Bruce Chatwin

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Bruce Chatwin
Born (1940-05-13)13 May 1940
near Sheffield, England
Died 18 January 1989(1989-01-18) (aged 48)
Nice, France
Occupation Novelist, travel writer, art and antiquities advisor
Nationality British (English)
Period 1977–89
Genre History, travel, fiction
Subject Patagonia, slave trade, nomads, Britain, Europe, Australia, Afghanistan
Spouse Elizabeth Chanler

Charles Bruce Chatwin (13 May 1940 – 18 January 1989) was an English writer whose best known works are In Patagonia (1977) and The Songlines (1987).[1] Although he was often referred to as a travel writer, a term he eschewed,[2] Chatwin was also a novelist and a journalist who interviewed figures such as Indira Gandhi and André Malraux for the Sunday Times Magazine. He won the James Tait Black Memorial Prize for his novel On the Black Hill (1982)[3] and his novel Utz (1988) was shortlisted for the Man Booker Prize.[4] In 2008 The Times named Chatwin #46 on their list of "50 Greatest British Writers Since 1945".[5]

With the publication of In Patagonia, an account of his trip to the region and the stories of people who lived there, Chatwin's work invigorated the genre of travel writing. In the New York Times, Andrew Harvey observed, "Nearly every writer of my generation in England has wanted, at some point, to be Bruce Chatwin; wanted, like him, to talk of Fez and Firdausi, Nigeria and Nuristan, with equal authority; wanted to be talked about, as he is, with raucous envy; wanted above all to have written his books."[6]

Although described as a travel writer, Chatwin did not see himself as one. When his book The Songlines was nominated for the Thomas Cook Travel Award, he requested that it be withdrawn from consideration, stating the work was fictional.[7] Nor did he see himself as a novelist ("I don't quite know the meaning of the word novel," he said).[8] Instead he saw himself as a storyteller, interested in bringing to light unusual tales.

Married and bisexual, Chatwin was one of the first prominent men in Great Britain known to have contracted HIV and died of an AIDS-related illness, although he hid the facts of his illness.[9] he gave various explanations for his poor health, including malaria and a fungal infection.[10][11] Following his death he was criticised for not publicly disclosing his diagnosis.[12] This led critics to question the truthfulness of his work.[13]

Life[edit]

Early life[edit]

Bruce Chatwin was born on 13 May 1940 in the Shearwood Road Nursing Home in Sheffield, England to Margharita (née Turnell) and Charles Chatwin.[14] Margharita grew up in Sheffield and worked for the local Conservative party prior to her marriage.[15] Charles was a lawyer from Birmingham who joined the Royal Naval Reserve following the outbreak of World War II.[16][17]

Chatwin's early years were spent moving regularly with his mother while his father was at sea.[18] Prior to his birth, Chatwin's parents had lived at Barnt Green, Worcestershire but Margharita moved to her parents' house in Dronfield, near Sheffield shortly before giving birth.[19] Mother and son remained there for only a few weeks.[20] Margharita was worried about Nazi bombs, and she sought a safer place to stay.[21] Thus would begin a period of regular movement for Margharita and Chatwin as they went to stay with various relatives during the war. They would remain in one place until either Margharita decided to move out of concern for their safety or because of friction among family members.[22] Later in life Chatwin recalled of the war, "Home, if we had one, was a solid black suitcase called the Rev-Robe, in which there was a corner for my clothes and my Mickey Mouse gas mask."[23]

One of the places Chatwin stayed at during the war was the home of his paternal grandparents, who had a "curiosity cabinet" that fascinated him. Among the items it contained was a "piece of brontosaurus" (actually a giant sloth) that had been sent to Chatwin's grandmother by a cousin, Charles Milward. Milward had gone to Patagonia where he had discovered in a glacier a perfectly preserved giant sloth, which he later sent to the Natural History Museum. He sent to his cousin a piece of the animal's skin, and members of the family mistakenly referred to it as a "piece of brontosaurus." The skin was later lost but it would inspire Chatwin to later visit and write about Patagonia.[24]

