Kentucky Kingdom

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Kentucky Kingdom
The New Kentucky Kingdom and Hurricane Bay logo.jpg
Slogan More Rides, More Hours, More Fun
Location Louisville, Kentucky, United States
Coordinates 38°11′44″N 85°44′50″W / 38.195427°N 85.747245°W / 38.195427; -85.747245Coordinates: 38°11′44″N 85°44′50″W / 38.195427°N 85.747245°W / 38.195427; -85.747245
Owner Kentucky State Fair Board
Operated by Kentucky Kingdom, LLLP
General Manager John Shanrock [1]
Opened 1987
Previous names Six Flags Kentucky Kingdom
Operating season April–September
Area 63 acres (25 ha)
Total 50
Roller coasters 5
Water rides 2

Kentucky Kingdom (formerly known as Six Flags Kentucky Kingdom) is an amusement park in Louisville, Kentucky. The 63-acre (25 ha) park includes a collection of amusement rides and a water park named Hurricane Bay.[2][3] The park reopened to the public on May 24, 2014.[4]


Foundation (1987–1988)[edit]

Kentucky Kingdom opened on May 23, 1987, leasing 10 acres (4.0 ha) at the Kentucky Exposition Center property.[5] The park was started by out of state Texas investors as an extension of the Kentucky State Fair. One of the original rides was a roller coaster named Starchaser. The park also had other rides such as Bumper Cars and a log flume. However, the 10 acre park closed and filed for bankruptcy after only one season . Most of the contractors and vendors were unpaid. Most of the rides were auctioned off to other parks. Only a few rides stayed at the park. The park had four themed areas called "Carousel Plaza", "Old Louisville", "Kentucky Frontier" and "The Enchanted Forest" the kiddie area which would later become "King Louie's Playground" and then "Looney Tunes Movie Town".

Ed Hart era (1989–1997)[edit]

The park remained closed through 1989 after the rights to operate it were purchased by Ed Hart and a group of investors. Hart's first step was paying the 227 vendors and contractors that were unpaid before. It reopened for the 1990 season with the new operators and management team.[5] Despite the Starchaser being sold it had remained on-site at the amusement park allowing Hart to purchase it back.[2] Additionally new rides were added including Tin Lizzies, The Enterprise, Whirling Dervish (later renamed "Breakdance"), and The Vampire. In 1992, the Kentucky Kingdom made a large expansion and opened the Hurricane Bay water park (which was later renamed Splashwater Kingdom).

Through the 1990- 1998 seasons, the park was said to be one of the fastest growing amusement parks in the United States at this time.

Ed Hart also put rides in the park over the years he was operating the park. Thunder Run (wooden roller coaster), The Quake, T2 (Terror to the Second Power), Twisted Twins (Twisted Sisters), Mile High Falls, Top Eliminator Dragsters, Chang (stand up roller coaster), Hellevator (Drop Tower), Roller Skater Kids coaster, Chaos, and Kingdom Go Carts. These rides were added during 1990 to 1999 seasons.

Premier Parks/Six Flags era (1998–2010)[edit]

At the end of 1997, the rights to operate Kentucky Kingdom were sold to Premier Parks for $64 million.[5] At the time, Kentucky Kingdom was one of the main tourism attractions for Louisville, receiving more visitors than Churchill Downs.[5] On April 1, 1998, Premier Parks purchased Six Flags from Time Warner, and as such, on June 21, 1998, Kentucky Kingdom became known as Six Flags Kentucky Kingdom. Six Flags then transformed King Louie's Playground into Looney Tunes Movie Town and added the Batman Stunt Show Spectacular in 1999.[5] It became the ninth amusement park to use the Six Flags name.[6]

