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Aliases CHD3, Mi-2a, Mi2-ALPHA, ZFH, chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 3
External IDs MGI: 1344395 HomoloGene: 62693 GeneCards: CHD3
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE CHD3 208807 s at fs.png

PBB GE CHD3 208806 at fs.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



Location (UCSC) Chr 17: 7.88 – 7.91 Mb Chr 11: 69.34 – 69.37 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]
View/Edit Human View/Edit Mouse

Chromodomain-helicase-DNA-binding protein 3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CHD3 gene.[3][4][5]


This gene encodes a member of the CHD family of proteins which are characterized by the presence of chromo (chromatin organization modifier) domains and SNF2-related helicase/ATPase domains. This protein is one of the components of a histone deacetylase complex referred to as the Mi-2/NuRD complex which participates in the remodeling of chromatin by deacetylating histones. Chromatin remodeling is essential for many processes including transcription. Autoantibodies against this protein are found in a subset of patients with dermatomyositis. Three alternatively spliced transcripts encoding different isoforms have been described.[5]


CHD3 has been shown to interact with:


  1. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". 
  2. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". 
  3. ^ Woodage T, Basrai MA, Baxevanis AD, Hieter P, Collins FS (Oct 1997). "Characterization of the CHD family of proteins". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 94 (21): 11472–7. doi:10.1073/pnas.94.21.11472. PMC 23509Freely accessible. PMID 9326634. 
  4. ^ Ge Q, Nilasena DS, O'Brien CA, Frank MB, Targoff IN (Oct 1995). "Molecular analysis of a major antigenic region of the 240-kD protein of Mi-2 autoantigen". The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 96 (4): 1730–7. doi:10.1172/JCI118218. PMC 185809Freely accessible. PMID 7560064. 
  5. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: CHD3 chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 3". 
  6. ^ a b Tong JK, Hassig CA, Schnitzler GR, Kingston RE, Schreiber SL (Oct 1998). "Chromatin deacetylation by an ATP-dependent nucleosome remodelling complex". Nature. 395 (6705): 917–21. doi:10.1038/27699. PMID 9804427. 
  7. ^ Kuzmichev A, Zhang Y, Erdjument-Bromage H, Tempst P, Reinberg D (Feb 2002). "Role of the Sin3-histone deacetylase complex in growth regulation by the candidate tumor suppressor p33(ING1)". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 22 (3): 835–48. doi:10.1128/mcb.22.3.835-848.2002. PMC 133546Freely accessible. PMID 11784859. 
  8. ^ Hakimi MA, Dong Y, Lane WS, Speicher DW, Shiekhattar R (Feb 2003). "A candidate X-linked mental retardation gene is a component of a new family of histone deacetylase-containing complexes". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (9): 7234–9. doi:10.1074/jbc.M208992200. PMID 12493763. 
  9. ^ Hakimi MA, Bochar DA, Schmiesing JA, Dong Y, Barak OG, Speicher DW, Yokomori K, Shiekhattar R (Aug 2002). "A chromatin remodelling complex that loads cohesin onto human chromosomes". Nature. 418 (6901): 994–8. doi:10.1038/nature01024. PMID 12198550. 
  10. ^ Lemos TA, Passos DO, Nery FC, Kobarg J (Jan 2003). "Characterization of a new family of proteins that interact with the C-terminal region of the chromatin-remodeling factor CHD-3". FEBS Letters. 533 (1-3): 14–20. doi:10.1016/s0014-5793(02)03737-7. PMID 12505151. 
  11. ^ Stelzl U, Worm U, Lalowski M, Haenig C, Brembeck FH, Goehler H, Stroedicke M, Zenkner M, Schoenherr A, Koeppen S, Timm J, Mintzlaff S, Abraham C, Bock N, Kietzmann S, Goedde A, Toksöz E, Droege A, Krobitsch S, Korn B, Birchmeier W, Lehrach H, Wanker EE (Sep 2005). "A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome". Cell. 122 (6): 957–68. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.08.029. PMID 16169070. 

