Chlorine gas poisoning

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Chlorine poisoning
Classification and external resources
Specialty Emergency medicine
ICD-10 T59.4

Chlorine gas poisoning is illness resulting from the effects of exposure to chlorine beyond the threshold limit value.

Signs and symptoms[edit]

The signs of acute chlorine gas poisoning are primarily respiratory, and include difficulty breathing and cough; listening to the lungs will generally reveal crackles. There will generally be sneezing, nose irritation,burning sensation, and throat irritation. There may also be skin irritation or chemical burns and eye irritation or conjunctivitis. A person with chlorine gas poisoning may also have nausea, vomiting, or a headache.[1][2][3]

Chronic exposure to relatively low levels of chlorine gas may cause pulmonary problems like acute wheezing attacks, chronic cough with phlegm, and asthma.[2]

Causes[edit]

Occupational exposures constitute the highest risk of toxicity and common domestic exposures result from the mixing of chlorine bleach with acidic washing agents such as acetic, nitric and phosphoric acid. They also occur as a result of the chlorination of table water. Other exposure risks occur during industrial or transportation accidents. Wartime exposure is rare.[2][3]

Dose toxicity[edit]

Humans can smell chlorine gas at ranges from 0.1–0.3 ppm. According to a review from 2010: "At 1–3 ppm, there is mild mucus membrane irritation that can usually be tolerated for about an hour. At 5–15 ppm, there is moderate mucus membrane irritation. At 30 ppm and beyond, there is immediate chest pain, shortness of breath, and cough. At approximately 40–60 ppm, a toxic pneumonitis and/or acute pulmonary edema can develop.... Concentrations of about 400 ppm and beyond are generally fatal over 30 minutes, and at 1,000 ppm and above, fatality ensues within only a few minutes."[2]

Mechanism[edit]

The concentration of the inhaled gas and duration of exposure and water contents of the tissues exposed are the key determinants of toxicity; moist tissues like the eyes, throat, and lungs are the most susceptible to damage.[4]

Once inhaled, chlorine gas diffuses into the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) of the respiratory epithelium and may directly interact with small molecules, proteins and lipids there and damage them, or may hydrolyze to hypochlorous acid and hydrochloric acid which in turn generate chloride ions and reactive oxygen species; the dominant theory is that most damage is via the acids.[2][3][5][6]

Diagnosis[edit]

Test performed to confirm chlorine gas poisoning and monitor patients for supportive care include pulse oximetry, testing serum electrolyte, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine levels, measuring arterial blood gases, chest radiography, electrocardiogram (ECG), pulmonary function testing, and laryngoscopy or bronchoscopy.[3]

Treatment[edit]

There is no antidote for chlorine poisoning; management is supportive after evacuating people from the site of exposure and flushing exposed tissues. For lung damage caused by inhalation, oxygen and bronchodilators may be administered.[6]

Outcomes[edit]

There is no way to predict outcomes. Most people with mild to moderate exposure generally recover fully in three to five days, but some develop chronic problems such as reactive airway disease. Smoking or pre-existing lung conditions like asthma appear to increase the risk of long term complications.[1]

Epidemiology[edit]

In 2014, the American Association of Poison Control Centers reported that about 6000 exposures to chlorine gas in the US in 2013, compared with 13,600 exposures to carbon monoxide, which was the most common poison gas exposure;[7] the year before they reported about 5,500 cases of chlorine gas poisoning compared with around 14,300 cases of carbon monoxide poisoning.[8]

Society and culture[edit]

Chlorine gas was first used as a weapon in World War I.[9] It was used several times by insurgents in the Iraqi insurgency (2003–11),[10] and in Syria in the 2014 Kafr Zita chemical attack.[11]

There have been many instances of mass chlorine gas poisonings in industrial accidents. In the US, a freight train derailed in South Carolina in 2005, releasing an estimated 11,500 gallons of chlorine gas. As a result, nine people died, and at least 529 persons sought medical care. In 2004 in Texas a freight train accident released 90,000 pounds of chlorine gas and other toxic chemicals. Forty-four persons were injured, including three who died. In August 2002 in Missouri, approximately 16,900 pounds of chlorine gas were released from a railroad tanker car when a flex hose ruptured during unloading at a chemical plant. Sixty-seven persons were injured.[1][12] In Nigeria, eight people died in a July 2015 explosion of a chlorine gas storage tank at a water treatment plant in Jos.[13] In July 2017, in Iran, at least 475 people, including nine firemen, suffered respiratory and other symptoms after a chlorine gas leak in the southwestern Iranian province of Khuzestan, the chancellor of Dezful University of Medical Sciences says.[14]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Jones R, Wills B, Kang C. Chlorine gas: an evolving hazardous material threat and unconventional weapon. West J Emerg Med. 2010 May;11(2):151-6. PMID 20823965 PMC 2908650
  2. ^ a b c d e White CW, Martin JG. Chlorine gas inhalation: human clinical evidence of toxicity and experience in animal models. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2010 Jul;7(4):257-63. Review. PMID 20601629 PMC 3136961
  3. ^ a b c d Gerald F O'Malley, GF et al. Chlorine Toxicity Medscape Drugs & Diseases, Ed. Dembek, ZF. Updated: Dec 11, 2015
  4. ^ CDC Basic Facts Page last reviewed April 10, 2013. Page last updated April 10, 2013
  5. ^ Squadrito GL, Postlethwait EM, Matalon S. Elucidating mechanisms of chlorine toxicity: reaction kinetics, thermodynamics, and physiological implications. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2010 Sep;299(3):L289-300. Review. PMID 20525917 PMC 2951076
  6. ^ a b Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry via the CDC. Medical Management Guidelines: Chlorine Page last reviewed: October 21, 2014. Page last updated: October 21, 2014
  7. ^ Mowry JB, et al 2014 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers' National Poison Data System (NPDS): 32nd Annual Report. Clin Toxicol. 2015;53(10):962-1147. PMID 26624241. Page 1089
  8. ^ Mowry JB, et al. 2013 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers' National Poison Data System (NPDS): 31st Annual Report. Clin Toxicol. 2014 Dec;52(10):1032-283. PMID 25559822 PMC 4782684 Page 1225
  9. ^ Sarah Everts When Chemicals Became Weapons of War Chemical & Engineering News, 93(8), February 23, 2015
  10. ^ David Cloud for the New York Times. May 21, 2007 7 U.S. Soldiers Die in Iraq, 6 in Sweep of Baghdad
  11. ^ "Syria fails to remove all chemical weapons as deadline passes". Financial Times. Retrieved 12 September 2014. 
  12. ^ CDC Public Health Consequences from Hazardous Substances Acutely Released During Rail Transit --- South Carolina, 2005; Selected States, 1999--2004
  13. ^ Michael Olukayode for Bloomberg News. July 25, 2015 Nigeria Says 8 People Dead After Inhaling Chlorine Gas in Jos
  14. ^ "PressTV-Gas leak affects nearly 480 in southwest Iran". Retrieved 2017-08-16. 

 This article incorporates public domain material from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention document "Public Health Consequences from Hazardous Substances Acutely Released During Rail Transit --- South Carolina, 2005; Selected States, 1999--2004".