In 1999, Six Flags planned to re-theme the one side of the park as "Gotham City", renaming and repainting several rides. Chang was to have been rethemed and renamed to Riddler's Revenge, the same name as the stand up coaster at Six Flags Magic Mountain, and T2 was to have been rethemed and renamed to Batman: The Ride, to be more relatable to other Six Flags parks. Later that year, the idea was shelved and the rides retained their original names despite many of them having a different coat of paint. The Penguin's Blizzard River (later renamed Raging Rapids River Ride) was the only part of the plan that went into full effect.[2]

In 1999, the Vampire roller coaster was removed due to several malfunctions that had occurred earlier in the season. The Ride would later reopen as Flashback at Six Flags New England in 2000. Originally, Six Flags planned to place two new coasters in the Vampire's spot, but then decided to place the two coasters at their recently rebranded Six Flags Ohio (Geauga Lake) park. The two coasters planned were Batman: Knight Flight (now Dominator (roller coaster) at Kings Dominion in Virginia) and Superman: Ultimate Escape (now Possessed (roller coaster) at Dorney Park & Wildwater Kingdom in Pennsylvania. To fill the vacant space, Six Flags purchased Road Runner Express, a wild mouse coaster, and Skycoaster in 2001.

In 2002, the Twisted Sisters roller coaster was forced to be renamed to Twisted Twins upon a threat of a lawsuit from the band Twisted Sister.[2] In 2003, Kentucky Kingdom opened Greezed Lighting, a shuttle loop roller coaster formally located at Six Flags Over Georgia as Viper and before that as Tidal Wave at Six Flags Great America, in the front section of the park. It was named after another shuttle loop coaster in the chain called Greezed Lighting at the now defunct Six Flags Astroworld in Houston, Texas. The Quake was removed in 2004 due to malfunctions and was replaced by the Tornado water attraction in 2005. In 2007, Hurricane Bay was renamed to Six Flags Splashwater Kingdom and Deluge, the first water coaster attraction in North America opened.

On June 21, 2007, a accident occurred on the Superman: Tower of Power drop tower which resulted in a 13 year old girl having her leg amputated after a cable fracture occurred on the ride. The ride was later removed in 2008 after the girl's family sued the park over the accident. The park originally was to replace the ride with a new attraction for the 2008 season, though this never occurred. Instead, Mega Wedgie, a new water slide, was added to Splashwater Kingdom in 2008. Due to major debt by owner Six Flags, the entire Northwest section of the park, which included Twisted Twins, Mile High Falls, and the Zeppelin spinning blimp ride, was completely closed for the remainder of Six Flags operation of the park which lasted to early 2010. [7][8]


On September 21, 2009, Kentucky Kingdom confirmed that the park's main attraction Chang was being removed for the addition of Bonzai Beach, a new water park region that has a separate theme from the existing Splashwater Kingdom.[9]

Amid a corporate bankruptcy, on February 4, 2010, Six Flags announced the park would cease operations immediately due to the rejection of an amended lease by the Kentucky State Fair Board.[10] This left the fair board and Six Flags to negotiate the ownership of rides and attractions. On July 25, 2010, this dispute was settled with Six Flags receiving a ride of their choice (Road Runner Express), and $2.8 million in lease related payments owed by Six Flags were forgiven, in exchange for Six Flags' property rights which included the offices, furniture, fixtures and equipment relating to the park, as well as all intellectual property. The Kentucky State Fair Board also used $2.35 million from Ed Hart to purchase Six Flags' 20-acre (8.1 ha) stake in the park. Six Flags removed all of the Looney Tunes and DC Comics/Batman related content from the park, along with inner tubes, overhead shades from rides, and some ride parts from rides to use as spare parts for rides at its other parks.

Six Flags added rides during its 10-year operation of the park. These rides were Road Runner Express, Greezed Lightnin' (shuttle launch coaster), Sky Coaster, Sling Shot, Tornado (water ride), Deluge (water roller coaster) and Mega Wedgie (water bowl).