External links[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Bowen NJ, Fujita N, Kajita M, Wade PA (Mar 2004). "Mi-2/NuRD: multiple complexes for many purposes". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1677 (1-3): 52–7. doi:10.1016/j.bbaexp.2003.10.010. PMID 15020045. 
  • Gieser L, Swaroop A (Jul 1992). "Expressed sequence tags and chromosomal localization of cDNA clones from a subtracted retinal pigment epithelium library". Genomics. 13 (3): 873–6. doi:10.1016/0888-7543(92)90173-P. PMID 1639417. 
  • Seelig HP, Moosbrugger I, Ehrfeld H, Fink T, Renz M, Genth E (Oct 1995). "The major dermatomyositis-specific Mi-2 autoantigen is a presumed helicase involved in transcriptional activation". Arthritis and Rheumatism. 38 (10): 1389–99. doi:10.1002/art.1780381006. PMID 7575689. 
  • Seelig HP, Renz M, Targoff IN, Ge Q, Frank MB (Oct 1996). "Two forms of the major antigenic protein of the dermatomyositis-specific Mi-2 autoantigen". Arthritis and Rheumatism. 39 (10): 1769–71. doi:10.1002/art.1780391029. PMID 8843877. 
  • Bonaldo MF, Lennon G, Soares MB (Sep 1996). "Normalization and subtraction: two approaches to facilitate gene discovery". Genome Research. 6 (9): 791–806. doi:10.1101/gr.6.9.791. PMID 8889548. 
  • Aubry F, Mattéi MG, Galibert F (Jun 1998). "Identification of a human 17p-located cDNA encoding a protein of the Snf2-like helicase family". European Journal of Biochemistry / FEBS. 254 (3): 558–64. doi:10.1046/j.1432-1327.1998.2540558.x. PMID 9688266. 
  • Tong JK, Hassig CA, Schnitzler GR, Kingston RE, Schreiber SL (Oct 1998). "Chromatin deacetylation by an ATP-dependent nucleosome remodelling complex". Nature. 395 (6705): 917–21. doi:10.1038/27699. PMID 9804427. 
  • Kleiderlein JJ, Nisson PE, Jessee J, Li WB, Becker KG, Derby ML, Ross CA, Margolis RL (Dec 1998). "CCG repeats in cDNAs from human brain". Human Genetics. 103 (6): 666–73. doi:10.1007/s004390050889. PMID 9921901. 
  • Kim J, Sif S, Jones B, Jackson A, Koipally J, Heller E, Winandy S, Viel A, Sawyer A, Ikeda T, Kingston R, Georgopoulos K (Mar 1999). "Ikaros DNA-binding proteins direct formation of chromatin remodeling complexes in lymphocytes". Immunity. 10 (3): 345–55. doi:10.1016/S1074-7613(00)80034-5. PMID 10204490. 
  • Wade PA, Gegonne A, Jones PL, Ballestar E, Aubry F, Wolffe AP (Sep 1999). "Mi-2 complex couples DNA methylation to chromatin remodelling and histone deacetylation". Nature Genetics. 23 (1): 62–6. doi:10.1038/12664. PMID 10471500. 
  • Cousin P, Billotte J, Chaubert P, Shaw P (Jan 2000). "Physical map of 17p13 and the genes adjacent to p53". Genomics. 63 (1): 60–8. doi:10.1006/geno.1999.6062. PMID 10662545. 
  • Minty A, Dumont X, Kaghad M, Caput D (Nov 2000). "Covalent modification of p73alpha by SUMO-1. Two-hybrid screening with p73 identifies novel SUMO-1-interacting proteins and a SUMO-1 interaction motif". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (46): 36316–23. doi:10.1074/jbc.M004293200. PMID 10961991. 
  • Schultz DC, Friedman JR, Rauscher FJ (Feb 2001). "Targeting histone deacetylase complexes via KRAB-zinc finger proteins: the PHD and bromodomains of KAP-1 form a cooperative unit that recruits a novel isoform of the Mi-2alpha subunit of NuRD". Genes & Development. 15 (4): 428–43. doi:10.1101/gad.869501. PMC 312636Freely accessible. PMID 11230151. 
  • Yasui D, Miyano M, Cai S, Varga-Weisz P, Kohwi-Shigematsu T (Oct 2002). "SATB1 targets chromatin remodelling to regulate genes over long distances". Nature. 419 (6907): 641–5. doi:10.1038/nature01084. PMID 12374985. 
  • Lemos TA, Passos DO, Nery FC, Kobarg J (Jan 2003). "Characterization of a new family of proteins that interact with the C-terminal region of the chromatin-remodeling factor CHD-3". FEBS Letters. 533 (1-3): 14–20. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(02)03737-7. PMID 12505151. 
  • Fujita N, Jaye DL, Kajita M, Geigerman C, Moreno CS, Wade PA (Apr 2003). "MTA3, a Mi-2/NuRD complex subunit, regulates an invasive growth pathway in breast cancer". Cell. 113 (2): 207–19. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(03)00234-4. PMID 12705869. 
  • Lee BH, Yoshimatsu K, Maeda A, Ochiai K, Morimatsu M, Araki K, Ogino M, Morikawa S, Arikawa J (Dec 2003). "Association of the nucleocapsid protein of the Seoul and Hantaan hantaviruses with small ubiquitin-like modifier-1-related molecules". Virus Research. 98 (1): 83–91. doi:10.1016/j.virusres.2003.09.001. PMID 14609633.