After the war, Chatwin lived with his parents and younger brother Hugh (born in 1944[25]) in West Heath in Birmingham where his father had a law practice.[26] He was educated at Old Hall School in Shropshire and Marlborough College, in Wiltshire.[27] An unexceptional student, he garnered attention from his performances in school plays.[28] While at Marlborough, Chatwin attained A-levels in Latin, Greek, and Ancient History.[29]

Chatwin had hoped to read Classics at Merton College, Oxford, but the end of National Service in the United Kingdom meant there was more competition for university places, and Chatwin was forced to consider other options. His parents discouraged the ideas he offered—an acting career or work in the Colonial Service in Kenya. Instead Chatwin's father asked one of his clients for a letter of introduction to the auction house Sotheby's. An interview was arranged, and Chatwin secured a job there.[30]

Art and archaeology[edit]

In 1958, Chatwin moved to London to begin work as a porter in the Works of Art department at Sotheby's.[31] Chatwin was ill-suited for this job which involved dusting objects that had been kept in storage.[32] Sotheby's moved him to a junior cataloger position working in both the Antiquities and Impressionist Art departments.[33] This position enabled him to develop his "eye" for art and he quickly became known for his ability to discern forgeries.[34][35] His work as a cataloguer also taught him to describe objects in a concise manner and required that he research the objects he was describing.[36] In due time, Chatwin became Sotheby's expert on Antiquities and Impressionist art and would later run both departments.[37] Many of Chatwin's colleagues thought he would eventually become chairman of the auction house.[38]

During this period Chatwin travelled extensively for his job and also for adventure. An admirer of Robert Byron and his book, The Road to Oxiana, he travelled to Afghanistan twice.[39] He also used these trips to visit markets and shops where he would buy antiques which he would resell at a profit in order to supplement his income from Sotheby's.[40]

Chatwin was ambivalent about his sexual orientation and had affairs with both men and women during this period of his life.[41] One of his girlfriends, Elizabeth Chanler, an American and a descendent of John Jacob Astor, was a secretary at Sotheby's.[42]

In the mid-1960s Chatwin grew unhappy at Sotheby's. There were various reasons for his disenchantment. One factor was that both women and men found Chatwin attractive, and Peter Wilson, then chairman of Sotheby's, used this to the auction house's advantage when trying to persuade wealthy individuals to sell their art collections. Chatwin became increasingly uncomfortable with the situation.[43] Later in life Chatwin also spoke of having become "burnt out" and said, "In the end I felt I might just as well be working for a rather superior funeral parlour. One's whole life seemed to be spent valuing for probate the apartment of somebody recently dead."[44]

In late 1964 he began to suffer from problems with his sight, which he attributed to the close analysis of artwork entailed by his job. He consulted eye specialist Patrick Trevor-Roper, who diagnosed a latent squint and recommended that Chatwin take a six-month break from his work at Sotheby's. Trevor-Roper had been involved in the design of an eye hospital in Addis Ababa, and suggested Chatwin visit east Africa. In February 1965, Chatwin left for Sudan.[45] It was on this trip that Chatwin first encountered a nomadic tribe; their way of life intrigued him. He would remain fascinated by nomads for the rest of his life.[46]

Chatwin returned to Sotheby's and, to the surprise of his friends, proposed marriage to Elizabeth Chanler.[47] They married on 21 August 1965.[48] Chatwin was bisexual throughout their married life, a circumstance she knew and accepted.[49] Chatwin had hoped he would "grow out of" his homosexual behaviour and have a successful marriage like his parents.[50] During their marriage Chatwin would have many affairs, mostly with men. Some who were aware of Chatwin's affairs with men assumed their marriage was chaste, but according to Nicholas Shakespeare, Chatwin's biographer, this was not true.[51] Both Chatwin and his wife had hoped to have children, but they remained childless.[52]