Attempts to revive Kentucky Kingdom (2010–2012)[edit]

In May 2010, the former operator of Kentucky Kingdom, Ed Hart, along with several other investors formed the Kentucky Kingdom Redevelopment Company. Their aim was to reopen the park by Memorial Day Weekend the year after funding and their plans were approved.[11][12][13] After 16 months trying to get funding approved,[14][15][16] the Kentucky Kingdom Redevelopment Company announced on September 30, 2011, that the fair board had ended negotiations and that their company would no longer take part in re-opening the park.[17] On November 4, 2011, Ed Hart sued the state of Kentucky in an attempt to recoup $1.4 million that he claimed had been spent as part of the failed effort to reopen the amusement park.[18]

Logo proposed for the Bluegrass Boardwalk rebranding

On January 16, 2012, the owners of Holiday World & Splashin' Safari in Santa Claus, Indiana announced they were involved in talks about the future of Kentucky Kingdom. Their media release stated they were in a fact-finding stage and that they hadn't made any decisions about whether to move forward in pursuing an opportunity to run the theme park.[19] On February 7, 2012, four members of the Koch family, who also own Holiday World & Splashin' Safari, formed a new company, Bluegrass Boardwalk, Incorporated, to negotiate a lease agreement with the Kentucky State Fair Board and to apply for economic development incentives from the Commonwealth of Kentucky.[20] On February 23, 2012, the Kentucky Fair Board approved a lease agreement for the former Kentucky Kingdom property to the Koch family. It was announced that Kentucky Kingdom would be renamed Bluegrass Boardwalk and would reopen on May 11, 2013 and employ 25 full-time and 800 seasonal workers. However, later that month the plans began to unravel.[21] On May 30, 2012, it was confirmed that the park would not reopen in 2013.[22] On June 15, 2012, it was announced that the Koch family would not reopen the park at all, with Bluegrass Boardwalk CEO Natalie Koch stating that "many layers of governmental regulations and stipulations ultimately caused them to withdraw."[23]

Ed Hart's latest return and reopening (2012 – present)[edit]

On August 15, 2012, it was announced that Ed Hart and the Kentucky Kingdom Redevelopment Company would begin work to reopen the park in 2014. On October 22, 2012, Hart said the company planned to invest $120 million, using $50 million to reopen the park and investing another $70 million over the term of the lease.[24] All rides except Greezed Lightnin' were expected to reopen. The company also planned to add a $15 million roller coaster, install three new rides, and double the size of the "Hurricane Bay" water park.[24] The planned expansion would be the largest in the park's history.[25]

In January 2013, the Kentucky Fair Board granted preliminary approval for a lease, and the Kentucky Tourism Development Finance Authority (KTDFA) approved government incentives in support of reopening the park, placing Ed Hart and his investors in charge of park operations.[26][27] The scheduled opening date was announced as May 24, 2014.[4] On March 25, 2013, Hart specified that it would take more money than previously anticipated to rebuild and expand the park.[28][28] The investment plan previously approved under the terms of the lease consisted of $20 million in partner equity and $25 million in borrowed money. The city planned to provide subsidies and tax incentives up to $200,000 per year for the first five years and $100,000 per year for following five years.[28] Hart was able to secure $28.5 million in financing, and proprietors would be under contract obligation to invest at least $1 million per year on park upgrades.[28] On April 10, 2013, the KTDFA approved up to $10 Million dollars in sales tax rebates over the next 10 years for Kentucky Kingdom.[29]

Construction began in July 2013.[30] The park added three new children's rides in King Louie's Playhouse near the front of the park, a new $7 million roller coaster called "Lightning Run", a new drop tower named "FearFall", a new flat ride named Professor John's Flying Machines and several new attractions in the Hurricane Bay Water Park.[31] Kentucky Kingdom and Hurricane Bay reopened on May 24, 2014.

