Bratsk

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Bratsk
Братск
Fountain on Sovetskaya Street in Bratsk
Fountain on Sovetskaya Street in Bratsk
Flag of Bratsk
Coat of arms of Bratsk
Location of Bratsk
Bratsk is located in Russia
Bratsk
Bratsk
Location of Bratsk
Bratsk is located in Irkutsk Oblast
Bratsk
Bratsk
Bratsk (Irkutsk Oblast)
Coordinates: 56°07′N 101°36′E / 56.117°N 101.600°E / 56.117; 101.600Coordinates: 56°07′N 101°36′E / 56.117°N 101.600°E / 56.117; 101.600
CountryRussia
Federal subjectIrkutsk Oblast[2]
Founded1631[3]
City status since1955[4]
Government
 • BodyDuma
 • HeadSergey Serebrennikov
Area
 • Total263 km2 (102 sq mi)
Elevation
450 m (1,480 ft)
Population
 • Total246,319
 • Estimate 
(2018)[6]
229,286 (−6.9%)
 • Rank75th in 2010
 • Density940/km2 (2,400/sq mi)
 • Subordinated toCity of Bratsk[1]
 • Capital ofBratsky District[1], City of Bratsk[1]
 • Urban okrugBratsk Urban Okrug[7]
 • Capital ofBratsk Urban Okrug[7], Bratsky Municipal District[8]
Time zoneUTC+8 (MSK+5 Edit this on Wikidata[9])
Postal code(s)[10]
665700–665732
Dialing code(s)+7 3953[11]
OKTMO ID25714000001
Websitewww.bratsk-city.ru

Bratsk (Russian: Братск, IPA: [bratsk]) is a city in Irkutsk Oblast, Russia, located on the Angara River near the vast Bratsk Reservoir.

Etymology[edit]

The name sounds like the Russian word for "brother" ("брат", brat), and derives from the phrase 'bratskiye lyudi', literally brotherly people.

History[edit]

The first Europeans in the area arrived in 1623, intending to collect taxes from the local Buryat population. Permanent settlement began with the construction of an ostrog (fortress) in 1631 at the junction of the Oka and Angara rivers.[12] Several wooden towers from the 17th-century fort are now exhibited in Kolomenskoye Estate of Moscow.

During World War II, there was an increase in industrial activity in Siberia, as Soviet industry was moved to the lands east of the Ural Mountains. After the war's end, development slowed as resources were required in the rebuilding of European Russia.

In 1947, the Gulag Angara prison labor camp was constructed near Bratsk, with capacity for up to 44,000 prisoners for projects such as the construction of the railway from Tayshet to Ust-Kut via Bratsk (now the western section of the Baikal-Amur Mainline).[13]

The city's rapid development commenced with the announcement in 1952 that a dam and hydroelectric plant would be built at Bratsk on the Angara River. Town status was granted to Bratsk in 1955.[4] The city of Bratsk was formed from separate villages, industrial and residential areas according to a 1958-61 masterplan. These areas were in certain cases far away from each other, leading to the large territorial area of the Bratsk municipal region, and explaining why there are unsettled areas of taiga between city districts.[14]

The 4,500-megawatt Bratsk Hydroelectric Power Station was built between 1954 and 1966, bringing numerous workers to the town. Other industries in the city include an aluminum smelter and a pulp mill.

Bratsk originally comprised the following regions, with the idea being that they would each grow, and merge, to form the city of Bratsk.

  • Green Town - Named after the color of the 159 tents which were erected on the left banks of the river Angar, the Padunsky region, in 1954. The tents were originally intended to be short-term resident, but they stood for two years, before the area became built up with timber huts. Green Town eventually fell into abandonment, and in 1961 was flooded by a reservoir and ceased to exist.
  • Padun - In 1956, wooden cottages began to be erected in the left bank settlement known as Pursey, then Permanent - because it was built on stable, non-flooded land, next to Green Town and the village of Padun, which were being demolished.
  • Bratsk Sea - Founded in 1961 and later merged into Padun. Only the train stop bearing the name 'Bratsk Sea' reminds that it was once a separate area.
  • Gidrostroitel - Originally called the Right Bank, construction began in 1955 and grew rapidly due to construction workers on the Bratsk hydroelectric plant being based there.
  • Osinovka - Originated from a peasant hut, adjoining aspen groves, and islets of fields among taiga and hayfields in the floodplain of the Angara River, which were later occupied by the settlement of Gidrostroitel. Osinovka was originally populated by residents of the village of Zayarsk and the Angarstroy administration. When the area was being connected by railway, Osinovka was classified as within the Gidrostroitel area, and thus the station was named Gidrostroitel and Osinovka was largely incorporated into that area.
  • Sukhoy - Founded in 1959, during the preparation of the Bratsk reservoir. For many years a geological exploration expedition was located in Sukhoy.
  • Central District - Initially built for workers of the timber industry complex (the Central District was called the LPK area), workers of an aluminum plant and residents of flooded settlements. Later it became the administrative center of the city.
  • Chekanovsky, Porozhsky, Stroitel regions - quickly constructed to deal with the housing shortage in the other parts of the city. They were initially built of wood, in regions of dangerous ecology of the city. The location, and construction of these developments would prove to be a problem for their future development, and often led to resettling rather than development.

