The acronym CHNOPS, which stands for carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, sulfur, represents the six most important chemical elements whose covalent combinations make up most biological molecules on Earth. They were created in stars in outer space a long time ago and when a supernova occurred, these elements were sent into space.  All of these elements are nonmetals.
|Element||Mass in plants||Mass in animals||Biological uses|
|Carbon||12%||19%||Found in carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins.|
|Hydrogen||10%||10%||Found in carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins.|
|Nitrogen||1%||4%||Found in nucleic acids, proteins and some lipids (E.G sphingolipids)|
|Oxygen||77%||63%||Found in carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins.|
|Phosphorus||<1%||<1%||Found in lipids and nucleic acids.|
|Sulfur||<1%||<1%||Found in proteins.|
Sulfur is contained in the amino acids cysteine and methionine. Phosphorus is contained in phospholipids, a class of lipids that are a major component of all cell membranes, as they can form lipid bilayers, which keep ions, proteins, and other molecules where they are needed for cell function, and prevent them from diffusing into areas where they should not be. Phosphate groups are also an essential component of the backbone of nucleic acids (general name for DNA & RNA) and are required to form ATP – the main molecule used as energy powering the cell in all living creatures.
Carbonaceous asteroids are rich in CHON elements. These asteroids are the most common type, and frequently collide with Earth as meteorites. Such collisions were especially common early in Earth's history, and these impactors may have been crucial in the formation of the planet's oceans.
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Most biological molecules are made from covalent combinations of six important elements, whose chemical symbols are CHNOPS. ... Although more than 25 types of elements can be found in biomolecules, six elements are most common. These are called the CHNOPS elements; the letters stand for the chemical abbreviations of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulfur.
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