Breakthrough of the Year

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

The Breakthrough of the Year is an annual award made by the AAAS journal, Science, for the most significant development in scientific research. Originating in 1989 as the Molecule of the Year, and inspired by Time's Man of the Year, it was renamed the Breakthrough of the Year in 1996. The Breakthrough of the Year is widely recognized as one of the highest distinctions in science.[citation needed]

Molecule of the Year[edit]

Since 2002 the Molecule of the Year has been awarded by the International Society For Molecular and Cell Biology and Biotechnology Protocols and Researches (ISMCBBPR).[7]

Breakthrough of the Year[edit]

Top 10 scientific breakthroughs and the winners of each year.

  • 1996: Understanding HIV[22]
    • Original mysteries
    • Prions hit the press
    • Cyber crush
    • Lasers in the limelight
    • T-cell tales
    • Earthly revolutions
    • Yeast on the rise
    • Early orientation
    • Divining the death wish
  • 1997: Dolly the sheep, the first mammal to be cloned from adult cells[23]
  • 1998: Accelerating universe[24]
  • 1999: Capturing the promise of youth with stem cells[25]
    • Genomics Speeds Ahead
    • How the Other Half Cools
    • Rally for Ribosomes
    • Plentiful Planets
    • Making Memories
    • Flat and Happy
    • New Light on Photonics
    • Tracking Distant Ancestors
    • Mystery Flashes Unveiled
  • 2000: Full genome sequencing[26]
    • Ribosome Revelations
    • Fossil Find
    • One Word--Organics
    • New Cells for Old
    • Water, Water, Everywhere
    • Cosmic BOOMERANG
    • Good Reception
    • NEAR spacecraft
    • Quantum Curiosities
  • 2001: Nanocircuits or Molecular circuit[27]
    • RNA Ascending
    • So What's Neu?
    • Genomes Take Off
    • Superconductor Surprises
    • Guide Me Home
    • Climatic Confidence
    • Cancer in the Crosshairs
    • Banner Year for Bose-Einstein
    • Carbon Consensus
  • 2002: RNA interference[28]
    • Neutrino insights
    • Genome progress
    • CMB structure and polarization
    • Attosecond physics
    • TRP channels
    • Cryoelectron tomography
    • Adaptive optics
    • Retina receptors
    • The Toumaï fossil
  • 2003: Dark energy[29]
    • Genes for mental illness
    • Climate change impacts
    • RNA's many roles
    • Single-molecule techniques
    • Gamma ray bursts
    • Sex cells from stem cells
    • “Left-handed” materials
    • Y chromosome sequence
    • Anti-angiogenesis treatments
  • 2004: Spirit rover landed on Mars[30]
    • The Littlest Human
    • Clone Wars
    • Bose–Einstein Condensate
    • Hidden DNA Treasures
    • Prized Pulsar Pair
    • Documenting Diversity Declines
    • Splish, Splash
    • Healthy Partnerships
    • Genes, Genes Everywhere
  • 2005: Evolution in action[31]
    • Planetary probes
    • Plant development
    • Violent neutron stars
    • Genetics of brain disease
    • Earth's differentiation
    • Potassium channels
    • Climate change
    • Systems biology
    • ITER nuclear fusion experiment
  • 2006: Proof of the Poincaré conjecture[32]
    • Paleogenomics
    • Shrinking ice
    • Tiktaalik fossil fish
    • Cloaking technology