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Within the framework of administrative divisions, Bratsk serves as the administrative center of Bratsky District,[1] even though it is not technically a part of it. As an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the City of Bratsk[2]—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[citation needed] As a municipal division, the City of Bratsk is incorporated as Bratsk Urban Okrug.[7][3]

Territorial divisions[edit]

For administrative purposes, the city is divided into three districts (populations are as of the 2010 Census):[5]

  • Padunsky (Падунский), 56,205 inhabitants;
  • Pravoberezhny (Правобережный), 38,550 inhabitants;
  • Tsentralny (Центральный), 151,564 inhabitants.

Residential districts of the city, some of which are separated by open country, include: Bikey, Chekanovsky, Energetik, Gidrostroitel, Osinovka, Padun, Porozhsky, Sosnovy, Stenikha, Sukhoy, Tsentralny, and Yuzhny Padun.[15]

Politics[edit]

The current mayor of Bratsk is Sergei Vasilievich Serebrennikov.[16] In November 2013 the city council amended the charter to institute direct mayoral elections, which had been abolished in 2011.[17] Elected again in 2014, Serebrennikov then began his second term after previously having served as mayor between 2005 and 2009.

Culture[edit]

Theatres[edit]

  • Bratsk Drama Theatre [18]

Museums[edit]

Bratsk has multiple museums.

  • Architectural and Ethnographic Museum Angarsk Village named after. O.Leonova

[19]

  • Art Exhibition Hall - branch of the Bratsk City United Museum
  • Museum of Light [20]
  • Museum of City History [21]

In popular culture[edit]

The film 'Svist' was filmed in Bratsk.[22]

Climate[edit]

Bratsk has a subarctic climate (Köppen climate classification Dfc). Winters are very cold and long with average temperatures from −23.4 °C (−10.1 °F) to −15.7 °C (3.7 °F) in January, while summers are mild to warm with average temperatures from +13.3 °C (55.9 °F) to +23.8 °C (74.8 °F) in July. Precipitation is moderate and is significantly higher in summer than at other times of the year.

Climate data for Bratsk (1991–2020, extremes 1901–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 3.8
(38.8)
7.4
(45.3)
14.9
(58.8)
22.8
(73.0)
34.2
(93.6)
36.1
(97.0)
35.2
(95.4)
32.5
(90.5)
27.5
(81.5)
23.9
(75.0)
11.6
(52.9)
6.6
(43.9)
36.1
(97.0)
Average high °C (°F) −15.4
(4.3)
−10.8
(12.6)
−1.8
(28.8)
6.4
(43.5)
14.3
(57.7)
21.4
(70.5)
24.3
(75.7)
21.4
(70.5)
13.4
(56.1)
4.8
(40.6)
−5.6
(21.9)
−13.3
(8.1)
4.9
(40.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) −19.4
(−2.9)
−16.0
(3.2)
−7.8
(18.0)
0.9
(33.6)
7.8
(46.0)
15.2
(59.4)
18.7
(65.7)
16.0
(60.8)
8.5
(47.3)
1.0
(33.8)
−9.1
(15.6)
−17.0
(1.4)
−0.1
(31.8)
Average low °C (°F) −23.0
(−9.4)
−20.7
(−5.3)
−13.2
(8.2)
−3.8
(25.2)
2.6
(36.7)
10.0
(50.0)
13.7
(56.7)
11.3
(52.3)
4.7
(40.5)
−2.1
(28.2)
−12.3
(9.9)
−20.3
(−4.5)
−4.4
(24.1)
Record low °C (°F) −57.6
(−71.7)
−49.8
(−57.6)
−44.1
(−47.4)
−35.0
(−31.0)
−14.1
(6.6)
−5.4
(22.3)
−1.4
(29.5)
−2.8
(27.0)
−8.1
(17.4)
−33.4
(−28.1)
−46.6
(−51.9)
−51.2
(−60.2)
−57.6
(−71.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 16
(0.6)
13
(0.5)
12
(0.5)
16
(0.6)
34
(1.3)
51
(2.0)
61
(2.4)
62
(2.4)
39
(1.5)
24
(0.9)
26
(1.0)
22
(0.9)
376
(14.8)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 4.6 3.4 3.2 5.1 7.8 7.5 9.5 9.3 7.3 6.3 7.2 7.5 77.7
Mean monthly sunshine hours 68 115 182 217 249 281 268 227 165 107 56 43 1,978
Source 1: Pogoda.ru.net[23]
Source 2: NOAA (sun and precipitation days, 1961–1990)[24]

