Jean, Grand Duke of Luxembourg
Jean in 1967
|Grand Duke of Luxembourg|
|Reign||12 November 1964 – 7 October 2000|
|Born||5 January 1921|
Berg Castle, Colmar-Berg, Luxembourg
Princess Joséphine-Charlotte of Belgium
(m. 1953; died 2005)
|Father||Prince Felix of Bourbon-Parma|
|Mother||Charlotte, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg|
|* Prince/ss of Nassau not of Luxembourg|
Jean was the eldest son of Grand Duchess Charlotte and Prince Felix. Jean's primary education was in Luxemboug initially before attending Ampleforth College in England. In 1938, he was officially named Hereditary Grand Duke as heir to the throne of Luxembourg. While Luxembourg was occupied by Germans during the Second World War, the grand ducal family was abroad in exile. Jean studied at the Université Laval in Quebec City. Jean later volunteered to join the British army's Irish Guards in 1942, and after graduating from the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst, received his commission in 1943. He participated in the Normandy landings, the Battle for Caen and joined the Allied forces in the liberation of Luxembourg. From 1984 until 2000, he was made colonel of the Irish Guards.
On 9 April 1953, Jean married Princess Joséphine-Charlotte of Belgium with whom he had five children. On 12 November 1964, Grand Duchess Charlotte abdicated and Jean succeeded her as Grand Duke of Luxembourg. He then reigned for 36 years before he himself abdicated on 7 October 2000 and was succeeded by his son, Grand Duke Henri.
Jean was born on 5 January 1921, at Berg Castle, in central Luxembourg, the son of Grand Duchess Charlotte and of Prince Félix of Bourbon-Parma. Among his godparents was Pope Benedict XV, who gave him his second name. He attended primary school in Luxembourg, where he continued the initial stage of secondary education. He completed secondary school at Ampleforth College, a Roman Catholic boarding school in the United Kingdom. Upon reaching maturity, on 5 January 1939 he was styled 'Hereditary Grand Duke', recognising his status as heir apparent.
Second World War
On 10 May 1940, Germany invaded Luxembourg, beginning a four-year occupation. Having been warned of an imminent invasion, the Grand Ducal Family escaped the previous night. At first, they sought refuge in Paris, before fleeing France only weeks later. The Grand Ducal Family sought refuge in the United States, renting an estate in Brookville, New York. Jean studied Law and Political Science at Université Laval, Quebec City.
He joined the British Army as a volunteer in the Irish Guards in November 1942. After receiving officer training at the Royal Military College at Sandhurst, Jean was commissioned as a lieutenant on 30 July 1943, before being promoted to captain in 1944. He landed in Normandy on 11 June 1944, and took part in the Battle for Caen and the liberation of Brussels. On 10 September 1944, he took part in the liberation of Luxembourg before moving on to Arnhem and the invasion of Germany. He relinquished his commission in the British Army on 26 June 1947. After the war, from 1984 until his abdication, he served as Colonel of the Regiment of the Irish Guards, often riding in uniform behind Queen Elizabeth II during the Trooping the Colour.
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He was named Lieutenant-Representative of the Grand Duchess on 28 April 1961.
Grand Duke Jean now lives at Fischbach Castle. On 27 December 2016, Grand Duke Jean was hospitalized due to bronchitis and was discharged from hospital on 4 January 2017, a day before he celebrated his 96th birthday. The Grand Duke Jean Museum of Modern Art (Mudam) bears his name. At age of 98, he is the oldest and the longest-living current or former monarch in the world.
Marriage and family
He was married in Luxembourg on 9 April 1953 to Joséphine-Charlotte of Belgium, daughter of Leopold III, King of the Belgians. They had five children, twenty-two grandchildren and fifteen great-grandchildren:
- Archduchess Marie Astrid of Austria (17 February 1954) she married Archduke Carl Christian of Austria on 6 February 1982. They have five children and nine grandchildren.