In April 1966, at the age of 26, Chatwin was promoted to director of the company, a position to which he had aspired.[53] To his disappointment, he was made a junior director and lacked voting rights on the board.[54] This disappointment, along with boredom and increasing discomfort over potentially illegal side deals taking place at Sotheby's, including the sale of objects from the Pitt-Rivers museum collection, led Chatwin to resign from his Sotheby's post in June 1966.[55]

Chatwin enrolled in October 1966 at the University of Edinburgh to study Archaeology.[56] He had regretted not attending Oxford and had been contemplating going to university for a few years. A visit in December 1965 to the Hermitage in Leningrad sparked his interest in the field of archaeology.[57] Despite winning the Wardrop Prize for the best first year's work,[58] he found the rigour of academic archaeology tiresome and he left after two years without taking a degree.[59]

The Nomadic Alternative[edit]

The southern part of the Grwyne Fechan valley in the Black Mountains, Welsh Borders

Following his departure from Edinburgh, Chatwin decided to pursue a career as a writer, successfully pitching a book proposal on nomads to Tom Maschler, publisher at Jonathan Cape. Chatwin tentatively titled the book The Nomadic Alternative and sought to answer the question "Why do men wander rather than stand still?"[60] Chatwin delivered the manuscript in 1972, and Maschler rejected it as "unreadable."[61]

Between 1969 and 1972, as he was working on The Nomadic Alternative, Chatwin travelled extensively and pursued other endeavours in an attempt to establish a creative career. He co-curated an exhibit on Nomadic Art of the Asian Steppes, which opened at Asia House Gallery in New York City in 1970.[62] He considered publishing an account of his 1969 trip to Afghanistan with Peter Levi. Levi published his own book about it, The Light Garden of the Angel King: Journeys in Afghanistan. Chatwin contributed two articles on nomads to Vogue and another article to History Today.[63]

In the early 1970s Chatwin had an affair with James Ivory, the film director. He pitched stories to him for possible films, which Ivory did not take seriously.[64] In 1972 Chatwin tried his hand at film-making and travelled to Niger to make a documentary about nomads.[65] The film was lost while Chatwin was trying to sell it to European television companies.[66]

Chatwin also took photographs of his journeys and attempted to sell photographs from a trip to Mauritania to The Sunday Times Magazine. While The Times did not accept those photographs for publication, it offered Chatwin a job.[67]

The Sunday Times Magazine and In Patagonia[edit]

In 1972, The Sunday Times Magazine hired Chatwin as an adviser on art and architecture.[68] Initially his role was to suggest story ideas and put together features such as "One Million Years of Art," which ran in several issues during the summer of 1973.[69] His editor, Francis Wyndham, encouraged him to write, which allowed him to develop his narrative skills. Chatwin travelled on many international assignments, writing on such subjects as Algerian migrant workers and the Great Wall of China, and interviewing such diverse people as André Malraux[70] in France, and the author Nadezhda Mandelstam[71] in the Soviet Union.

In 1972, Chatwin interviewed the 93-year-old architect and designer Eileen Gray in her Paris salon, where he noticed a map she had painted of the area of South America called Patagonia.[72] "I've always wanted to go there," Chatwin told her. "So have I," she replied, "go there for me."[73]

Two years later in November 1974, Chatwin flew out to Lima in Peru, and reached Patagonia a month later.[74] He would later claim that he sent a telegram to Wyndham merely stating: "Have gone to Patagonia." Actually he sent a letter: "I am doing a story there for myself, something I have always wanted to write up."[75] He spent six months in the area, travelling around gathering stories of people who came from elsewhere and settled there. This trip resulted in the book, In Patagonia (1977). He used his quest for his own "piece of brontosaurus" (the one from this grandparents' cabinet had been thrown away years earlier) to frame the story of his trip. Chatwin described In Patagonia as "the narrative of an actual journey and a symbolic one....It is supposed to fall into the category or be a spoof of Wonder Voyage: the narrator goes to a far country in search of a strange animal: on his way he lands in strange situations, people or other books tell him strange stories which add up to form a message."[76]

This work established his reputation as a travel writer. Later, however, residents in the region contradicted the account of events depicted in Chatwin's book. It was the first time in his career, but not the last, that conversations and characters which Chatwin presented as fact were later alleged to be fiction.

