|This article needs additional citations for verification. (April 2015)|
|Primary users||Regia Aeronautica
|Number built||505 + 1 prototype |
Originally developed as a civilian airliner and successor to the Ca.101, the Ca.133 prototype first flew in December 1934, and production began in 1935. The military versions of the aircraft were used as transports and light bombers and saw action on all fronts.
A stretched transport version of the aircraft was produced as the Caproni Ca.148.
Designed by ingegnere Rodolfo Verduzio, the Caproni 133 was aerodynamically and structurally an improved Ca.101. Like its predecessor, the Ca.101, was a robust and inexpensive aircraft, designed to be easily maintained in difficult conditions and economical to operate. It had a welded steel-tube structure, mixed construction, with metal and fabric covering, main wheel spats, flaps and modified tail surfaces.
The wing was high-mounted, roughly elliptical, and made of wood and steel. The undercarriage was spatted and fixed. The aircraft was powered by three engines, one in the nose, and one under each wing mounted in faired nacelles, with NACA cowlings, supported by steel tubes.
The civil version could accommodate up to 16 passengers. It was used by Ala Littoria. The military version was widely used by Regia Aeronautica, mostly in Italian East Africa. As a bomber it incorporated two small internal bomb bays where it could hold up to 500 kg (1,100 lb). Larger ordnance could be mounted externally. It was armed with four 7.7 mm (.303 in) Vickers machine guns, one dorsal, one ventral, and two lateral. Bomber aircraft operated as military transports, redesignated Ca 133T, had their interiors modified to accommodate 18 fully equipped soldiers.
Second Italo-Abyssinian War (1935–1936)
|This section does not cite any sources. (April 2015)|
The Ca.133 was well-suited for colonial use, and it became the most successful of all Italian colonial aircraft.
Around 100 Ca.133s took part in the conflict, and as well as 'normal' bombing and strafing, they were often equipped with mustard gas and Phosgene chemical bombs. These weapons were forbidden by the Geneva Protocol of 1925, but in this war (and in Libya) the Italians ignored the convention.
The Ca.133s were also used as transports to support the army, as well as reconnaissance aircraft.
Without any air opposition, and flak almost exclusively based on small-calibre arms, air power was a decisive factor in Italy's final victory, culminating in the capture of Addis Ababa in early 1936. Even so, COIN (COunter INsurrection) operations continued until the start of World War II.
Spanish Civil War (1936–1939)
While in Ethiopia they were widely used, in Spain the Ca.133 was found to be too slow, and highly vulnerable to enemy Polikarpov I-15 and I-16 aircraft, also to heavy anti-aircraft fire.
World War II (1939-1945)
The Regia Aeronautica soon realized that despite its improvements, the type was suitable only for colonial use in North and East Africa. At the outbreak of war the Ca.133 equipped 14 Squadriglie da Bombardamento in these theatres. In mainland Italy, the Ca.133 was used mostly as a light transport aircraft supporting fighter and bomber squadrons by carrying supplies, personnel and spare parts.
In East Africa, in the first days of combat, it was still used as bomber and attack aircraft. On 12 June 1940, in the south region, three Ca.133s of 66a Squadriglia from Yavello attacked an Allied column of half a dozen trucks and 200 men. Ca.133s of 65a Squadriglia, from Neghelli, attacked the Allied positions around Moyale on two occasions, each time with three aircraft. That night, ten Caproni Ca.133s bombed the port of Aden and Khormaksar airfield, already attacked during daylight hours by seven SM.81s of 29° Gruppo. Three other Capronis attacked Cassala airfield in the Sudan.
It was also used as an air ambulance with the Ca.133S (Sanitary) variant. Over 250 Ca.133s were in service in September 1939, when the war broke out. Some survived until the Armistice in 1943.
- Bomber and transport; 76 aircraft produced
- Medical transport, 30 aircraft produced
- Troop transport, 283 aircraft produced
- Stretched eight-seat civil/military transport, 54 aircraft produced
|This section does not cite any sources. (April 2015)|
- Kingdom of Italy (Wartime)
- United Kingdom (Wartime)
- Italy (Postwar)
- Ala Littoria received 12 aircraft.
Data from World Encyclopedia of Civil Aircraft
- Crew: five for bomber, two for transport
- Length: 15.36 m (59 ft 4.75 in)
- Wingspan: 21.24 (69 ft 8 in)
- Height: 4.0 m (13 ft 2 in)
- Wing area: 65 m² (700 ft²)
- Empty weight: 4,190 kg (9,237 lb)
- Loaded weight: 6,700 kg (14,771 lb)
- Powerplant: 3 × Piaggio Stella VII.C 16 air-cooled radial engines, 343 kW (460 hp) each
- Maximum speed: 230 km/h (120 kn, 140 mph)
- Cruise speed: 200 km/h (110 kn, 120 mph)
- Range: 1,350 km (729 nmi, 838 mi)
- Service ceiling: 5,500 m (18,000 ft)
- Wing loading: 100 kg/m² (21 lb/ft²)
- Power/mass: 210 W/kg (130 hp/lb)
- Guns: 4 × 7.7 mm (0.303 in) Breda-SAFAT machine guns
- Bombs: 1,200 kg (2,646 lb)
- Related development
- Related lists
- List of Interwar military aircraft
- List of aircraft of World War II
- List of aircraft of Italy, World War II
- List of airliners
- List of bomber aircraft
- R. Stocchetti. "Caproni Ca.133, Aerei militari, Schede tecniche aerei militari italiani e storia degli aviatori". alieuomini.it.
- Mondey 2006, p. 34.
- Mondey 2006, p. 76.
- Sharpe 2000, p. 143.
- Sutherland 2009, p. 32.
- Angelucci, Enzo (1982). World Encyclopedia of Civil Aircraft. New York: Crown Publishers. ISBN 0-517-54724-4.
- Ca.133 reconnaissance table, Storia militare magazine n.83. (Italian)
- Mondey, David. The Hamlyn Concise Guide to Axis Aircraft of World War II. London: Bounty Books, 2006. ISBN 0-7537-1460-4.
- Sharpe, Mike. Aircraft of world War II. Rochester (Kent) Grange Books, 2000. ISBN 1-84013-366-X.
- Sutherland, Jon & Diane Canwell: Air War East Africa 1940-41 The RAF versus the Italian Air Force. Barnsley (South Yorkshire) Pen and Sword Aviation, 2009. ISBN 978-1-84415-816-4.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Caproni Ca.133.|
- Caproni Ca.133 (Italian)
- aerei-italiani.net (Italian)
- airwar.ru (Russian)
- Examples exported