|Classification and external resources|
Zinc deficiency can occur in soil, plants, and animals. In animals, including humans, it is defined either qualitatively as insufficient zinc to meet the needs of the body and thereby causing clinical manifestations, or quantitatively as a serum zinc level below the normal range; however, serum zinc is not a reliable biomarker for zinc status in humans, as a decrease in serum concentration is only detectable after long-term or severe depletion. Novel zinc biomarkers, such as the erythrocyte LA:DGLA ratio, have shown promise in pre-clinical and clinical trials and are being developed to more accurately detect dietary zinc deficiency. Zinc deficiency affects about 2.2 billion people around the world.
Zinc deficiency in humans results from reduced dietary intake, inadequate absorption, increased loss, or increased use. The most common cause is reduced dietary intake; as much as 25% of the world's population is at risk. Increasing the amount of zinc in the soil and thus in crops is an effective preventative measure. Zinc plays an essential role in numerous biochemical pathways. It affects many organ systems, including the skin, gastrointestinal tract, central nervous system, and immune, skeletal, and reproductive systems. A lack of zinc thus has numerous manifestations, the most common of which are an increased rates of diarrhea, pneumonia, and malaria.
- 1 Classification
- 2 Signs and symptoms
- 3 Causes
- 4 Mechanism
- 5 Prevention
- 6 Epidemiology
- 7 History
- 8 Soils and crops
- 9 Research
- 10 References
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
Zinc deficiency affects about 2.2 billion people around the world. Zinc deficiency can be classified as acute, as may occur during prolonged inappropriate zinc-free total parenteral nutrition; or chronic, as may occur in dietary deficiency or inadequate absorption. Lactation, alcoholism, old age, and metabolic disorders are associated with zinc deficiency in adults. Zinc deficiency can also be considered as mild, as typically accompanies dietary deficiency; or severe, as typically accompanies congenital defective absorption.
Signs and symptoms
Skin, nails and hair
Zinc deficiency can manifest as non-specific oral ulceration, stomatitis, or white tongue coating. Rarely it can cause angular cheilitis (sores at the corners of the mouth) and burning mouth syndrome.
Vision, smell and taste
Severe zinc deficiency may disturb the sense of smell and taste. Night blindness may be a feature of severe zinc deficiency, however most reports of night blindness and abnormal dark adaptation in humans with zinc deficiency have occurred in combination with other nutritional deficiencies (e.g. vitamin A).
Impaired immune function in people with zinc deficiency can lead to the development of respiratory, gastrointestinal, or other infections, e.g., pneumonia. The levels of inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-α) in blood plasma are affected by zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation produces a dose-dependent response in the level of these cytokines. During inflammation, there is an increased cellular demand for zinc and impaired zinc homeostasis from zinc deficiency is associated with chronic inflammation.
Zinc deficiency may lead to anorexia and anorexia nervosa. The use of zinc in the treatment of anorexia has been advocated since 1979 by Bakan. At least 15 clinical trials have shown that zinc improved weight gain in anorexia. A 1994 trial showed that zinc doubled the rate of body mass increase in the treatment of anorexia nervosa. Deficiency of other nutrients such as tyrosine, tryptophan and thiamine could contribute to this phenomenon of "malnutrition-induced malnutrition".
Cognitive function and hedonic tone
Cognitive functions, such as learning and hedonic tone, are impaired with zinc deficiency. Moderate and more severe zinc deficiencies are associated with behavioral abnormalities, such as irritability, lethargy, and depression (e.g., involving anhedonia). Zinc supplementation produces a rapid and dramatic improvement in hedonic tone (i.e., general level of happiness or pleasure) under these circumstances. Zinc supplementation has been reported to improve symptoms of ADHD and depression.
Plasma zinc levels have been alleged to be associated with many psychological disorders. An increasing amount of evidence suggests that zinc deficiency could play a role in depression. Zinc may be an effective treatment.
|This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2015)|
|This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2015)|
Zinc deficiency during pregnancy can negatively affect both the mother and fetus. Animal studies indicate that maternal zinc deficiency can upset both the sequencing and efficiency of the birth process. An increased incidence of difficult and prolonged labor, hemorrhage, uterine dystocia and placental abruption has been documented in zinc deficient animals. These effects may be mediated by the defective functioning of estrogen via the estrogen receptor, which contains a zinc finger protein. A review of pregnancy outcomes in women with acrodermatitis enteropathica, reported that out of every seven pregnancies, there was one abortion and two malfunctions, suggesting the human fetus is also susceptible to the teratogenic effects of severe zinc deficiency. However, a review on zinc supplementation trials during pregnancy did not report a significant effect of zinc supplementation on neonatal survival.