In Patagonia contains a series of black and white photographs that Chatwin took. According to Susannah Clapp, who edited the book, "Rebecca West amused Chatwin by telling him that these were so good they rendered superfluous the entire text of the book."[77]

For In Patagonia Chatwin received the Hawthornden Prize and the E. M. Forster Award from the American Academy of Arts and Letters.[78] As a result of the success of In Patagonia, Chatwin's already large circle of friends expanded to include individuals such as Jacqueline Onassis, Susan Sontag, and Andy Warhol.

Ouidah and the Black Hills[edit]

Upon his return from Patagonia, Chatwin discovered a change in leadership at The Sunday Times Magazine and his retainer was not continued.[79]

Chatwin intended his next project to be a biography of Francisco Felix de Sousa, a nineteenth-century slave trader born in Brazil who became the Viceroy of Ouidah in Dahomey (present day Benin). Chatwin had first heard of de Sousa during a visit to Dahomey in 1972. He returned to the country, by then renamed the People's Republic of Benin, in December 1976 to conduct research. In January 1977 a coup took place, and Chatwin was accused of being a mercenary, arrested, and detained for three days. Chatwin would later write about this experience in "A Coup--A Story."

Following his arrest and release Chatwin left Benin and went to Brazil to continue his research on de Sousa. Frustrated by the lack of documented information on de Sousa, Chatwin chose instead to write a fictionalised biography of him. This book would be published in 1980.

In the late 1970s Chatwin spent an increasing amount of time in New York City. He continued to have affairs with men, but most were short-lived. In 1977 he began his first serious affair with Donald Richards, an Australian stockbroker. Richards introduced Chatwin to the gay nightclub scene in New York. During this period he became acquainted with Robert Mapplethorpe, who photographed him. Chatwin, notably, is one of the few men Mapplethorpe photographed fully clothed.

Although Chatwin's wife had accepted her husband's affairs, their relationship deteriorated in the late 1970s, and in 1980 she asked for a separation. By 1982 Chatwin's affair with Richards had ended and he began another serious affair with Jasper Conran.

During the early 1980s Chatwin was at work on a new book, On the Black Hill (1982). In response to his growing reputation as a travel writer he "decided to write something about people who never went out."[80] The book is a novel of twin brothers who live all of their lives in a farmhouse on the Welsh borders.

For this book Chatwin won the James Tait Black Memorial Prize and the Whitbread Prize for Best First Novel, even though he considered his previous book, The Viceroy of Ouidah, a novel.

The Songlines[edit]

Chatwin had not forgotten about the book he had attempted to write on nomads. In 1983 he returned to this project, and decided to focus on the Aborigines. He was influenced by the work of Theodore Strehlow, author of Songs of Central Australia and a controversial figure.

Chatwin went to Australia to learn more about Aboriginal culture, specifically the songlines or dreaming tracks. The songs of the Aborigines are a cross between creation myth, an atlas, and one Aboriginal man's personal story. Chatwin spent several weeks in 1983 and 1984 in Australia, during which he interviewed people involved in the Land Rights movement. Chatwin could not speak the Aboriginal languages and he alienated people who worked with the Aboriginal people because he was oblivious to the politics and also because he was an admirer of Strehlow's work. He struggled to understand and describe the concept of a songline.

