2500 ft), including broadleaved forests, parks and gardens, and mangroves,[9] though avoids dense rainforest.[11]

The range is much of southeast Asia and Indochina, from central Myanmar east through Thailand and into peninsular Malaysia.[11] P. moluccensis is a winter visitor to Borneo and Sumatra, and a vagrant to the Philippines and Java.[14] It is a rare vagrant to the northwestern coast of Australia.[10]

Diet[edit]

The blue-winged pitta mostly feeds on worms and insects, hunting them on the ground or from a low branch or perch.[11][15] They also eat hard-shelled snails.[15][16][17]

Breeding[edit]

At breeding time, the blue-winged pitta builds a large nest, usually on the ground, made of twigs, roots, grasses, leaves and mosses. The spherical and untidy nest has a side entrance and is often found between tree roots near water.[12] In its breeding range in peninsular Malaysia, the blue-winged pitta lays eggs between early May and late July each year.[18] The female lays 4-6 white or cream-coloured eggs with purple markings, and both parents take turns incubating the eggs for 15–17 days.[12]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b BirdLife International (2012). "Pitta moluccensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 27 August 2015.
  2. ^ Statius Müller, Philipp Ludwig (1776). Des Ritters Carl von Linné Königlich Schwedischen Lelbarztes uc. uc. vollständigen Natursystems Supplements und Register-Band über alle sechs Theile oder Classen des Thierreichs mit einer ausführlichen Erklärung ausgefertiget. Nuremberg: Gabriel Nicolaus Raspe. p. 144.
  3. ^ Buffon, Georges-Louis Leclerc de; Martinet, François-Nicolas (1765–1783). Planches Enluminées D'Histoire Naturelle. Volume 3. Paris: De L'Imprimerie Royale. Plate 257, "Merle des Moluques".
  4. ^ a b Traylor, Melvin A. Jr, ed. (1979). Check-list of Birds of the World. Volume 8. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Museum of Comparative Zoology. p. 326.
  5. ^ Deignan, Herbert G. (1963). "Checklist of the birds of Thailand". Bulletin of the United States National Museum. 226: 1-263 [98].
  6. ^ Vieillot, Louis Jean Pierre (1816). Analyse d'une Nouvelle Ornithologie Elementaire (in French). Paris: Deterville/self. p. 42, Num. 137.
  7. ^ Gill, Frank; Donsker, David, eds. (2019). "NZ wrens, broadbills & pittas". World Bird List Version 8.2. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
  8. ^ "Blue-winged Pitta (Pitta moluccensis)". Internet Bird Collection. Retrieved 27 August 2015.
  9. ^ a b c Robson, Craig (2005). New Holland field guide to the birds of South-East Asia. Kenthurst, New South Wales: New Holland Publishers. p. 76. ISBN 1-84330-746-4. Retrieved 27 August 2015.
  10. ^ a b Slater, Peter (1978) [1974]. A field guide to Australian birds: passerines. Adelaide: Rigby. p. 86. ISBN 0-85179-813-6.
  11. ^ a b c d Strange, Morten (2000). Photographic Guide to the Birds of Southeast Asia including the Philippines & Borneo. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. p. 220. ISBN 0-691-11494-3. Retrieved 27 August 2015.
  12. ^ a b c Blue-Winged Pitta, Animal Database at KidsBiology.com. Retrieved 27 August 2015.
  13. ^ "Blue-winged Pitta, Pitta moluccensis". BirdLife International. Retrieved 27 August 2015.
  14. ^ Strange, Morten (2003). Photographic Guide to the Birds of Indonesia. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. p. 221. ISBN 0-691-11495-1. Retrieved 27 August 2015.
  15. ^ a b Khor, Nelson. "Blue Winged Pitta Success Nesting". slideshow by Nelson Khor at pbase.com. Retrieved 27 August 2015.
  16. ^ DSC_8612 Blue-winged Pitta (Pitta moluccensis). Flickr photo. Retrieved 27 August 2015.
  17. ^ DSC_8671Blue-winged Pitta (Pitta moluccensis). Flickr photo. Retrieved 27 August 2015.
  18. ^ Hutchinson, Robert and Mears, Andy. "Extension of the breeding range of Blue-winged Pitta (Pitta moluccensis) in peninsular Malaysia" Forktail 22: 119–120 (2006). Article hosted at orientalbirdclub.org. Retrieved 27 August 2015.

External links[edit]