- Grand Duke Henri of Luxembourg (16 April 1955), he married María Teresa Mestre y Batista on 14 February 1981. They have five children and four grandchildren.
- Prince Jean of Luxembourg (15 May 1957) he married Hélène Vestur on 27 May 1987 and they were divorced in 2004. They have four children and two grandsons. He remarried Diane de Guerre on 18 March 2009.
- Princess Margaretha of Liechtenstein (15 May 1957) she married Prince Nikolaus of Liechtenstein on 20 March 1982. They have four children.
- Prince Guillaume of Luxembourg (born 1963) he married Sibilla Weiller on 8 September 1994. They have four children.
Titles, styles, and honours
Titles and styles
- 5 January 1921 – 12 November 1964: His Royal Highness The Hereditary Grand Duke of Luxembourg, Hereditary Prince of Nassau, Prince of Bourbon-Parma
- 12 November 1964 – 28 July 1987: His Royal Highness The Grand Duke of Luxembourg, Duke of Nassau, Prince of Bourbon-Parma
- 28 July 1987 – 7 October 2000: His Royal Highness The Grand Duke of Luxembourg, Duke of Nassau
- 7 October 2000 – present: His Royal Highness Grand Duke Jean of Luxembourg, Duke of Nassau
His full title is "by the Grace of God, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, Duke of Nassau, Count Palatine of the Rhine, Count of Sayn, Königstein, Katzenelnbogen and Diez, Burgrave of Hammerstein, Lord of Mahlberg, Wiesbaden, Idstein, Merenberg, Limburg and Eppstein." Many of the titles are held without regard to the strict rules of salic inheritance.
Change of dynastic titles
Jean renounced the titles of the House of Bourbon-Parma for himself and his family in 1986 when his eldest son, then-Hereditary Grand Duke Henri married Maria-Theresa Mestre. The reason for this was that the Duke of Parma, Carlos Hugo, ruled the marriage unequal in 1981, as well as the marriage of Prince Jean to Hélène Suzanna Vestur in 1987, for which he had renounced his rights to Luxembourg in 1986. It is not known if the marriage of Prince Guillaume was seen by Carlos Hugo as equal.
The Arrêté Grand-Ducal (Grand Ducal decree) of 21 September 1995 established that the title of Prince/Princesse de Luxembourg is reserved for the children of the sovereign and the heir to the throne. It also stated that the descendants in male lineage of the sovereign should be styled as Royal Highnesses and titled Prince/Princess of Nassau and that the descendants of unapproved marriages should be styled as Count/Countess of Nassau.
Luxembourgish honours and awards
- Knight of the Order of the Gold Lion of the House of Nassau (Grand Master 1964–2000)
- Grand Cross of the Order of Adolphe of Nassau (Grand Master 1964–2000)
- Grand Cross of the Order of the Oak Crown (Grand Master 1964–2000)
- Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (Grand Master 1964–2000)
- Luxembourg War Cross (with bronze palm)
- Military Medal (17 December 2002)
Foreign honours and awards
- Austria: Grand Star of Honour for Services to the Republic of Austria (1975)
- Belgium: Grand Cordon of the Order of Leopold
- Belgium: Croix de guerre 1940-1945 (with bronze palm)
- Denmark: Knight of the Order of the Elephant (22/11/1976)
- Finland: Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of the White Rose of Finland
- France: Grand Cross of the Order of the Legion of Honour
- France: Croix de guerre 1939–1945 (citation(s) unknown)
- Germany: Grand Cross Special Class of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany
- House of Habsburg: 1,293rd Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece
- Holy See: Knight of the Order of the Golden Spur
- Iceland: Collar with Grand Cross Breast Star of the Order of the Falcon
- Italy: Knight Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic (26/10/1973)
- Netherlands: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Netherlands Lion
- Netherlands: Commemorative War Cross
- Netherlands: Recipient of the Wedding Medal of Princess Beatrix of the Netherlands and Claus van Amsberg
- Norway: Grand Cross of the Order of St. Olav
