Carlos Hugo, Duke of Parma
|Duke of Parma|
Carlos Hugo in 1968
|Head of House of Bourbon-Parma|
|Reign||7 May 1977 – 18 August 2010|
8 April 1930|
|Died||18 August 2010
|Burial||28 August 2010
Sanctuary of Santa Maria della Steccata
|Spouse||Princess Irene of the Netherlands
(m. 1964; div. 1981)
|Issue||Carlos, Duke of Parma
Princess Margarita, Countess of Colorno
Prince Jaime, Count of Bardi
Princess Carolina, Marchioness of Sala
|House||House of Bourbon-Parma|
|Father||Prince Xavier of Parma|
|Mother||Madeleine de Bourbon-Busset|
Carlos Hugo, Duke of Parma and Piacenza (8 April 1930 – 18 August 2010) was the head of the House of Bourbon-Parma from 1977 until his death. Carlos Hugo was the Carlist pretender to the throne of Spain under the name Carlos Hugo I. He sought to change the political direction of the Carlist movement through the Carlist Party, of which he was the official head during the fatal Montejurra Incident.
He was born as a direct male descendant of Louis XIV in Paris and baptized Hugues Marie Sixte Robert Louis Jean Georges Benoît Michel. On 28 June 1963 he was officially renamed Charles Hugues, by judgment of the court of appeal of la Seine, France. He was a French citizen, and from 1980, a naturalized Spanish citizen.
Carlism is a Spanish political movement founded in the 19th century which, since the second half of the 20th century, upholds the claim of Carlos Hugo's branch of the House of Bourbon to the Spanish throne.
In 1952, Carlos Hugo's father publicly laid claim to the Spanish throne as Javier I, but he was ignored by Spanish dictator Francisco Franco, who later chose Juan Carlos to be his successor instead. On 5 May 1957 Javier proclaimed Carlos Hugo Prince of Asturias and Duke of San Jaime. In February 1964 Carlos Hugo assumed the title Duke of Madrid.
After alienating many Carlists during the mid-1960s by his attempts to approach Franco (on whom a 1947 organic law had conferred the right to select a king to succeed himself as head of state)) Carlos Hugo's increasingly leftist politics prompted the prince to embrace Titoist socialism. As Xavier's health declined so too did his appearances as the Carlists' leader: two of Carlos Hugo's sisters living in Spain, both academics, publicly supported their brother's political transition, while his mother and brother, Prince Sixte-Henri, continued to live with his father in France and to adhere to traditional Carlism.
Carlos Hugo assumed Carlist leadership in August 1975. During the Franco regime, the organization of Carlism has been known as the Traditionalist Communion. After Franco's death, also the Carlist movement was badly split, and unable to get wide public attention again. In May 1976, a year after Franco's death, two Carlist sympathizers were shot down by far-right terrorists during the annual Carlist convocation, among whom were Stefano Delle Chiaie and members of the Argentine Anticommunist Alliance (Triple A), with logistic support of Francoist elements inside Spanish intelligence agencies and the Civil Guard. This incident became known as the Montejurra massacre.
In the first democratic elections on 15 June 1977, only one Carlist senator was elected, journalist and writer Fidel Carazo from Soria, who ran as an independent candidate. In the parliamentary elections of 1979, Carlists integrated in the coalition Unión Nacional, that won a seat in Congress for Madrid; but the elected candidate was Blas Piñar, Francoist leader of Fuerza Nueva. Since then, Carlists have remained extra-parliamentary, obtaining only town council seats.
Carlos Hugo abandoned his Carlist claims in 1979 and became a naturalised Spanish citizen as Carlos-Hugo de Borbón-Parma y Borbón, by royal decree of King Juan Carlos. In 1980, he left the political arena, abandoning the new "Partido Carlista" which he had created. The party would later become a founding member of the United Left coalition.
In 2002 Carlos Hugo donated his House's archives to Spain's national historical archives. This decision was opposed by his brother Sixtus.
On 28 September 2003 at Arbonne in France, Carlos Hugo re-asserted his Carlist claim. He announced that he would use the title Count of Montemolin (conde de Montemolín) for himself, and that three of his children would have Carlist titles: Duke of Madrid (duque de Madrid) for his son Carlos, Duke of San Jaime (duque de San Jaime) for his son Jaime, and Duchess of Guernica (duquesa de Gernika) for his daughter Carolina.