The reopening was a success, after the first month Kentucky Kingdom sold over 100,000 season passes. Kentucky Kingdom plans to open a renovated amphitheater and roller coaster T-3 in 2015.[32] On September 25, 2014, Cyclos and Skycatcher were announced for 2015, along with three refurbished attractions, Enterprise, Raging Rapids River Ride, and T3 (formerly known as T2). On January 16, 2015, Kentucky Kingdom announced that the park will add two other rides, the park called the five new rides and the two later explained rides the "Kingdom Seven", but the two new rides remained secret.

Rides and attractions[edit]

Roller coasters[edit]

Ride Opened Manufacturer Description
Thunder Run 1990 Dinn Corporation A wooden roller coaster, designed by Curtis D. Summers and John Fetterman. Known as a classic wooden roller coaster made by the Dinn Corporation.
Roller Skater 1994 Vekoma A junior roller coaster, with roller skate shaped cars. A Vekoma Roller Skater roller coaster. The other Vekoma roller coaster is the T3 (now planned to reopen in 2015[33]) that was added a year later.
T3 1995 Vekoma A suspended looping coaster. Opened as first of kind in North America and second of its kind in the world. It was originally known as T2. Reopening on April 11, 2015
Lightning Run 2014 Chance Rides A 7 million dollar steel roller coaster. It is the first Chance Rides Hyper GT-X Coaster in the world.[33]
Twisted Twins 1998 Custom Coasters International A dueling wooden roller coaster. The ride was originally named Twisted Sisters with the two sides are named Lola and Stella. The ride name changed due to a legal dispute; however, the track names remained. SBNO since 2008. The coaster will reopen in 2016.

Other rides and attractions[edit]

Ride Opened Manufacturer Description
Breakdance 1990 HUSS A Breakdance. Ride spins on a platform with a group of pods that spin in addition to the platform.
Bluebeard's Bounty 1990 HUSS Swinging pirate ship.
Tin Lizzies 1990 Arrow Dynamics Antique cars that run along a track. The ride was remodeled due to the construction of the rollercoaster Greezed Lightning.
Enterprise 1990 HUSS Ride starts out flat, has an enclosed carrier without restraints, ride begins spinning and lifts up onto its side like a Ferris wheel and then back down. Scheduled to reopen for the 2015 season
Himalaya 1990 Reverchon Industries Spinning ride that goes over slopes and flat area in a circulare direction.
Flying Dutchman 1991 Intamin Ride was previously located at Kings Island for the 1973-1990 seasons of the park.
The Giant Wheel 1992 Vekoma 150 ft (46 m) tall Ferris wheel
Mile High Falls 1994 Hopkins Rides This remains one of the tallest spill rides in the world. First of its kind when the ride was built in 1994.
Bella Musica 1996 Chance Rides The park's main Carousel. Formerly Grand Carousel.
Raging Rapids River Ride 1999 Intamin A white water raft ride. Parts of the ride were moved from the closed Opryland theme park. First ride added by Six Flags. Formerly The Penguin's Blizzard River. Scheduled to reopen for the 2015 season.
FearFall 2014 Larson International A 129 feet drop tower ride
Professor John's Flying Machines 2014 Larson International A Flying Scooters ride
5D Cinema - Movies You Ride 2014 Plays ride-able scenes from the 2011 film Rio
Bumper Cars 2014 Classic Bumper Cars ride
Cyclos 2015 Zamperla Zamperla Discovery Revolution ride. A circle of 16 passenger seats spins in a circle while swinging in the air doing 360 degrees loop.
Skycatcher 2015 ARM Rides 130 foot swing ride. Starts on ground and lifts into the air where it swings riders.
Up, Up and Away 2015 Zamperla Zamperla Samba Tower Ballon family ride. Replaced Rainbow

King Louie's Playground[edit]