Zinc deficiency can interfere with many metabolic processes when it occurs during infancy and childhood, a time of rapid growth and development when nutritional needs are high. Low maternal zinc status has been associated with less attention during the neonatal period and worse motor functioning. In some studies, supplementation has been associated with motor development in very low birth weight infants and more vigorous and functional activity in infants and toddlers.
A diet which is high in phytate containing whole grains, high in foods grown in zinc deficient soil, or high in processed foods containing little or no zinc can result in zinc deficiency. Conservative estimates suggest that 25% of the world's population is at risk of zinc deficiency.
In the U.S., the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) is 8 mg/day for women and 11 mg/day for men. The following table summarizes most of the foods with significant quantities of zinc, listed in order of quantity per serving, unfortified. Note that all of the top 10 entries are meat, beans, or nuts. The recommended intake per day of zinc is 15 mg for adults and children over the age of four.
|Food||mg in one serving||Percentage of recommended daily intake|
|Oysters, cooked, breaded and fried, 3 ounces (about 5 average sized oysters)||74.0||493%|
|Beef chuck roast, braised, 3 ounces||7.0||47%|
|Crab, Alaska king, cooked, 3 ounces||6.5||43%|
|Beef patty, broiled, 3 ounces||5.3||35%|
|Cashews, dry roasted, 3 ounces||4.8||33%|
|Lobster, cooked, 3 ounces||3.4||23%|
|Pork chop, loin, cooked, 3 ounces||2.9||19%|
|Baked beans, canned, plain or vegetarian, ½ cup||2.9||19%|
|Almonds, dry roasted, 3 ounces||2.7||18%|
|Chicken, dark meat, cooked, 3 ounces||2.4||16%|
|Yogurt, fruit, low fat, 8 ounces||1.7||11%|
|Chickpeas, cooked, ½ cup||1.3||9%|
|Cheese, Swiss, 1 ounce||1.2||8%|
|Oatmeal, instant, plain, prepared with water, 1 packet||1.1||7%|
|Milk, low-fat or non fat, 1 cup||1.0||7%|
|Kidney beans, cooked, ½ cup||0.9||6%|
|Chicken breast, roasted, skin removed, ½ breast||0.9||6%|
|Cheese, cheddar or mozzarella, 1 ounce||0.9||6%|
|Peas, green, frozen, cooked, ½ cup||0.5||3%|
|Flounder or sole, cooked, 3 ounces||0.3||2%|
Acrodermatitis enteropathica is an inherited deficiency of the zinc carrier protein ZIP4 resulting in inadequate zinc absorption. It presents as growth retardation, severe diarrhea, hair loss, skin rash (most often around the genitalia and mouth) and opportunistic candidiasis and bacterial infections. This disorder can be easily treated with zinc supplements upon correct diagnosis. 
Numerous small bowel diseases which cause destruction or malfunction of the gut mucosa enterocytes and generalized malabsorption are associated with zinc deficiency.
Exercising, high alcohol intake, and diarrhea all increase loss of zinc from the body. Changes in intestinal tract absorbability and permeability due, in part, to viral, protozoal, or bacteria pathogens may also encourage fecal losses of zinc.
The mechanism of zinc deficiency in some diseases has not been well defined; it may be multifactorial.
Wilson's disease, sickle cell disease, chronic kidney disease, chronic liver disease have all been associated with zinc deficiency. It can also occur after bariatric surgery, mercury exposure and tartrazine.
Although marginal zinc deficiency is often found in depression, low zinc levels could either be a cause or a consequence of mental disorders and their symptoms.
As biosystems are unable to store zinc, regular intake is necessary. Excessively low zinc intake can lead to zinc deficiency, which can negatively impact an individual's health. The mechanisms for the clinical manifestations of zinc deficiency are best appreciated by recognizing that zinc functions in the body in three areas: catalytic, structural, and regulatory. Zinc (Zn) is only common in its +2 oxidative state, where it typically coordinates with tetrahedral geometry. It is important in maintaining basic cellular functions such as DNA replication, RNA transcription, cell division and cell activations. However, having too much or too little zinc can cause these functions to be compromised.
