Campbell's mona monkey
|Campbell's mona monkey|
|Combined geographic distribution of Campbell's mona monkey and Lowe's mona monkey|
The Campbell's mona monkey, also known as Campbell's guenon and Campbell's monkey, (Cercopithecus campbelli), is a species of primate in the family Cercopithecidae found in the Ivory Coast, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Senegal, and Sierra Leone. It was named for Henry Dundas Campbell, in 1838. Lowe's mona monkey was previously considered a subspecies of Campbell's mona monkey. The International Union for Conservation of Nature has rated this species as being of "least concern" because it has a wide range and is able to adapt to degraded habitats.
Distribution and habitat
Campbell's mona monkey is native to Senegal, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia as far east as the Cavally River on the border with Ivory Coast, and also the island of Caravela, off Guinea Bissau. Its habitat is lowland forest, both primary and secondary, gallery forest, mangrove swamps, agricultural land and scrubland.
Campbell's mona monkey is a sociable and territorial species, living in small groups of about eight individuals. Around dawn and dusk, the dominant male climbs to a perch on an emergent tree and issues a series of booms. The sound carries for at least a kilometre, and other males join in. This monkey often associates with monkeys of other species and engages in inter-species territorial calling which obey certain ritual rules. This species has one of the more advanced forms of animal communication, with a rudimentary syntax.
Campbell's mona monkey is a slow, deliberate forager. The greater part of its diet is wild and cultivated fruit, but it also eats seeds, invertebrates, grubs, small amphibians and lizards.
- Groves, C.P. (2005). Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M., eds. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 155. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. OCLC 62265494.
- Oates, J. F.; Gippoliti, S. & Groves, C. P. (2008). "Cercopithecus campbelli". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 4 January 2009.
- "Campbell's monkey (Cercopithecus campbelli), Glasgow Museums - Collections Navigator". Retrieved 23 May 2016.
- Jonathan Kingdon; David Happold; Thomas Butynski; Michael Hoffmann; Meredith Happold; Jan Kalina (2013). Mammals of Africa. A&C Black. p. 129. ISBN 978-1-4081-8996-2.
- Rudiments of Language Discovered in Monkeys
- Karim Ouattara; Alban Lemasson; Klaus Zuberbühler (2009), "Campbell's Monkeys Use Affixation to Alter Call Meaning", PLoS ONE, 4 (11): e7808, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0007808, PMC 2771905, PMID 19915663
- Karim Ouattaraa; Alban Lemassona; Klaus Zuberbühler (December 22, 2009), "Campbell's monkeys concatenate vocalizations into context-specific call sequences", PNAS, 106 (51): 22026–22031, doi:10.1073/pnas.0908118106, PMC 2799830, PMID 20007377