Ride Opened Manufacturer Description
Big Foot Trucks 1990 Kids battery powered jeeps. Formally known as Big Foot, Road Runner Express, and Dukes of the Road.
Sun & Moon Ferris Wheel 1990 Preston & Barbieri Kids Ferris wheel. Formerly called Daffy's Star Parade and Merlin's Magic Wheel.
Musical Carousel 1990 Chance Rides Kids Carousel. Formerly Bugs Bunny's Big Band Carousel.
Samba Balloon Ride 1990 Zamperla Samba Balloons. Formerly A' Wound the World in 80 Seconds.
Zeppelin 1991 Zamperla Zeppelin themed spinning ride
Free Falling Fire Engine 1995 Zamperla Crazy Bus
Rio Grande 1998 Zamperla Rio Grande kiddie train ride. Opened at new location in 2001.
Speedway 1998 Zamperla Kids spinning car ride.
Pounce & Bounce 2000 Zamperla Jumpin' Star kids drop tower. Formally known as Tweety and Sylvester's Pounce and Bounce.
Rock-A-Bye Swings 2014 Zamperla Swing ride
Jump Around 2014 Zamperla Jump Around
Whirl-A-Round Swings 2014 Sartori Rides Swing ride
Madhatter 2014 Oversize Tea cups

Hurricane Bay[edit]

Ride Opened Manufacturer Description
Big Surf 1992 WhiteWater West 750,000 gallon wave pool.
Mt. Slide Hai 1993 WhiteWater West 4 slides named - Voodoo Express, Forbidden Passage, Conquistador Canyon and Vanishing Falls. Added in 1993 to the park with Castaway Creek, which is also in the water park with the slides.
Castaway Creek 1993 Water Technology Name changed from Caribbean Cruise to Castaway Creek, before being reverted to Lazy River. Runs around Hurricane Bay and also around the park's roller coaster, Thunder Run and the water park's Tornado ride. Added in 1993 to the water park.
Splash Zone 1998 SCS Interactive Discovery Treehouse for kids. Kids play area. Formerly Hook's Lagoon.
Tornado 2005 ProSlide Technology Tornado Rattler - funnel shaped tube slide that uses four person "cloverleaf" or two person "whirly wheel" tubes. Replaced "The Quake" at the park in 2005.
Deluge 2007 ProSlide Technology HydroMagnetic Rocket slide. The ride itself, is a Water coaster with dips and curves like a Roller Coaster. The last "major" attraction when Six Flags owned the park.
Mega Wedgie 2008 ProSlide Technology Bullet Bowl. Last ride added by Six Flags.
Buccaneer Beach 2014 Large kids play area.
Plummet Summit 2014 Family Raft ride that is 52 ft. tall
Speed Slide Complex 2014 ProSlide Technology Two body slides: Deep Water Dive, featuring a 121-foot (37 m) drop; and Wave Runner, featuring a 66-foot (20 m) drop.
Wikiwiki Wai Slide Complex 2014 ProSlide Technology Three raft slides: Calypso Run, a circular raft ride; Waikiki Wipe Out, a cannon bowl slide; and Kilawaya, a tantrum tornado slide.
Adventure River 2014 Fast moving adventure river.
Family Wave Lagoon 2014 12,000-square feet wave pool

Former attractions[edit]

While the park is closed, many of the rides are going through their testing stages for the 2015 season.

