Exposure to cobalt metal dust is most common in the fabrication of tungsten carbide. Another potential source is wear and tear of metal-on-metal hip prostheses; however, this is a relatively uncommon phenomenon with 18 reported cases being documented in the medical literature.
^ abJohn D. Donaldson; Detmar Beyersmann (2005). "Cobalt and Cobalt Compounds". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a07_281.pub2.
^Zywiel, MG; Cherian, JJ; Banerjee, S; Cheung, AC; Wong, F; Butany, J; Gilbert, C; Overgaard, C; Syed, K; Jacobs, JJ; Mont, MA (January 2016). "Systemic cobalt toxicity from total hip arthroplasties: review of a rare condition Part 2. measurement, risk factors, and step-wise approach to treatment". The bone & joint journal98–B (1): 14-20. doi:10.1302/0301-620X.98B1.36712. PMID26733510.