In its catalytic role, zinc is a critical component of the catalytic site of hundreds of kinds of different metalloenzymes in each human being. In its structural role, zinc coordinates with certain protein domains, facilitating protein folding and producing structures such as ‘zinc fingers’. In its regulatory role, zinc is involved in the regulation of nucleoproteins and the activity of various inflammatory cells. For example, zinc regulates the expression of metallothionein, which has multiple functions, such as intracellular zinc compartmentalization and antioxidant function. Thus zinc deficiency results in disruption of hundreds of metabolic pathways, causing numerous clinical manifestations, including impaired growth and development, and disruption of reproductive and immune function.
Five interventional strategies can be used:
- Adding zinc to soil, called agronomic biofortification, which both increases crop yields and provides more dietary zinc.
- Adding zinc to food, called fortification.
- Adding zinc rich foods to diet. The foods with the highest concentration of zinc are proteins, especially animal meats, the highest being oysters. Per ounce, beef, pork, and lamb contain more zinc than fish. The dark meat of a chicken has more zinc than the light meat. Other good sources of zinc are nuts, whole grains, legumes, and yeast. Although whole grains and cereals are high in zinc, they also contain chelating phytates which bind zinc and reduce its bioavailability.
- Oral repletion via tablets (e.g. zinc gluconate) or liquid (e.g. zinc acetate). Oral zinc supplementation in healthy infants more than six months old has been shown to reduce the duration of any subsequent diarrheal episodes by about 10 hours.
- Oral repletion via multivitamin/mineral supplements containing zinc gluconate, sulfate, or acetate. It is not clear whether one form is better than another. Zinc is also found in some cold lozenges, nasal sprays, and nasal gels.
Severe zinc deficiency is rare, and is mainly seen in persons with acrodermatitis enteropathica, a severe defect in zinc absorption due to a congenital deficiency in the zinc carrier protein ZIP4 in the enterocyte. Mild zinc deficiency due to reduced dietary intake is common. Conservative estimates suggest that 25% of the world's population is at risk of zinc deficiency. Zinc deficiency is thought to be a leading cause of infant mortality.
Providing micronutrients, including zinc, to humans is one of the four solutions to major global problems identified in the Copenhagen Consensus from an international panel of economists.
Significant historical events related to zinc deficiency began in 1869 when zinc was first discovered to be essential to the growth of an organism (Aspergillus Niger). In 1929 Lutz measured zinc in numerous human tissues using the dithizone technique and estimated total body zinc in a 70 kg man to be 2.2 grams. Zinc was found to be essential to the growth of rats in 1933. In 1939 beriberi patients in China were noted to have decreased zinc levels in skin and nails. In 1940 zinc levels in a series of autopsies found it to be present in all tissues examined. In 1942 a study showed most zinc excretion was via the feces. In 1950 a normal serum zinc level was first defined, and found to be 17.3–22.1 micromoles/liter. In 1956 cirrhotic patients were found to have low serum zinc levels. In 1963 zinc was determined to be essential to human growth, three enzymes requiring zinc as a cofactor were described, and a report was published of a 21-year-old Iranian man with stunted growth, infantile genitalia, and anemia which were all reversed by zinc supplementation. In 1972 fifteen Iranian rejected army inductees with symptoms of zinc deficiency were reported: all responded to zinc. In 1973 the first case of acrodermatitis enteropathica due to severe zinc deficiency was described. In 1974 the National Academy of Sciences declared zinc to be an essential element for humans and established a recommended daily allowance. In 1978 the Food and Drug Administration required zinc to be in total parenteral nutrition fluids. In the 1990s there was increasing attention on the role of zinc deficiency in childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In 2002 the zinc transporter protein ZIP4 was first identified as the mechanism for absorption of zinc in the gut across the basolateral membrane of the enterocyte. By 2014 over 300 zinc containing enzymes have been identified, as well as over 1000 zinc containing transcription factors.