While in Australia, Chatwin, who had been experiencing some health problems, first read about AIDS, then known as the gay plague. It frightened him and compelled him to reconcile with his wife.[81] The fear of AIDS also drove him to finish the book that became The Songlines. His friend Salman Rushdie observed, "That book was an obsession too great for him...His illness did him a favour, got him free of it. Otherwise, he would have gone on writing it for ten years."[82]

The Songlines features a narrator named Bruce whose biography is almost identical to Chatwin's. The narrator spends time in Australia trying to learn about Aboriginal culture, specifically the songlines. As the book goes on, it becomes a reflection on what Chatwin states is "for me, the question of questions: the nature of human restlessness."[83]

Chatwin published The Songlines in 1987, and it became a bestseller in both the United Kingdom and the United States.

Illness and Final Works[edit]

While at work on The Songlines between 1983 and 1986, Chatwin frequently came down with colds.[84] After finishing The Songlines, Chatwin went to Switzerland, where he collapsed on the street.[85] At a clinic there, he was diagnosed as HIV-positive.[86] Chatwin provided different reasons to his doctors as to how he might have contracted HIV, including from a gang rape in Dahomey or possibly from Sam Wagstaff, the patron and lover of Robert Mapplethorpe.

Chatwin's case was unusual as he had a fungal infection, Penicillium marneffei, which at the time had rarely been seen and only in South Asia. It is now known as an AIDS-defining illness, but in 1986 little was known about HIV and AIDS. Doctors were not certain if all cases of HIV developed into AIDS. The rare fungus gave Chatwin hope that he might be different and served as the basis of what he told most people about his illness. Chatwin gave various reasons for how he became infected with the fungus--ranging from eating a 1,000 year old egg to exploring a bat cave in Indonesia. He never publicly disclosed that he was HIV-positive in part because of the stigma at the time. He wanted to protect his parents, who were unaware of his homosexual behaviour.

Although Chatwin never spoke or wrote publicly about his disease, in one instance he did write about the AIDS epidemic in 1988 in a letter to the editor of the London Review of Books; "The word 'Aids' is one of the cruellest and silliest neologisms of our time. 'Aid' means help, succour, comfort--yet with a hissing sibilant tacked onto the end it becomes a nightmare....HIV (Human Immuno-Deficiency Virus) is a perfectly easy name to live with. 'Aids' causes panic and despair and has probably done something to facilitate the spread of the disease."[87]

During his illness, Chatwin continued to write. Utz (1988), was a novel about the obsession that leads people to collect. Set in Prague, the novel details the life and death of Kaspar Utz, a man obsessed with his collection of Meissen porcelain. He edited a collection of his journalism, which was published as What Am I Doing Here (1989). At the time of his death in 1989, Chatwin was working on a number of new ideas for future novels, including a transcontinental epic provisionally titled Lydia Livingstone.

Chatwin died at a hospital in Nice on 18 January 1989. A memorial service was held in the Greek Orthodox Church of Saint Sophia in West London. It happened to be the same day that a fatwa was announced on Salman Rushdie, a close friend of Chatwin's, who attended the service. Paul Theroux, a one-time friend who also attended the service, later commented on it and Chatwin in a piece for Granta.[88] The novelist Martin Amis described the memorial service in the essay "Salman Rushdie", included in his anthology Visiting Mrs Nabokov.

Chatwin's ashes were scattered near a Byzantine chapel above Kardamyli in the Peloponnese. This was close to the home of one of his mentors, the writer Patrick Leigh Fermor.

Chatwin's papers, including 85 moleskine notebooks, were given to the Bodleian Library, Oxford. A collection of his photographs and excerpts from the moleskine notebooks, were published as Photographs and Notebooks (US title: Far Journeys) in 1993.