Marriage and family
Carlos Hugo's engagement to Princess Irene of the Netherlands, daughter of Queen Juliana of the Netherlands, caused a constitutional crisis in the Netherlands for several reasons. Irene lost her rights of succession to the Dutch throne because the government refused to enact a law permitting the marriage. Her mother could not go to Madrid to talk Irene out of the marriage and of her conversion to Catholicism because the government advised her against it. The issue that prevented the government from making a law permitting the marriage was Carlos's claim to the Spanish throne. The Dutch government saw international political difficulties arising from a possible heir to the Dutch throne holding a controversial claim to the throne of a foreign state.
Carlos Hugo and Irene were married on 29 April 1964, in the Borghese Chapel at the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome, by Cardinal Paolo Giobbe, the former Apostolic Nuncio to the Netherlands. No other members of the Dutch Royal Family were present; Irene's parents watched the ceremony on television. After the ceremony, Carlos Hugo and Irene had a private audience with Pope Paul VI. They spent their honeymoon in Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, after which they settled in Madrid.
Carlos Hugo and Irene divorced on 26 May 1981. They had four children:
- Prince Carlos Javier Bernardo Sixto María of Bourbon Parma, born 27 January 1970 in Nijmegen. He has a natural son, Carlos Hugo Roderik Sybren Klynstra, born on 20 January 1997 by Brigitte (Gitte) Klynstra. Carlos Klynstra is the first great-grand son of Queen Juliana of the Netherlands and her husband Prince Bernhard, Prince of the Netherlands, Prince of Lippe-Biesterfeld. Prince Carlos is married to Annemarie Gualthérie van Weezel. The civil marriage took place on 12 June 2010 in Wijk bij Duurstede. Their religious marriage, which had been planned for 28 August 2010 in Brussels, was postponed because of the illness and death of his father, Carlos-Hugo. It took place on 20 November 2010. They have two daughters: Princess Luisa, who was born in 2012, and Princess Cecilia, who was born in 2013.
- Princess Margarita María Beatriz of Bourbon Parma, born 13 October 1972 in Nijmegen. She has been married twice. Her first marriage to Edwin de Roy van Zuydewijn took place in 2001 and ended in divorce in 2006. In 2008, she married Tjalling ten Cate. They have two daughters: Julia, who was born in 2008 and Paola, who was born in 2011.
- Prince Jaime Bernardo of Bourbon Parma, born 13 October 1972 in Nijmegen. On 3 October 2013 married Viktória Cservenyák in a civil wedding ceremony in Wijk bij Duurstede. Their religious wedding took place on 5 October 2013 at the Church of Our Lady in Apeldoorn. They have a daughter, Princess Zita, who was born in 2014.
- Princess María Carolina Cristina of Bourbon Parma, born 23 June 1974 in Nijmegen. On 21 April 2012 married Albert Brenninkmeijer in a civil wedding ceremony at Wijk bij Duurstede. The church wedding took place at the San Miniato al Monte on 16 June 2012. They have one daughter: Alaïa-Maria, who was born in 2014.
In February 2008 it was revealed that Carlos Hugo was being treated for cancer. On 2 August 2010, he announced, via his official website, that his health was further deteriorating. He died on 18 August 2010 in Barcelona at the age of 80. Carlos Hugo's remains were taken from Barcelona to The Hague and laid in state for family members and close relatives in the Fagel Dome on the estate of the Noordeinde Palace (one of the four official palaces of the Dutch royal family). On 28 August, the body was transported to Parma in Italy and interred in the crypt of the Sanctuary of Santa Maria della Steccata.
Carlos-Hugo claimed the headship of the Constantinian Order of Saint George as hereditary heir to the House of Farnese's Duchy of Parma, the Farnesi dukes having been recognised as grand masters of the order in 1699, although in 1706 the church of Rome confirmed the order's grand magistry to the Farnesi's heirs (the House of Bourbon since 1731) in accordance with male primogeniture.
