Caproni Ca.133

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Caproni Ca.133
Caproni Ca 133.jpg
Role Transport/Light bomber
Manufacturer Caproni
First flight 1934
Introduction 1935
Retired 1948
Primary users Regia Aeronautica
Ala Littoria

The Caproni Ca.133 was a three-engined transport/bomber aircraft used by the Italian Regia Aeronautica from the Second Italo-Abyssinian War until World War II.

Originally developed as a civilian airliner and successor to the Ca.101, the Ca.133 prototype first flew in December 1934, and production began in 1935. The military versions of the aircraft were used as transports and light bombers and saw action on all fronts.

Design[edit]

Designed by ingegnere Rodolfo Verduzio, the Caproni 133 was aerodynamically and structurally an improved Ca.101.[1] Like its predecessor, the Ca.101, was a robust and inexpensive aircraft, designed to be easily maintained in difficult conditions and economical to operate. It had a welded steel-tube structure, mixed construction, with metal and fabric covering, main wheel spats, flaps and modified tail surfaces.[2]

The wing was high-mounted, roughly elliptical, and made of wood and steel. The undercarriage was spatted and fixed. The aircraft was powered by three engines, one in the nose, and one under each wing mounted in faired nacelles, with NACA cowlings, supported by steel tubes.

The civil version could accommodate up to 16 passengers. It was used by Ala Littoria. The military version was widely used by Regia Aeronautica, mostly in Italian East Africa. As a bomber it incorporated two small internal bomb bays where it could hold up to 500 kg (1,100 lb). Larger ordnance could be mounted externally. It was armed with four 7.7 mm (.303 in) Vickers machine guns, one dorsal, one ventral, and two lateral. Bomber aircraft operated as military transport, redesignated Ca 133T, had the interior modified to accommodate 18 fully equipped soldiers.[2]

Operational service[edit]

Second Italo-Abyssinian War (1935–1936)[edit]

The Ca.133 was well-suited for colonial use, and it became the most successful of all Italian colonial aircraft.

The more advanced Savoia-Marchetti SM.81s were too valuable to be used in 'low level wars' and were also more costly. The war was thus fought mainly with the Ca.101, Ca.111 and Ca.133.

Around 100 Ca.133s took part in the conflict, and as well as 'normal' bombing and strafing, they were often equipped with mustard gas and Phosgene chemical bombs. These weapons were forbidden by the Geneva Protocol of 1925, but in this war (and in Libya) the Italians ignored the convention.

The Ca.133s were also used as transports to support the army, as well as reconnaissance aircraft.

Without any air opposition, and flak almost exclusively based on small-calibre arms, air power was a decisive factor in Italy's final victory, culminating in the capture of Addis Ababa in early 1936. Even so, COIN (COunter INsurrection) operations continued until the start of World War II.

Spanish Civil War (1936–1939)[edit]

While in Ethiopia they were widely used, in Spain the Ca.133 was found to be too slow, and highly vulnerable to enemy Polikarpov I-15 and I-16 aircraft, and to heavy anti-aircraft fire.

World War II (1939-1945)[edit]

The Regia Aeronautica soon realized that despite its improvements, the type was suitable only for colonial use in North and East Africa. At the outbreak of war the Ca.133 equipped 14 Squadriglie da Bombardamento in these theatres.[3] In mainland Italy, the Ca.133 was used mostly as a light transport aircraft supporting fighter and bomber squadrons by carrying supplies, personnel and spare parts.

In East Africa, in the first days of combat, it was still used as bomber and attack aircraft. On 12 June 1940, in the south region, three Ca.133s of 66a Squadriglia from Yavello attacked an Allied column of half a dozen trucks and 200 men. Ca.133s of 65a Squadriglia, from Neghelli, attacked the Allied positions around Moyale on two occasions, each time with three aircraft. That night, ten Caproni Ca.133s bombed the port of Aden and Khormaksar airfield, already attacked, during daylight hours, by seven SM.81s of 29° Gruppo. Three other Capronis attacked Cassala airfield in the Sudan. [4]

It was also used as an air ambulance in the Ca.133S (Sanitary) variant. Over 250 Ca.133s were in service in September 1939, when the war broke out. Some survived until the Armistice in 1943.

Post-war[edit]

A handful were retained for civilian service with the airline Ala Littoria. Some were exported to Austria.

The last Ca.133 was phased out by the Aeronautica Militare in 1947, and the last Ca.148 flew until 1956 with the Italian Aeroclub.

Variants[edit]

Caproni Ca.148
Ca.133
Bomber and transport
Ca.133S
Medical transport
Ca.133T
Troop transport
Ca.148
Stretched 8-seat civil/military transport

Operators[edit]

Military Operators[edit]

 Austria
 Kingdom of Italy (Wartime)
 Italian Social Republic
 Spain
 United Kingdom (Wartime)
 Italy (Postwar)

Civil Operators[edit]

 Italy

Specifications (Ca.133)[edit]

Data from World Encyclopedia of Civil Aircraft[5]

General characteristics

  • Crew: 5 for bomber, 2 for transport
  • Length: 15.36 m (59 ft 4.75 in)
  • Wingspan: 21.24 (69 ft 8 in)
  • Height: 4.0 m (13 ft 2 in)
  • Wing area: 65 m² (700 ft²)
  • Empty weight: 4,190 kg (9,237 lb)
  • Loaded weight: 6,700 kg (14,771 lb)
  • Powerplant: 3 × Piaggio Stella VII.C 16 air-cooled radial engines, 343 kW (460 hp) each

Performance

Armament

See also[edit]

Related development
Related lists

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Mondey 2006, p. 34.
  2. ^ a b Mondey 2006, p. 76.
  3. ^ Sharpe 2000, p. 143.
  4. ^ Sutherland 2009, p. 32.
  5. ^ Angelucci, Enzo (1982). World Encyclopedia of Civil Aircraft. New York: Crown Publishers. ISBN 0-517-54724-4. 

References[edit]

  • Ca.133 reconnaissance table, Storia militare magazine n.83. (Italian)
  • Mondey, David. The Hamlyn Concise Guide to Axis Aircraft of World War II. London: Bounty Books, 2006. ISBN 0-7537-1460-4.
  • Sharpe, Mike. Aircraft of world War II. Rochester (Kent) Grange Books, 2000. ISBN 1-84013-366-X.
  • Sutherland, Jon & Diane Canwell: Air War East Africa 1940-41 The RAF versus the Italian Air Force. Barnsley (South Yorkshire) Pen and Sword Aviation, 2009. ISBN 978-1-84415-816-4.

External links[edit]