Ride Opened Closed Description
Crystal Carousel 1987 1988 Double Decker Carousel located behind the fountain at the entrance. It was later replaced by Superman: Tower of Power until it was removed.
Force 10 1987 1988 Starts out flat, but then tilts like a paratrooper ride and similar to Enterprise. Replaced by Breakdance in 1990, after being auctioned off.
Smash-Crash-Bash'em 1987 1988 Kentucky Kingdom's first Bumper Cars ride. Closed in 1987 with the park. While the ride is gone, the building still stands as an arcade in the park. A new Bumper Cars ride opened in 1990 in the park. The bumper cars will be returning to their original location when the park reopens in 2014.
Kentucky Whirl 1987 1988 A Zierer Wave Swinger ride in the park. Closed in 1987 and removed and replaced by Bumper Cars in 1990 and Mad Hatter in 2014.
Ohio River Adventure 1987 1988 A Log Flume ride in the park. Opened and Closed with the park in 1987 but was on the site until 1988 when it was taken out and replaced with "The Vampire". Ride purchased by and moved to Silverwood Theme Park.
Tornado 1987 1988 Not the Tornado water slide, a flat ride that only operated during the 1987 season. It was removed from the park in 1990 when the park reopened and to make room for new rides at the park.
Whirlaway 1987 1988 A ChanceTrabant Ride. Closed in 1987 and removed from the park in 1990. Relocated to Michigan's Adventure in Muskegon, MI
Ranger 1990 1994 Huss Ranger – replaced by Rainbow
Round Up 1987 1995 Hrubetz Round Up
Starchaser 1987 1995 An enclosed Anton Schwarzkopf Jet Star roller coaster.[34] It was removed in 1995[34] due to a pending lawsuit from guests who were injured on the ride in 1994.[35] The ride was originally located in Beech Bend Park before being moved to Kentucky Kingdom.[36] It was then moved to Darien Lake in 1996[37] before moving to its final location at Great Escape, where it was called Nightmare at Crack Axle Canyon. The ride is now defunct.[38]
The Squid 1990 1997 4 wet/dry water slides. Replaced with Road Runner Express.
The Vampire 1990 1999 A Vekoma Boomerang roller coaster.[39] It was removed in 1999[39] because of multiple breakdowns.[citation needed] It was moved to Six Flags New England where it is now known as Flashback.[40]
Jester's June Bugs 1990 2001 Moved to Six Flags Worlds of Adventure (Geauga Lake). All Geauga Lake rides could be at Cedar Point
Starcastle Voyage 1997 2001 Kids Carousel – moved to Six Flags Worlds of Adventure (Geauga Lake)
Mini Tea Cups 1998 2001 Tea cup ride – moved to Six Flags Worlds of Adventure (Geauga Lake)
Thriller Bees 1998 2001 Huss swing ride – Moved to Six Flags Worlds of Adventure (Geauga Lake). Currently for sale online.
The Quake 1992 2004 Vekoma Waikiki Wave – ride was replaced by Tornado water slide
Slingshot 2002 2004 Extra charge Funtime Sling Shot – portable – moved to Six Flags Elitch Gardens.
Chaos 1998 2005 Chance Chaos – Replaced by a smoking area in 2006, replaced by Deluge in 2007. Currently in storage.
Top Eliminator Dragsters 1996 2005 3/4 scale dragsters. SBNO from 2005 to 2010. Manufactured by ThrillTime Entertainment International.
The Great Race 1998 2006 Spinning kids ride – Replaced by Deluge in 2007 (The ride however is still in storage somewhere at the park and may reopen in the future)
Superman: Tower of Power 1995 2008 Intamin 177 ft (54 m) giant drop – Closed due to serious accident that resulted in a 13-year-old girl losing her feet; was located just inside the entrance to the park; originally named Hellevator (1995–2006).
Rainbow 1995 2008 Removed following a serious malfunction of the Rainbow at Liseberg in Gothenburg, Sweden. Many Huss Rainbow rides were dismantled following the 2008 incident at Liseberg. Replaced by Up, Up and Away
Turbo Bungy 2000 2008 Extra-Charge attraction
Chang 1997 2009 A Bolliger & Mabillard stand-up roller coaster.[41] It opened in 1997 as the tallest, fastest and longest stand-up coaster in the world but has since been bumped down to second. It was one of Kentucky Kingdom's main attractions. Chang has been relocated to Six Flags Great Adventure and will begin to operate as the Green Lantern replacing Great American Scream Machine for their 2011 season.[42]
Road Runner Express 2000 2009 A Maurer Söhne wild mouse roller coaster retained by Six Flags as part of the settlement.[43] It was relocated to Six Flags New England for the 2011 season and re-themed into their 10th roller coaster.It is called Gotham City Gauntlet: Escape from Arkham Asylum. Replaced by Professor John's Flying Machines and Cyclos.[44]
Skycoaster 2001 2010 A skycoaster up-charge attraction stood at 180 ft (55 m) tall. It was the tallest attraction in the park.
Greezed Lightnin' 2003 2010 An Anton Schwarzkopf Shuttle Loop roller coaster. On the site of Kentucky Kingdom from 2003-2010 and SBNO from 2010-2013. Taken out to make way for Lightning Run in 2014.
Bumper Cars 1990 2010 Majestic Manufacturing bumper cars. Known as the Road Rage Cage in October for October fest. Replaced with Madhatter in 2014.
Thrill Park Theater 1996 2010 Motion picture simulator, Hydraulic pods/seats move in accordance with a movie. Replaced with 5D Theater.
Looney Tunes Acme Fun Factory 1997 2010 A SCS Interactive kids foam ball play area. Replaced with the Zeppelin.
Taz's Filmworks 1990 2010 Sartori Rides kids swing ride. Replaced with Whirl-A-Round Swings
Yosemite Sam's Hollywood Flight School 1990 2010 Allan Herschell kids biplane ride. Formally Royal Air Force. Replaced with Jump Around.
The Wall 1999 2010 Climbable rock wall
Thrill Karts 1997 2010 J&J Amusements Go-Karts