    • Macular degeneration patients
    • Biodiversity and speciation
    • Sub-diffraction-limit microscopy
    • LTP process for record new memories
    • Small piRNAs molecules
  • 2007: Human genetic variation[33]
    • Reprogramming cells
    • High-energy cosmic rays
    • Receptor visions
    • Beyond silicon: oxide interfaces
    • Quantum spin Hall effect
    • T cell division
    • Direct chemistry efficient
    • Memory and imagination
    • Computer solving checkers
  • 2008: Cellular reprogramming[34]
    • Seeing Exoplanets
    • Cancer Genes
    • New High-Temperature Superconductors
    • Watching Proteins at Work
    • Water to Burn
    • The Video Embryo
    • Fat of a Different Color
    • Proton's Mass "Predicted"
    • Sequencing Bonanza
  • 2009: Ardipithecus ramidus[35]
    • Opening Up the Gamma Ray Sky
    • ABA Receptors
    • Mock Monopoles Spotted
    • Live Long and Prosper
    • An Icy Moon Revealed
    • Gene Therapy Returns
    • Graphene Takes Off
    • Hubble Reborn
    • First X-ray Laser Shines
  • 2010: The first quantum machine[36]
    • Synthetic biology
    • Neandertal genome
    • HIV prophylaxis
    • Exome Sequencing/Rare disease genes
    • Molecular dynamics simulations
    • Quantum simulator
    • Next-generation genomics
    • RNA reprogramming
    • The return of the rat
  • Insights of the Decade: Science survey that looked at the 10 insights that have changed science since the dawn of the new millennium.
    • The dark genome
    • Precision cosmology
    • Ancient DNA
    • Water on Mars
    • Reprogramming cells
    • The micobiome
    • Exoplanets
    • Inflammation
    • Metamaterials
    • Climate change research
  • 2011: HIV treatmente as prevention (HPTN 052)[37]
    • Hayabusa satellite
    • Ancient interbreeding
    • Photosystem II
    • Pristine gas
    • Microbiome
    • Malaria vaccine
    • Exoplanets
    • Designer Zeolites
    • Senescent cells
  • 2012: Discovery of the Higgs boson[38]
    • Denisovan genome
    • Genome engineering
    • Neutrino mixing angle
    • ENCODE research project
    • Curiosity landing
    • X-ray laser advances
    • Controlling bionics
    • Majorana fermions
    • Eggs from stem cells
  • 2013: Cancer immunotherapy[39]
    • Genetic microsurgery for the masses
    • CLARITY makes it perfectly clear
    • Human Cloning at last
    • Dishing up mini-organs
    • Cosmic particle accelerators identified
    • Newcomer juices up the race to harness sunlight
    • To sleep, perchance to clean
    • Your microbes, your health
    • In vaccine design, looks do matter
  • 2014: Rosetta comet mission[40]
    • The birth of birds
    • Using young blood to fight old age
    • Robots that cooperate
    • Chips that mimic the brain
    • The world’s oldest cave art
    • Cells that might cure diabetes
    • Manipulating memories
    • Rise of the CubeSat
    • Giving life a bigger genetic alphabet
  • 2015: CRISPR genome-editing method [41]
    • Homo naledi
    • Ebola vaccine
    • Psychology replication
    • Pluto (New Horizons spacecraft)
    • Paleoindian DNA
    • Mantle plumes
    • Opiate pathway in yeast
    • Lymphatic system in the central nervous system
    • Bell's theorem