Soils and crops
Soil zinc is an essential micronutrient for crops. Almost half of the world’s cereal crops are deficient in zinc, leading to poor crop yields. Many agricultural countries around the world are affected by zinc deficiency. In China, zinc deficiency occurs on around half of the agricultural soils, affecting mainly rice and maize. Areas with zinc deficient soils are often regions with widespread zinc deficiency in humans. A basic knowledge of the dynamics of zinc in soils, understanding of the uptake and transport of zinc in crops and characterizing the response of crops to zinc deficiency are essential steps in achieving sustainable solutions to the problem of zinc deficiency in crops and humans.
Soil and foliar application of zinc fertilizer can effectively increase grain zinc and reduce the phytate:zinc ratio in grain. People who eat bread prepared from zinc enriched wheat have a significant increase in serum zinc.
Zinc fertilization not only increases zinc content in zinc deficient crops, it also increases crop yields. Balanced crop nutrition supplying all essential nutrients, including zinc, is a cost effective management strategy. Even with zinc-efficient varieties, zinc fertilizers are needed when the available zinc in the topsoil becomes depleted.
Plant breeding can improve zinc uptake capacity of plants under soil conditions with low chemical availability of zinc. Breeding can also improve zinc translocation which elevates zinc content in edible crop parts as opposed to the rest of the plant.
Central Anatolia, in Turkey, was a region with zinc-deficient soils and widespread zinc deficiency in humans. In 1993, a research project found that yields could be increased by 6 to 8-fold and child nutrition dramatically increased through zinc fertilization. Zinc was added to fertilizers. While the product was initially made available at the same cost, the results were so convincing that Turkish farmers significantly increased the use of the zinc-fortified fertilizer (1 percent of zinc) within a few years, despite the repricing of the products to reflect the added value of the content. Nearly ten years after the identification of the zinc deficiency problem, the total amount of zinc-containing compound fertilizers produced and applied in Turkey reached a record level of 300,000 tonnes per annum. It is estimated that the economic benefits associated with the application of zinc fertilizers on zinc deficient soils in Turkey is around US$100 million per year. Zinc deficiency in children has been dramatically reduced.
There is some evidence that zinc may have an effect on cancer and further study is recommended.
- Hess, SY; Peerson, JM; King, JC; Brown, KH (September 2007). "Use of serum zinc concentration as an indicator of population zinc status.". Food and nutrition bulletin. 28 (3 Suppl): S403–29. PMID 17988005.
- Reed, Spenser; Qin, Xia; Ran-Ressler, Rinat; Brenna, James Thomas; Glahn, Raymond P.; Tako, Elad (2014-01-01). "Dietary zinc deficiency affects blood linoleic acid: dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (LA:DGLA) ratio; a sensitive physiological marker of zinc status in vivo (Gallus gallus)". Nutrients. 6 (3): 1164–1180. doi:10.3390/nu6031164. ISSN 2072-6643. PMC . PMID 24658588.
- Holen, T.; Norheim, F.; Gundersen, T. E.; Mitry, P.; Linseisen, J.; Iversen, P. O.; Drevon, C. A. (2016-01-01). "Biomarkers for nutrient intake with focus on alternative sampling techniques". Genes & Nutrition. 11: 12. doi:10.1186/s12263-016-0527-1. ISSN 1865-3499. PMC . PMID 27551313.
- "An initial evaluation of newly proposed biomarker of zinc status in humans - linoleic acid: dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (LA:DGLA) ratio".
- Prasad AS. (2012). "Discovery of human zinc deficiency: 50 years later.". J Trace Elem. Med. Biol. 26: 66–69. doi:10.1016/j.jtemb.2012.04.004. PMID 22664333.
- Brian R. Walker; Nicki R Colledge; Stuart H. Ralston; Ian Penman (2013). Davidson's Principles and Practice of Medicine (22nd ed.). Elsevier Health Sciences. ISBN 9780702051036.
- Khan Mohammad Beigi, Pooya; Maverakis, Emanual. Acrodermatitis Enteropathica - Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-17819-6.
- Yamada T, Alpers DH, et al. (2009). Textbook of gastroenterology (5th ed.). Chichester, West Sussex: Blackwell Pub. pp. 495, 498, 499, 1274, 2526. ISBN 978-1-4051-6911-0.
- Gerd Michaelsson (1981). "Diet and Acne". Nutrition Reviews. 39 (2): 104–106. doi:10.1111/j.1753-4887.1981.tb06740.x. PMID 6451820.