Two major incidents occurred at the park that resulted in serious injury. The rides involved in the incidents were Starchaser (in 1994) and Superman: Tower of Power (in 2007). Both incidents resulted in the rides being closed and removed from the park.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Kington, Katherine (February 4, 2013). "New staff moves in to Kentucky Kingdom". Retrieved August 8, 2014. 
  2. ^ a b c d Cowan, Chris (May 13, 2006). "Six Flags Kentucky Kingdom". Theme Park Timelines. Retrieved November 15, 2010. 
  3. ^ "Splashwater Kingdom at Kentucky Kingdom". Six Flags. Archived from the original on May 2, 2008. Retrieved November 15, 2010. 
  4. ^ a b "Kentucky Kingdom operators announce expansion plans for amusement park reopening in 2014". Washington Post (The Washington Post Company). Associated Press. 28 June 2013. Retrieved 28 June 2013. [dead link]
  5. ^ a b c d e Kleber, John E. (2000). The Encyclopedia of Louisville. University Press of Kentucky. p. 32. ISBN 0-8131-2100-0. 
  6. ^ Marden, Duane. "Kentucky Kingdom". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved November 15, 2010. 
  7. ^ "Girl's feet severed on ride at Six Flags in Kentucky". CNN. June 22, 2007. Retrieved 2010-04-22. 
  8. ^ Lloyd de Vries (2007-06-22). "Six Flags Closes More Rides After Accident". CBS News. Retrieved 2010-09-20. 
  9. ^ "Chang Comes Down At Kentucky Kingdom; Ride Removed As Part Of Water Park Expansion". WLKY. September 21, 2009. Retrieved February 5, 2010. 
  10. ^ "Kentucky Kingdom Rejects Lease Park to Close". RCDB. February 4, 2010. Retrieved November 15, 2010. [dead link]
  11. ^ "Kentucky Kingdom will not re-open until 2012". WDRB. October 28, 2010. Retrieved November 4, 2010. 
  12. ^ "Kentucky Kingdom gets a new boss". Fox 41. May 28, 2010. Retrieved November 15, 2010. 
  13. ^ "New Owner Approved For Kentucky Kingdom". News Channel 5. Associated Press. May 28, 2010. Retrieved November 15, 2010. 
  14. ^ Karman, John R. (July 26, 2010). "Fair board strikes deal for Kentucky Kingdom property". Business First. Retrieved November 15, 2010. 
  15. ^ Shafer, Sheldon S. (July 25, 2010). "Kentucky fair board OKs deal to get Six Flags land, rides". Courier Journal. Retrieved November 15, 2010. [dead link]
  16. ^ Shafer, Sheldon (August 24, 2011). "Kentucky Kingdom gets boost". Courier-Journal. Retrieved September 1, 2011. 
  17. ^ Hart, Edward (October 5, 2011). "Collapse of Kentucky Kingdom Discussions". Kentucky-Kingdom. Retrieved October 5, 2011. [dead link]
  18. ^ Karman, John (November 4, 2011). "Company sues state to recoup Kentucky Kingdom investment". Business First. Retrieved November 4, 2011. 
  19. ^ Gazaway, Charles (January 16, 2012). "Holiday World owners involved in Kentucky Kingdom talks". Wave 3 News. Retrieved January 16, 2012. 