- Poland: Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Poland
- Portugal: 379th Grand Cross of the Order of the Tower and Sword
- Portugal: Grand Collar of the Order of Infante Dom Henrique
- House of Savoy: Supreme Knight of the Order of the Annunziata (1978)
- House of Savoy: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus (1978)
- House of Savoy: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Crown of Italy (1978)
- Spain: 1,184th Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece (16/06/1983)
- Spain: Knight Collar of the Order of Charles III (08/07/1980)
- United Kingdom: Stranger Knight of the Order of the Garter (948th member; 1972)
- United Kingdom: 1939-1945 Star
- United Kingdom: France and Germany Star
- United Kingdom: Defence Medal
- United Kingdom: War Medal 1939–1945
- United States: Silver Star
- Sweden: Knight of the Order of the Seraphim
- Sweden: HM King Carl XVI Gustaf 50th Anniversary Medal (30/04/1996)
- Thailand: Knight of the Order of the Royal House of Chakri (17/10/1960)
- Kingdom of Greece: Grand Cross of the Order of the Redeemer
- Iran: Commemorative Medal of the 2500th Anniversary of the founding of the Persian Empire (14/10/1971)
- He also received the Gold Olympic Order in 1998 and the Silver Wolf Award for his contributions to worldwide scouting.
|Ancestors of Jean, Grand Duke of Luxembourg|
Henri's patriline is the line from which he is descended father to son.
Patrilineal descent is the principle behind membership in royal houses, as it can be traced back through the generations - which means that if Grand Duke Jean were to choose an historically accurate house name it would be Robertian, as all his male-line ancestors have been of that house.
Jean's patriline is the line from which he is descended father to son. It follows the Dukes of Parma as well as the Kings of Spain, France, and Navarre. The line can be traced back more than 1,200 years from Robert of Hesbaye to the present day, through Kings of France & Navarre, Spain and Two-Sicilies, Dukes of Parma and Grand-Dukes of Luxembourg, Princes of Orléans and Emperors of Brazil. It is one of the oldest in Europe.
- Profile of Jean, Grand Duke of Luxembourg
- "Le Grand-Duc Jean - Cour Grand-Ducale de Luxembourg - Famille grand-ducale". www.monarchie.lu. Retrieved 21 January 2016.
- "No. 36191". The London Gazette (2nd supplement). 1 October 1943. p. 4352.
- "No. 38206". The London Gazette (3rd supplement). 13 February 1948. p. 1030.
- "HRH Grand Duke Jean". Service information et presse du gouvernement luxembourgeois. Archived from the original on 12 July 2011. Retrieved 12 November 2010.
- Grand Ducal Decree, 28 July 1986
- Grand Ducal decree of 21 September 1995 concerning the surname and the titles of the Members of the Grand Ducal Family
- "Reply to a parliamentary question" (pdf) (in German). p. 428. Retrieved 15 October 2012.
- Royalement Blog, State visit of Belgium in Luxembourg (1994), Group Photo
- Borger.dk Archived 7 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- Jean with Pope John Paul I
- Jean with Pope Paul VI
- Icelandese Presidency Website Archived 3 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Jean ; stórhertogi ; Lúxemborg ; 1986-06-09 ; Stórkross með keðju (=Jean, Grand Duke, Luxembourg, 9 June 1986, Grand Cross with Collar)
- "S.A.R. Jean Granduca di Lussemburgo - Decorato di Gran Cordone" (in Italian). Retrieved 15 October 2012.
- Boletín Oficial del Estado
- Boletín Oficial del Estado
- Badraie Archived 5 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine
- Badraie Archived 6 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine
- Official biography (in French)
- Cour Grand-Ducale de Luxembourg (in French)
- Newspaper clippings about Jean, Grand Duke of Luxembourg in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics (ZBW)
Jean, Grand Duke of LuxembourgBorn: 5 January 1921
| Grand Duke of Luxembourg
| Colonel of the Irish Guards
The Duke of Abercorn