Economy and infrastructure[edit]

Trolleybus

Bratsk is served by the Baikal-Amur Mainline railway and by the Bratsk Airport. There is a hydrofoil up the Angara to Irkutsk. Public transport includes buses and trolleybuses (only in the central district)

The city's economy is largely reliant on heavy industry, including one of Russia's largest aluminum plants, lumber mills, chemical works, and a coal-fired power station.

Higher educational facilities include the Bratsk State University and a branch of the Irkutsk State University.

In recent times, Bratsk has attracted attention due to association with the Cryptocurrency industry.[25]

Industry[edit]

Bratsk Reservoir has traditionally been a major employer for the city of Bratsk. Thousands were involved in its construction, and to this day the reservoir, and dam, support many jobs in the city, both directly connected to the dam itself, and secondary industries - i.e. fishing. Bratsk Reservoir is a popular tourist attraction, and due to this, Bratsk has a small, but notable, tourism industry.

Modern Bratsk is classed as a 'high-density industrial region', producing around 20% of the industrial output of the Irkutsk oblast.[26]

In recent times, Bratsk has attracted attention due to the reported presence of bitcoin operations in the city.[27]

Pollution[edit]

Bratsk Reservoir dam

Bratsk has often attracted negative attention due to the reported pollution levels of the city. The city was among the Blacksmith Institute's "Dirty Thirty", the thirty most polluted places in the world.[28]

Bratsk Reservoir is one of the world's largest, and has been at the centre of repeated claims about its level of pollution. According to Yuri Udodov, head of the Federal Committee on Ecology (FCE) in Irkutsk Oblast, the reservoir has "the highest rate of discharge of metallic mercury into the environment [in] all of Siberia."[29] The extent of mercury pollution in the ground around the nearby Usolye chemical plant is equal to half the total global production of mercury in 1992.[29]

Bratsk Reservoir is the main source of drinking water for the city of Bratsk, and surrounding area. The drinking water is drawn from the part of the reservoir categorised as 'clean'. Due to a number of factors, both man-made and natural, the quality of the water from Bratsk reservoir ranges from 'clean', down to 'dirty'.[30]

Rusal operates a smelter in Bratsk.[31]

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

Bratsk is twinned with:

Notable people[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Law #49-OZ
  2. ^ a b Charter of Irkutsk Oblast
  3. ^ a b "General Information" (in Russian). Irkutsk Oblast. Retrieved September 3, 2017.
  4. ^ a b Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 55. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9.
  5. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  6. ^ "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  7. ^ a b c Law #66-oz
  8. ^ Law #76-oz
  9. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  10. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  11. ^ "International Dialing Codes - how to call from Gibraltar – Gibraltar to Russia – Irkutsk – Bratsk". www.timeanddate.com.
  12. ^ "Старый Братск 1620 - 1700 г. - Администрация города Братска". www.bratsk-city.ru.
  13. ^ Gulags in the Baikal region on the website of Memorial (German)
  14. ^ "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Иркутской области (с изменениями на 6 мая 2019 года), Закон Иркутской области от 21 июня 2010 года №49-оз". docs.cntd.ru. Retrieved December 25, 2019.
  15. ^ Братская городская Дума. №187/г-Д 31 июля 1998 г. «Устав муниципального образования города Братска», в ред. Решения №260/г-Д от 18 февраля 2004 г. (Bratsk City Duma. #187/g-D July 31, 1998 Charter of the Municipal Formation of the City of Bratsk, as amended by the Resolution #260/g-D of February 18, 2004. ).
  16. ^ "Серебренников, Сергей Васильевич". Retrieved May 31, 2021.
  17. ^ "В Братске вернут прямые выборы мэра". irkutsk.sibnovosti.ru. Retrieved May 31, 2021.
  18. ^ "Bratsk Drama Theatre". Retrieved June 1, 2021.
  19. ^ "Архитектурно-этнографический музей Ангарская деревня им. О.Леонова, Братск: лучшие советы перед посещением". Retrieved May 1, 2022.
  20. ^ "Bratsk Museum of Light". Retrieved June 1, 2021.
  21. ^ "Bratsk Museum of City History". Retrieved June 23, 2021.
  22. ^ "Факт о фильмах, снятых в Братске". Retrieved May 31, 2021.
  23. ^ "Погода и Климат – Климат Братск" (in Russian). Weather and Climate (Погода и климат). Retrieved November 15, 2021.
  24. ^ "Bratsk Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved November 15, 2021.
  25. ^ "Bitcoin intensive energy demands spark a crypto backlash". Retrieved June 23, 2022.
  26. ^ "Братск: экономика, ископаемые ресурсы, ЖКХ". Retrieved July 15, 2021.
  27. ^ "Russia's Largest Bitcoin Mine Turns Water into Cash". Bloomberg.com. November 24, 2019. Retrieved July 15, 2021.
  28. ^ The Blacksmith Institute. The World's Top Ten Toxic Pollution Problems 2011 Archived October 26, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  29. ^ a b "Earth Island Institute: Earth Island Journal - World News (Winter/Spring 1998-1999)". Archived from the original on October 18, 2007.
  30. ^ "Bratsk Reservoir". Retrieved June 1, 2021.
  31. ^ "Russia's Rusal plans to demerge higher carbon assets". www.mining-technology.com. May 20, 2021. Retrieved May 21, 2021.