See also[edit]

Other Top 10 Breakthroughs of the Year:

References[edit]

  1. ^ R. L. Guyer & D. E. Koshland, Jr. (1989). "The Molecule of the Year". Science 246 (4937): 1543–1546. doi:10.1126/science.2688087. PMID 2688087. 
  2. ^ D. E. Koshland, Jr. (1990). "The Molecule of the Year". Science 250 (4988): 1637. Bibcode:1990Sci...250.1637K. doi:10.1126/science.250.4988.1637. 
  3. ^ D. E. Koshland, Jr. (1991). "Molecule of the Year". Science 254 (5039): 1705. Bibcode:1991Sci...254.1705K. doi:10.1126/science.254.5039.1705. 
  4. ^ D. E. Koshland, Jr. (1992). "The Molecule of the Year". Science 258 (5090): 1861. Bibcode:1992Sci...258.1861K. doi:10.1126/science.1470903. PMID 1470903. 
  5. ^ D. E. Koshland, Jr. (1993). "Molecule of the Year". Science 262 (5142): 1953. Bibcode:1993Sci...262.1953K. doi:10.1126/science.8266084. PMID 8266084. 
  6. ^ D. E. Koshland, Jr. (1994). "Molecule of the Year: the DNA repair enzyme". Science 266 (5193): 1925. Bibcode:1994Sci...266.1925K. doi:10.1126/science.7801114. PMID 7801114. 
  7. ^ Molecule of the Year. ISMCBBPR.
  8. ^ Kitareewan S; Pitha-Rowe I; Sekula D; Lowrey CH; et al. (2002). "UBE1L is a retinoid target that triggers PML/RARα degradation and apoptosis in acute promyelocytic leukemia". PNAS 99 (6): 3806–11. Bibcode:2002PNAS...99.3806K. doi:10.1073/pnas.052011299. PMC 122605. PMID 11891284. 
  9. ^ Nancy J. Sullivan; Thomas W. Geisbert; Joan B. Geisbert, Ling Xu; Zhi-yong Yang; et al. (2000). "Development of a preventive vaccine for Ebola virus infection in primates". Nature 408 (6812): 605–9. doi:10.1038/35046108. PMID 11117750. 
  10. ^ George D Prell; Giorgio P Martinelli; Gay R Holstein; Jasenka Matuli?-Adami?; et al. (2004). "Imidazoleacetic acid-ribotide: an endogenous ligand that stimulates imidazol(in)e receptors". PNAS 101 (37): 13677–13682. Bibcode:2004PNAS..10113677P. doi:10.1073/pnas.0404846101. 
  11. ^ Rosa M.F. Cardoso; Michael B. Zwick; Robyn L. Stanfield; Renate Kunert; et al. (2005). "Broadly Neutralizing Anti-HIV Antibody 4E10 Recognizes a Helical Conformation of a Highly Conserved Fusion-Associated Motif in gp41". immunity 22 (2): 163–173. doi:10.1016/j.immuni.2004.12.011. PMID 15723805. 
  12. ^ Nozomu Yanaihara; Natasha Caplen; Elise Bowman; Masahiro Seike; et al. (2006). "Unique microRNA molecular profiles in lung cancer diagnosis and prognosis". Cancer Cell 9 (3): 189–198. doi:10.1016/j.ccr.2006.01.025. PMID 16530703. 
  13. ^ Yoshiro Ishimaru; Hitoshi Inada; Momoka Kubota; Hanyi Zhuang; et al. (2006). "Transient receptor potential family members PKD1L3 and PKD2L1 form a candidate sour taste receptor". PNAS 103 (33): 12569–12574. Bibcode:2006PNAS..10312569I. doi:10.1073/pnas.0602702103. 
  14. ^ Stephanie Planque; Yasuhiro Nishiyama; Hiroaki Taguchi; Maria Salas; et al. (2008). "Catalytic antibodies to HIV: Physiological role and potential clinical utility". Autoimmunity Reviews 7 (6): 473–479. doi:10.1016/j.autrev.2008.04.002. PMC 2527403. PMID 18558365. 
  15. ^ Mátés L; Chuah MK; Belay E; Jerchow B; et al. (2009). "Molecular evolution of a novel hyperactive Sleeping Beauty transposase enables robust stable gene transfer in vertebrates". Nature Genetics 41 (6): 753–61. doi:10.1038/ng.343. PMID 19412179. 
  16. ^ Gemenetzidis E; Costea ED; Parkinson EK; Waseem A; et al. (2010). "Induction of Human Epithelial Stem/Progenitor Expansion by FOXM1". Cancer Research 70 (22): 9515–26. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-10-2173. PMC 3044465. PMID 21062979. 
  17. ^ Molecule of the Year 2010: http://ismcbbpr.synthasite.com/molyearnews.php
  18. ^ Queen Mary University of London Press release: http://www.qmul.ac.uk/media/news/items/smd/44466.html