- Kumar P; Clark ML (2012). Kumar & Clark's clinical medicine (8th ed.). Edinburgh: Elsevier/Saunders. ISBN 9780702053047.
- Scully C (2013). Oral and maxillofacial medicine: the basis of diagnosis and treatment (3rd ed.). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. p. 223. ISBN 9780702049484.
- Gurvits, Grigoriy E; Tan, A (2013). "Burning mouth syndrome". World Journal of Gastroenterology. 19 (5): 665–672. doi:10.3748/wjg.v19.i5.665. PMC . PMID 23429751.
- Scully C (2010). Medical problems in dentistry (6th ed.). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. p. 326. ISBN 9780702030574.
- Ikeda M, Ikui A, Komiyama A, Kobayashi D, Tanaka M (2008). "Causative factors of taste disorders in the elderly, and therapeutic effects of zinc". J Laryngol Otol. 122 (2): 155–60. doi:10.1017/S0022215107008833. PMID 17592661.
- Stewart-Knox BJ, Simpson EE, Parr H, et al. (2008). "Taste acuity in response to zinc supplementation in older Europeans". Br. J. Nutr. 99 (1): 129–36. doi:10.1017/S0007114507781485. PMID 17651517.
- Stewart-Knox BJ, Simpson EE, Parr H, et al. (2005). "Zinc status and taste acuity in older Europeans: the ZENITH study". Eur J Clin Nutr. 59 Suppl 2: S31–6. doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602295. PMID 16254578.
- McDaid O, Stewart-Knox B, Parr H, Simpson E (2007). "Dietary zinc intake and sex differences in taste acuity in healthy young adults". J Hum Nutr Diet. 20 (2): 103–10. doi:10.1111/j.1365-277X.2007.00756.x. PMID 17374022.
- Nin T, Umemoto M, Miuchi S, Negoro A, Sakagami M (2006). "[Treatment outcome in patients with taste disturbance]". Nippon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho (in Japanese). 109 (5): 440–6. doi:10.3950/jibiinkoka.109.440. PMID 16768159.
- Preedy VR (2014). Handbook of nutrition, diet and the eye. Burlington: Elsevier Science. p. 372. ISBN 9780124046061.
- Penny M. Zinc Protects: The Role of Zinc in Child Health. 2004. Archived 13 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
- Foster M, Samman S (2012). "Zinc and regulation of inflammatory cytokines: implications for cardiometabolic disease". Nutrients. 4 (7): 676–94. doi:10.3390/nu4070676. PMC . PMID 22852057.
- Suzuki, H; Asakawa, A; Li, JB; Tsai, M; Amitani, H; Ohinata, K; Komai, M; Inui, A (Sep 2011). "Zinc as an appetite stimulator - the possible role of zinc in the progression of diseases such as cachexia and sarcopenia.". Recent patents on food, nutrition & agriculture. 3 (3): 226–31. doi:10.2174/2212798411103030226. PMID 21846317.
- "Neurobiology of Zinc-Influenced Eating Behavior". Retrieved 2007-07-19.
- Takeda A (2000). "Movement of zinc and its functional significance in the brain". Brain Res. Brain Res. Rev. 34 (3): 137–48. doi:10.1016/s0165-0173(00)00044-8. PMID 11113504.
- Walter Mertz (2012). Trace Elements in Human and Animal Nutrition, Volume 2 (5th ed.). Elsevier. p. 74. ISBN 9780080924694. Retrieved 18 August 2015.
- Chasapis CT, Loutsidou AC, Spiliopoulou CA, Stefanidou ME (2012). "Zinc and human health: an update". Arch. Toxicol. 86 (4): 521–34. doi:10.1007/s00204-011-0775-1. PMID 22071549.
- Millichap, JG; Yee, MM (February 2012). "The diet factor in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder". Pediatrics. 129 (2): 330–7. doi:10.1542/peds.2011-2199. PMID 22232312.
- Swardfager W; Herrmann; Mazereeuw; Goldberger; Harimoto; Lanctôt (2013). "Zinc in depression: a meta-analysis". Biol Psychiatry. 74 (12): 872–8. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2013.05.008. PMID 23806573.
- Nuttall, J; Oteiza (2012). "Zinc and the ERK kinases in the developing brain". Neurotoxicity Research. 21 (1): 128–141. doi:10.1007/s12640-011-9291-6. PMID 22095091.