- House of Bourbon-Parma: Sovereign Knight Grand Cross with Collar of the Parmese Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George
- House of Bourbon-Parma: Sovereign Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Saint Louis for Civil Merit
- House of Bourbon-Parma: Sovereign Knight of the Order of the Legitimidad Proscrita
- House of Bourbon-Parma: Sovereign Knight of the Order of St. George for Military Merit
- Holy See: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre
- Calabrian House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies Knight Grand Cross of Justice of the Calabrian Two Sicilian Order of Saint George
- Austrian-Hungarian Imperial and Royal Family: 1,282nd Knight of the Austrian Order of the Golden Fleece
- Netherlands: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the House of Orange
- Netherlands: Recipient of the Wedding Medal of Princess Beatrix, Princess of Orange and Claus Van Amsberg
- Sovereign Military Order of Malta: Bailiff Knight Grand Cross of Honour and Devotion
- Spain: Honorary Knight with Collar of the Spanish Order of the Golden Fleece
- "Montejurra-76: crimen de Estado sin castigo", El Mundo, 6 May 2001
- CARCEDO, Diego: Sáenz de Santamaría: el general que cambio de bando, ISBN 84-8460-309-1
- Crimes of Montejurra (translation). Montejurra-jurramendi.3a2.com. Retrieved on 21 April 2014.
- Palabras de S.A.R. el Príncipe Don Carlos Hugo de Borbón Parma en al acto de imposición de cruces de la Orden de la Legitimad Proscrita, celebrado el domingo día 28 de septiembre de 2003 en Arbonne (Francia). Borbonparma.org. Retrieved on 21 April 2014.
- "Carlist Colours Flaunted at Princess's Marriage", The Times (30 April 1964): 14.
- "Queen Juliana Sees It on Television", The Times (30 April 1964): 14.
- Josep Carles Clement, Carlos Hugo de Borbón-Parma: Historia de una disidencia (Barcelona: Planeta, 2001), 121.
- Irene de Holanda obtuvo ayer el divorcio de Carlos Hugo de Borbón Parma. Elpais.com (27 May 1981). Retrieved on 21 April 2014.
- News of the House of Parma (in Spanish) at the Wayback Machine (archived February 5, 2005). borbon-parma.net
- Prince Carlos-Hugo 2010 – arrangements – The Benelux Royals Message Board
- Lichaam prins Carlos vrijdag naar Nederland. telegraaf.nl. 18 August 2010 (Dutch)
- "Image: 1282144361993_12.jpg, (332 × 500 px)". espaciocarlista.files.wordpress.com. Retrieved 6 September 2015.
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- "Wedding of Princess Irene and Prince Carlos Hugo, duke of Parma on... News Photo | Getty Images". gettyimages.com.au. Retrieved 6 September 2015.
- "Image: Corbis-U1423066.jpg, (640 × 610 px) – 29 Apr 1964, Rome, Italy --- Original caption: At The Reception. Rome, Italy: Unidentified Spanish lady kisses the hands of the bride and groom, Princess Irene of the Netherlands and Spanish Prince Carlos Hugo de Bourbon-Parma, during reception at hotel following the couple's wedding. --- Image by © Bettmann/CORBIS". corbisimages.com. Retrieved 6 September 2015.
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- "Ordine al Merito Militare di San Giorgio di Lucca". borboneparma.it. Retrieved 6 September 2015.
- "Image: netherlandsIreneandCarlosHugo2.jpg, (391 × 386 px)". firstdanceimpressions.com. Retrieved 6 September 2015.
- "The activities of the Order since 1960". constantinianorder.org. Retrieved 6 September 2015.
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- "Image: 1280x720-qiq.jpg, (1280 × 720 px)". s1.dmcdn.net. Retrieved 6 September 2015.
- As a claimant to the throne of Spain, Carlos Hugo also claimed to be the Grand Master of the Spanish Order of the Golden Fleece.
- Robert E. Wilson, "The Claim of Carlos-Hugo de Bourbon-Parma to the Spanish Throne", Background 8 (November 1964): 187–193.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Carlos Hugo, Duke of Parma.|
- Guardian obituary
- Royal House of the Netherlands
- Comunión Tradicionalista
- Official website of the House of Bourbon-Parma
- his claim to Grand Magistery of the Constantinian Order of St.George, in rivalry against both the Duke of Calabria and the Duke of Castro.
Carlos Hugo, Duke of ParmaBorn: 8 April 1930 Died: 18 August 2010
|Titles in pretence|
|— TITULAR —
Duke of Parma
Reason for succession failure:
Annexed by Kingdom of Italy
|— TITULAR —
King of Etruria
|— TITULAR —
King of Spain
Carlist claimants to the throne of Spain