A board-only organization is one that is managed by a board that is self-appointed or otherwise not accountable (for all practical purposes) to a base of members through elections, a delegate body, etc. The growing trend to switch toward this type of structure is controversial. O'Regan & Oster have found that large, more representative non-profit boards score well on a number of indicators. Ostrower found that organizations with at least one governing body member directly elected by membership performs better on a number of governance indicators.[which?] However, some organizations find it difficult to maintain a membership-based structure in the wake of increasingly difficult-to-meet requirements for such organizations under the Model Nonprofit Corporation Act.
^O'Regan, Katherine & Oster, Sharon M. (2005), Does the Structure and Composition of the Board Matter? The Case of Nonprofit Organizations, 21 J.L. Econ. & Org., p. 205
^Ostrower, Francie (2007), Nonprofit Governance in the United States: Findings on Performance and Accountability from the First National Representative Study, Urban Institute, Center on Nonprofits and Philanthropy