  20. ^ Smith, Heather (February 7, 2012). "Holiday World family forms new company to explore Kentucky Kingdom options". Wave 3 News. Retrieved February 7, 2012. 
  21. ^ Gazaway, Charles. "Tentative opening date for Bluegrass Boardwalk - News, Weather & Sports". Retrieved 2012-10-29. 
  22. ^ [1][dead link]
  23. ^ Marcus Green (June 15, 2012). "Bluegrass Boardwalk drops plan to reopen Kentucky Kingdom". Gannett Company. Retrieved June 15, 2012. 
  24. ^ a b Karman III, John R. (October 22, 2012). "Hart pledges $120M investment to reopen Kentucky Kingdom". Business First. Retrieved October 29, 2012. 
  25. ^ Press page on official web site.
  26. ^ "Kentucky Kingdom Group Gets Preliminary Approval of Tourism Incentives", Courier-Journal, January 31, 2013.
  27. ^ Kentucky Kingdom Redevelopment Company official web site (accessed Feb. 17, 2013)[dead link]
  28. ^ a b c d Sheldon S. Shafer, Kentucky Kingdom rehab will cost more than first thought, Louisville Courier-Journal, March 25, 2013.
  29. ^ Metro Council Approves Kentucky Kingdom Development Area, WHAS Television, June 20, 2013.
  30. ^ "Major work underway at Kentucky Kingdom". WRDB. 13 July 2013. Retrieved 14 July 2013. 
  31. ^
  32. ^
  33. ^ a b Macdonald, B., Bedraggled Kentucky Kingdom theme park gets a multimillion dollar redo, Los Angeles Times, May 16, 2014.
  34. ^ a b Marden, Duane. "Starchaser  (Kentucky Kingdom)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved November 15, 2010. 
  35. ^ Wall, Barbara (November 29, 2007). "Kentucky Supreme Court Reinstates $3 Million Defamation Verdict". Gannett. Retrieved November 15, 2010. [dead link]
  36. ^ Marden, Duane. "Starchaser  (Beech Bend)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved November 15, 2010. 
  37. ^ Marden, Duane. "Nightmare at Phantom Cave  (Darien Lake)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved November 15, 2010. 
  38. ^ Marden, Duane. "Nightmare at Crack Axle Canyon  (Great Escape & Splashwater Kingdom)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved November 15, 2010. 
  39. ^ a b Marden, Duane. "The Vampire  (Bluegrass Boardwalk)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved November 15, 2010. 
  40. ^ Marden, Duane. "Flashback  (Six Flags New England)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved November 16, 2010. 
  41. ^ Marden, Duane. "Chang  (Kentucky Kingdom)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved November 16, 2010. 
  42. ^ Marden, Duane. "Green Lantern  (Six Flags Great Adventure)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved November 16, 2010. 
  43. ^ Marden, Duane. "Road Runner Express  (Kentucky Kingdom)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved November 16, 2010. 
  44. ^ Marden, Duane. "Gotham City Gauntlet  (Six Flags New England)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved November 16, 2010. 

External links[edit]