Style and influence[edit]

Chatwin is admired for his spare, lapidary style and his innate story-telling abilities. He has been criticised for his fictionalised anecdotes of real people, places, and events. The people he wrote about sometimes recognised themselves and did not appreciate his distortions of their culture and behaviour. Chatwin was philosophical about what he saw as an unavoidable dilemma, arguing that his portrayals were not intended to be faithful representations. His biographer Nicholas Shakespeare argued, "He tells not a half truth, but a truth and a half."[89]

Works[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Benfey, Christopher (10 February 2011). "The Embroider". The New Republic. Retrieved 13 August 2014. 
  2. ^ Ignatieff, Michael (Spring 1987). "An Interview with Bruce Chatwin". Granta 21: 21–37. 
  3. ^ "James Tait Black Prize Winners". University of Edinburgh. Retrieved 13 August 2014. 
  4. ^ "Bruce Chatwin". The Man Booker Prize. Retrieved 13 August 2014. 
  5. ^ "46. Bruce Chatwin; The 50 Greatest British Writers Since 1945". The Times (London). 5 January 2008. Retrieved 23 July 2015. 
  6. ^ Harvey, Andrew (2 August 1987). "Footprints of the Ancestor". The New York Times. Retrieved 27 July 2015. 
  7. ^ Shakespeare (1999). Bruce Chatwin. p. 512. 
  8. ^ Shakespeare (1999). Bruce Chatwin. p. 11. 
  9. ^ Shakespeare (1999). Bruce Chatwin. pp. 523–526. 
  10. ^ Shakespeare (1999). Bruce Chatwin. p. 494. 
  11. ^ Shakespeare (1999). Bruce Chatwin. p. 534. 
  12. ^ Shakespeare (1999). Bruce Chatwin. pp. 523–526. 
  13. ^ Shakespeare (1999). Bruce Chatwin. p. 566. 
  14. ^ Shakespeare (1999). Bruce Chatwin. p. 24. 
  15. ^ Shakespeare (1999). Bruce Chatwin. pp. 21–22. 
  16. ^ Shakespeare (1999). Bruce Chatwin. p. 24. 
  17. ^ Shakespeare (1999). Bruce Chatwin. p. 17. 
  18. ^ Chatwin, Bruce (2010). Under the Sun. London: Jonathan Cape. p. 21. 
  19. ^ Shakespeare (1999). Bruce Chatwin. pp. 23–24. 
  20. ^ Shakespeare (1999). Bruce Chatwin. p. 25. 
  21. ^ Chatwin (2010). Under the Sun. p. 21. 
  22. ^ Shakespeare 1999, p. 22.
  23. ^ Chatwin, Bruce (1987). The Songlines. London: Jonathan Cape. p. 6. 
  24. ^ Chatwin, Bruce (1977). In Patagonia. London: Jonathan Cape. pp. 1–3. 
  25. ^ Shakespeare (1999). Bruce Chatwin. p. 43. 
  26. ^ Chatwin (2010). Under the Sun. p. 22. 
  27. ^ Shakespeare 1999, p. 65.
  28. ^ Shakespeare (1999). Bruce Chatwin. pp. 71–72. 
  29. ^ Shakespeare, Nicholas (1999). Bruce Chatwin. p. 88. 
  30. ^ Shakespeare, Nicholas (1999). Bruce Chatwin. New York: Viking. pp. 87–88. ISBN 0-385-49829-2. 
  31. ^ Shakespeare 1999, p. 86.
  32. ^ Shakespeare, Nicholas (1999). Bruce Chatwin. Viking. pp. 92–93. 
  33. ^ Shakespeare (1999). Bruce Chatwin. p. 93. 
  34. ^ Shakespeare (1999). Bruce Chatwin. pp. 97–98. 
  35. ^ Shakespeare (1999). Bruce Chatwin. pp. 106–107. 
  36. ^ Shakespeare (1999). Bruce Chatwin. p. 95. 
  37. ^ Shakespeare 1999, p. 176.
  38. ^ Shakespeare (1999). Bruce Chatwin. p. 165. 
  39. ^ Shakespeare (1999). Bruce Chatwin. p. 514. 
  40. ^ Shakespeare (1999). Bruce Chatwin. p. 119. 