- Swardfager, W; Herrmann, N; McIntyre, R. S.; Mazereeuw, G; Goldberger, K; Cha, D. S.; Schwartz, Y; Lanctôt, K. L. (2013). "Potential roles of zinc in the pathophysiology and treatment of major depressive disorder". Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews. 37 (5): 911–29. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2013.03.018. PMID 23567517.
- Shah D, Sachdev HP (2006). "Zinc deficiency in pregnancy and fetal outcome". Nutr. Rev. 64 (1): 15–30. doi:10.1111/j.1753-4887.2006.tb00169.x. PMID 16491666.
- Sanstead H. H.; et al. (2000). "Zinc nutriture as related to brain". J. Nutr. 130: 140S–146S.
- Black MM (1998). "Zinc deficiency and child development". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 68 (2 Suppl): 464S–9S. PMC . PMID 9701161.
- Solomons N.W. (2001). "Dietary Sources of zinc and factors affecting its bioavailability". Food Nutr. Bull. 22: 138–154.
- Sandstead HH (1991). "Zinc deficiency. A public health problem?". Am. J. Dis. Child. 145 (8): 853–9. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1991.02160080029016. PMID 1858720.
- Maret W, Sandstead HH (2006). "Zinc requirements and the risks and benefits of zinc supplementation". J Trace Elem Med Biol. 20 (1): 3–18. doi:10.1016/j.jtemb.2006.01.006. PMID 16632171.
- Connie W. Bales; Christine Seel Ritchie (May 21, 2009). Handbook of Clinical Nutrition and Aging. Springer. pp. 151–. ISBN 978-1-60327-384-8. Retrieved 2011-06-23.
- Adapted from http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Zinc-HealthProfessional/#h3
- Khan Mohammad Beigi, Pooya; Maverakis, Emanual. Acrodermatitis Enteropathica - Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-17819-6.
- Castillo-Duran C, Vial P, Uauy R (1988). "Trace mineral balance during acute diarrhea in infants". J. Pediatr. 113 (3): 452–7. doi:10.1016/S0022-3476(88)80627-9. PMID 3411389.
- Manary MJ, Hotz C, Krebs NF, et al. (2000). "Dietary phytate reduction improves zinc absorption in Malawian children recovering from tuberculosis but not in well children". J. Nutr. 130 (12): 2959–64. PMID 11110854.
- Gibson RS (2006). "Zinc: the missing link in combating micronutrient malnutrition in developing countries". Proc Nutr Soc. 65 (1): 51–60. doi:10.1079/PNS2005474. PMID 16441944.
- 886046736 at GPnotebook
- Prasad AS (2003). "Zinc deficiency : Has been known of for 40 years but ignored by global health organisations". BMJ. 326 (7386): 409–10. doi:10.1136/bmj.326.7386.409. PMC . PMID 12595353.
- El-Safty Ibrahim A M; Gadallah Mohsen; Shafik Ahmed; Shouman Ahmed E (2002). "Effect of mercury vapour exposure on urinary excretion of calcium, zinc and copper: relationship to alterations in functional and structural integrity of the kidney". Toxicol Ind Health. 18 (8): 377–388. doi:10.1191/0748233702th160oa. PMID 15119526.
- Funk Day, Brady (1987). "Displacement of zinc and copper from copper-induced metallothionein by cadmium and by mercury: in vivo and ex vivo studies". Comp Biochem Physiol C. 86 (1): 1–6. doi:10.1016/0742-8413(87)90133-2. PMID 2881702.
- Prasad AS (2013). "Discovery of human zinc deficiency: its impact on human health and disease". Adv Nutr. 4 (2): 176–90. doi:10.3945/an.112.003210. PMC . PMID 23493534.
- Russell R, Beard JL, Cousins RJ, et al. Zinc. In: Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2002. pp. 442–501.
- Cousins RJ (1994). "Metal elements and gene expression". Annu Rev Nutr. 14: 449–469. doi:10.1146/annurev.nu.14.070194.002313.
- Maret W (2003). "Cellular zinc and redox states converge in the metallothionein/thionein pair". J Nutr. 133 (5 Suppl 1): 1460S–1462S.
- Theocharis SE, Margeli AP, Koutselinis A (2003). "Metallothionein: a multifunctional protein from toxicity to cancer". Int J Biol Markers. 18: 162–169.