  19. ^ Press release: http://www.biotechniques.com/news/2010-Molecule-of-the-Year/biotechniques-311295.html
  20. ^ http://www.scientistsolutions.com/t23427-announcing+ismcbbpr_s+molecule+of+the+year+2011.html scientistsolutions.com
  21. ^ Spann NJ; Garmire LX; McDonald JG; Myers DS; et al. (2012). "Regulated accumulation of desmosterol integrates macrophage lipid metabolism and inflammatory responses". Cell 151 (1): 138–152. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2012.06.054. PMC 3464914. PMID 23021221. 
  22. ^ Michael Balter (1996). "BREAKTHROUGH OF THE YEAR. New Hope in HIV Disease". Science 274 (5295): 1988–1991. Bibcode:1996Sci...274.1988.. doi:10.1126/science.274.5295.1988. 
  23. ^ Elizabeth Pennisi (1997). "BREAKTHROUGH OF THE YEAR. Cloning: The Lamb That Roared". Science 278 (5346): 2038–2039. Bibcode:1997Sci...278.2038P. doi:10.1126/science.278.5346.2038. 
  24. ^ James Glanz (1998). "BREAKTHROUGH OF THE YEAR. ASTRONOMY: Cosmic Motion Revealed". Science 282 (5397): 2156–2157. Bibcode:1998Sci...282.2156G. doi:10.1126/science.282.5397.2156a. 
  25. ^ Gretchen Vogel (1999). "BREAKTHROUGH OF THE YEAR. Capturing the Promise of Youth". Science 286 (5448): 2238–2239. doi:10.1126/science.286.5448.2238. PMID 10636772. 
  26. ^ Elizabeth Pennisi (2000). "BREAKTHROUGH OF THE YEAR. Genomics Comes of Age". Science 290 (5500): 2220–2221. doi:10.1126/science.290.5500.2220. PMID 11188701. 
  27. ^ Robert F. Service (2001). "BREAKTHROUGH OF THE YEAR. Molecules Get Wired". Science 294 (5551): 2442–2443. doi:10.1126/science.294.5551.2442. PMID 11752536. 
  28. ^ Jennifer Couzin (2002). "BREAKTHROUGH OF THE YEAR. Small RNAs Make Big Splash". Science 298 (5602): 2296–2297. doi:10.1126/science.298.5602.2296. PMID 12493875. 
  29. ^ Charles Seife (2003). "BREAKTHROUGH OF THE YEAR. Illuminating the Dark Universe". Science 302 (5653): 2038–2039. doi:10.1126/science.302.5653.2038. PMID 14684787. 
  30. ^ Richard A. Kerr (2004). "BREAKTHROUGH OF THE YEAR. On Mars, a Second Chance for Life". Science 306 (5704): 2010–2012. doi:10.1126/science.306.5704.2010. PMID 15604365. 
  31. ^ Elizabeth Culotta, Elizabeth Pennisi (2005). "BREAKTHROUGH OF THE YEAR. Evolution in Action". Science 310 (5756): 1878–1879. doi:10.1126/science.310.5756.1878. PMID 16373538. 
  32. ^ Dana Mackenzie (2006). "BREAKTHROUGH OF THE YEAR. The Poincaré Conjecture—Proved". Science 314 (5807): 1848–1849. doi:10.1126/science.314.5807.1848. PMID 17185565. 
  33. ^ Elizabeth Pennisi (2007). "BREAKTHROUGH OF THE YEAR. Human Genetic Variation". Science 318 (5858): 1842–1843. doi:10.1126/science.318.5858.1842. PMID 18096770. 
  34. ^ Gretchen Vogel (2008). "BREAKTHROUGH OF THE YEAR. Reprogramming Cells". Science 322 (5909): 1766–1767. doi:10.1126/science.322.5909.1766. PMID 19095902. 
  35. ^ Ann Gibbons (2009). "BREAKTHROUGH OF THE YEAR. Ardipithecus ramidus". Science 326 (5960): 1598–1599. Bibcode:2009Sci...326.1598G. doi:10.1126/science.326.5960.1598-a. 
  36. ^ Adrian Cho (2010). "BREAKTHROUGH OF THE YEAR. The First Quantum Machine". Science 330 (6011): 1604. Bibcode:2010Sci...330.1604C. doi:10.1126/science.330.6011.1604. 
  37. ^ Jon Cohen (2011). "BREAKTHROUGH OF THE YEAR. HIV Treatment as Prevention". Science 334 (6063): 1628. Bibcode:2011Sci...334.1628C. doi:10.1126/science.334.6063.1628. PMID 22194547. 
  38. ^ "Breakthrough of the Year, 2012". Science. 
  39. ^ Jenifer Couzin-Franken (20 December 2013). "Cancer Immunotherapy". Science. Retrieved 22 December 2013. 
  40. ^ Eric Hand (19 December 2014). "Comet rendezvous". Science. Retrieved 20 December 2014. 
  41. ^ http://www.sciencemag.org/content/350/6267/1456.summary