  41. ^ Shakespeare (1999). Bruce Chatwin. pp. 131–136. 
  42. ^ Shakespeare (1999). Bruce Chatwin. pp. 139–141. 
  43. ^ Shakespeare (1999). Bruce Chatwin. pp. 123–127. 
  44. ^ Murray, Nicholas (1994). Bruce Chatwin. Seren Books. pp. 30–31. 
  45. ^ Shakespeare 1999, pp. 158–159.
  46. ^ Shakespeare (1999). Bruce Chatwin. pp. 171–172. 
  47. ^ Shakespeare (1999). Bruce Chatwin. p. 173. 
  48. ^ Shakespeare (1999). Bruce Chatwin. p. 181. 
  49. ^ Shakespeare (1999). Bruce Chatwin. p. 178. 
  50. ^ Shakespeare (1999). Bruce Chatwin. p. 177. 
  51. ^ Shakespeare, Nicholas (29 August 2010). "He wandered, but always came back: Bruce Chatwin's letters reveal the rock-solid marriage that survived his gay flings". Sunday Times. Retrieved 27 July 2015. 
  52. ^ Shakespeare (1999). Bruce Chatwin. p. 210. 
  53. ^ Shakespeare (1999). p. 189.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  54. ^ Shakespeare (1999). p. 186.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  55. ^ Shakespeare 1999, p. 178.
  56. ^ Shakespeare 1999, p. 189.
  57. ^ Shakespeare (1999). Bruce Chatwin. p. 199. 
  58. ^ Shakespeare 1999, p. 192.
  59. ^ Shakespeare 1999, p. 214.
  60. ^ Chatwin, Bruce (1996). Anatomy of Restlessness. New York: Viking. p. 75. ISBN 0-670-86859-0. 
  61. ^ Shakespeare (1999). p. 270.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  62. ^ Shakespeare (1999). p. 218.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  63. ^ Shakespeare (1999). p. 280.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  64. ^ Shakespeare (1999). Bruce Chatwin. p. 265. 
  65. ^ Shakespere (1999). Bruce Chatwin. p. 272. 
  66. ^ Shakespeare (1999). pp. 273–274.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  67. ^ Shakespeare (1999). p. 280.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  68. ^ Shakespeare 1999, p. 267.
  69. ^ Shakespeare (1999). Bruce Chatwin. p. 283. 
  70. ^ Shakespeare 1999, p. 280.
  71. ^ Chatwin 1990, pp. 83–85
  72. ^ Shakespeare 1999, p. 286.
  73. ^ Chatwin, Bruce (1997). Anatomy of Restlessness. Penguin. pp. 13–14. 
  74. ^ Shakespeare 1999, pp. 287–291.
  75. ^ Shakespeare (1999). Bruce Chatwin. p. 301. 
  76. ^ Chatwin (2010). Under the Sun. p. 271. 
  77. ^ Clapp (1996). With Chatwin. p. 94. 
  78. ^ Shakespeare (1999). Bruce Chatwin. pp. 372–373. 
  79. ^ Shakespeare (1999). Bruce Chatwin. pp. 321–322. 
  80. ^ Clapp, Susannah (1996). With Chatwin. p. 179. 
  81. ^ Shakespeare (1999). Bruce Chatwin. p. 448. 
  82. ^ Shakespeare (1999). Bruce Chatwin. p. 450. 
  83. ^ Chatwin (1987). The Songlines. p. 161. 
  84. ^ Shakespeare (1999). Bruce Chatwin. pp. 450, 464, 479, 487. 
  85. ^ Shakespeare (1999). Bruce Chatwin. p. 488. 
  86. ^ Shakespeare (1999). Bruce Chatwin. p. 489. 
  87. ^ Chatwin (2010). Under the Sun. p. 594. 
  88. ^ Theroux's "admiring tribute" to Chatwin,
  89. ^ Quoted by Blake Morrison "Books: The odd life of two warm rabbits ", The Independent on Sunday, 4 April 1999

References[edit]

Documentaries[edit]

  • Paul Yule, In The Footsteps of Bruce Chatwin (2x60 mins), BBC, 1999 – Berwick Universal Pictures

External links[edit]