- Theocharis SE, Margeli AP, Klijanienko JT, Kouraklis GP (2004). "Metallothionein expression in human neoplasia". Histopathology. 45: 103–118. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2559.2004.01922.x.
- Kupka R; Fawzi W. (2002). "Zinc Nutrition and HIV Infection.". Nutrition Reviews. 60 (3): 69–79. doi:10.1301/00296640260042739.
- Rink, L. (2000). "Zinc and the immune system". Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. 59 (4): 541–552. doi:10.1017/S0029665100000781. PMID 11115789.
- Rancesco C.; Ilse D.; Pedro M.; Lydia S.; Sascha B.; Peter Z.; Matthias B.; Bernhard H.; Duncan W. (2012). "Candida albicans Scavenges Host Zinc via Pra1 during Endothelial Invasion". PLoS Pathogens. 8 (6): e1002777. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1002777.
- http://www.nim.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002416.htm[permanent dead link]
- Lazzerini, Marzia; Ronfani, Luca (2005). "Oral zinc for treating diarrhoea in children". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 1: CD005436. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005436.pub4. PMID 23440801. Retrieved 30 August 2014.
- "Copenhagen Consensus Center". Retrieved 30 August 2014.
- Raulin J (1869). "Chemical studies on vegetation". Annales des Sciences Naturelles. 11: 293–299.
- Todd WR, Elvejheim CA, Hart EB (1934). "Zinc in the nutrition of the rat". Am J Physiol. 107: 146–156.
- Prasad A. S.; Miale A.; Farid Z.; Sandstead H. H.; Schulert A. R. (1963). "Zinc metabolism in patients with the syndrome of iron deficiency anemia, hypogonadism and dwarfism". J. Lab. Clin. Med. 61: 537–549.
- Duggan C; Watkins JB; Walker WA (2008). Nutrition in pediatrics : basic science, clinical application (4th ed.). Hamilton: BC Decker. pp. 69–71. ISBN 9781550093612.
- Effect of zinc fertilization on rice plants and on the population of the rice-root nematodeHirschmanniella oryzae Jzincournal of Pest Science
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 19 December 2008. Retrieved 23 April 2009.
- Alloway, Brian J. (2008). "Zinc in Soils and Crop Nutrition, International Fertilizer Industry Association, and International Zinc Association". Archived from the original on 19 February 2013. Retrieved 15 December 2012.
- Hussain; et al. (2012). "Biofortification and estimated human bioavailability of zinc in wheat grains as influenced by methods of zinc application". Plant and Soil. 361: 279–290. doi:10.1007/s11104-012-1217-4.
- "Effect of Foliar Application of Zinc, Selenium, and Iron Fertilizers on Nutrients Concentration and Yield of Rice Grain in China". Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry. 56: 2079–2084. 2008. doi:10.1021/jf800150z.
- Enrichment of cereal grains with zinc: Agronomic or genetic biofortification? Cakmak Ismail, in Plant and Soil, 2007
- Prasad, AS; Beck, FW; Snell, DC; Kucuk, O (2009). "Zinc in cancer prevention.". Nutrition and cancer. 61 (6): 879–87. doi:10.1080/01635580903285122. PMID 20155630.
- Maret, Wolfgang (2013). "Chapter 14 Zinc and the Zinc Proteome". In Banci, Lucia. Metallomics and the Cell. Metal Ions in Life Sciences. 12. Springer. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-5561-10_14. ISBN 978-94-007-5560-4. electronic-book ISBN 978-94-007-5561-1 ISSN 1559-0836 electronic-ISSN 1868-0402
- International Zinc Association (IZA)
- HarvestZinc: HarvestPlus Zinc Fertilizer Project
- Proceedings from the Zinc Crops Conference on Improving Crop Production and Human Health, Istanbul, Turkey, 24–26 May 2007
- CIMMYT Solving the Zinc Problem from Field to Food
- Enriching Grain with Micronutrients: Benefits for Crop Plants and Human Health by Cakmak, I., Sabanci University, Turkey.[permanent dead link]
- Identification and correction of widespread zinc deficiency problem in Central Anatolia , Turkey by Cakmak, I., Sabanci University, Turkey[permanent dead link]
- Zinc in Soils and Crop Nutrition, International Zinc Association
- Fertilizers, Nutrition and Human Health