Sources[edit]

  • Законодательное Собрание Иркутской области. Постановление №9/5-ЗС от 15 апреля 2009 г. «Устав Иркутской области», в ред. Закона №2-У от 14 декабря 2017 г. «О поправках к Уставу Иркутской области». Вступил в силу по истечении десяти дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Областная", №45, 24 апреля 2009 г. (Legislative Assembly of Irkutsk Oblast. Resolution #9/5-ZS of April 15, 2009 Charter of Irkutsk Oblast, as amended by the Law #2-U of December 14, 2017 On the Amendments to the Charter of Irkutsk Oblast. Effective as of the day following a ten-day period after the day of the official publication.).
  • Законодательное Собрание Иркутской области. Закон №49-ОЗ от 21 июня 2010 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Иркутской области», в ред. Закона №12-ОЗ от 23 марта 2017 г. «О внесении изменений в статьи 25 и 33 Закона Иркутской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Иркутской области" и Закон Иркутской области "О порядке рассмотрения Законодательным Собранием Иркутской области предложений о присвоении наименований географическим объектам и (или) о переименовании географических объектов"». Вступил в силу после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Областная", №71, 25 июня 2010 г. (Legislative Assembly of Irkutsk Oblast. Law #49-OZ of June 21, 2010 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Irkutsk Oblast, as amended by the Law #12-OZ of March 23, 2017 On Amending Articles 25 and 33 of the Law of Irkutsk Oblast "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Irkutsk Oblast" and the Law of Irkutsk Oblast "On the Procedures for Consideration of Assignments of Names to Geographical Objects and (or) Renaming of Geographical Objects". Effective as of after the day of the official publication.).
  • Законодательное Собрание Иркутской области. Закон №66-оз от 2 декабря 2004 г. «О статусе и границах муниципального образования "город Братск" Иркутской области», в ред. Закона №72-ОЗ от 7 ноября 2017 г. «О распространении действия отдельных Законов Иркутской области на всю территорию нового субъекта Российской Федерации — Иркутской области и внесении изменений в отдельные Законы Иркутской области». Вступил в силу с 31 декабря 2004 г., но не ранее чем через 10 дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Восточно-Сибирская правда", №244–245, 9 декабря 2004 г. (Legislative Assembly of Irkutsk Oblast. Law #66-oz of December 2, 2004 On the Status and Borders of the Municipal Formation of the "City of Bratsk" of Irkutsk Oblast, as amended by the Law #72-OZ of November 7, 2017 On Expanding the Scope of Various Laws of Irkutsk Oblast to the Whole Territory of the New Federal Subject of the Russian Federation—Irkutsk Oblast—and on Amending Various Laws of Irkutsk Oblast. Effective as of December 31, 2004, but not earlier than 10 days after the official publication date.).
  • Законодательное Собрание Иркутской области. Закон №76-оз от 2 декабря 2004 г. «О статусе и границах муниципальных образований Братского района Иркутской области», в ред. Закона №24-ОЗ от 6 марта 2014 г. «О распространении действия отдельных Законов Иркутской области на всю территорию нового субъекта Российской Федерации — Иркутской области и внесении в них изменений». Вступил в силу с 31 декабря 2004 г., но не ранее чем через 10 дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Восточно-Сибирская правда", №248–249, 14 декабря 2004 г. (Legislative Assembly of Irkutsk Oblast. Law #76-oz of December 2, 2004 On the Status and Borders of the Municipal Formations of Bratsky District of Irkutsk Oblast, as amended by the Law #24-OZ of March 6, 2014 On Expanding the Scope of Various Laws of Irkutsk Oblast to the Whole Territory of the New Federal Subject of the Russian Federation—Irkutsk Oblast—and on Amending Those Laws. Effective as of December 31, 2004, but not earlier than 10 days after the official publication date.).

External links[edit]