Dryas monkey

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Dryas monkey[1]
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Suborder: Haplorhini
Infraorder: Simiiformes
Family: Cercopithecidae
Genus: Cercopithecus
C. dryas
Binomial name
Cercopithecus dryas
Schwarz, 1932
Cercopithecus dryas distribution.svg
Geographic range of first-known population (a second population is to the southeast, near the edge of the square)[3]
  • Cercopithecus salongo Thys van den Audenaerde, 1977

The Dryas monkey (Cercopithecus dryas), also known as Salonga monkey, ekele, or inoko, is a little-known species of guenon found only in the Congo Basin, restricted to the left bank of the Congo River. It is now established that the animals that had been classified as Cercopithecus salongo (the common name being Zaire Diana monkey) were in fact Dryas monkeys.[4] Some older sources treat the Dryas monkey as a subspecies of the Diana monkey and classify it as C. diana dryas, but it is geographically isolated from any known Diana monkey population.

While the Dryas monkey had been considered data deficient, evidence suggests it is very rare and its total population possibly numbers fewer than 200 individuals. Consequently, its status was changed to critically endangered in the 2008 IUCN Red List.[5] Along with being listed by the IUCN, this species is also listed on Appendix II of CITES.[5] However, in January 2019 the IUCN status was changed to endangered following the discovery of this species at eight locations in Lomami National Park.[6]

Physical description[edit]

An adult male Dryas monkey is characterized by its black muzzle, white whiskers, and short, white facial beard. The dorsal surface of its body, along with the coronal crown, is a grayish chestnut color. This species also has white on the ventral side of its body, tail, the bottom portion of the limbs, and the buttocks. The upper portion of the limbs resembles a similar color to the rest of its body, being a dark-grey/black-brown color.[7]

Adult females and offspring have smaller portions of their bodies that are white in color; the white color is not present around their shoulder areas or their buttocks. Another difference in coloration is present in the upper portion of the arms, which are lighter in color as compared to the males.[7] Body size varies from 40 to 55 cm, with a tail an additional 50–75 cm. Adults weigh between 4 and 7 kg, with marked sexual dimorphism.[8]


This species prefers secondary forest locations. Although secondary forests are said to be preferred, these monkeys may also inhabit lowlands, rivers or swampy areas of the Congo.[7]

The diet of the Dryas is said to be made up of mostly vegetarian foods. Such foods include fruits, young leaves, and flowers. Due to most of these vegetarian foods being seasonal, this species also consumes small invertebrates, such as insects, as a food substitute.[7]


This species is very social, and lives in groups that are either made up of their own species exclusively or within groups of mixed species. Visual and oral communication is very important, whether communicating to other Dryas monkeys, or communicating to other individuals. When living exclusively amongst each other, troops are made up of up to 30 individuals. Troops include many young offspring and females, but only contain one male. When females reproduce, they have a single birth of one individual, and the gestation period lasts five months. Offspring will be fully matured and ready to reproduce themselves after three years of life. The expected lifespan in the wild is between 10–15 years, and because there are currently no Dryas monkeys in captivity, that lifespan is unknown.[5] Using quadrupedal locomotion, their movement occurs with a gait pattern involving all four limbs.

As mentioned, communication is very important to this species, and they have a unique way of communicating with one another. Some examples of this unique communication include staring – which is a display used as a threat. The eyes stay fixed as the eyebrows rise and the scalp is retracted. The facial skin becomes stretched and the ears move back. These movements expose the eyelids, which are a different color and heavily contrasts with their facial color. Staring with open mouth is another threat expression that often goes along with head-bobbing. Head-bobbing, another threat display, is thought to be more aggressive. Presenting – this behavior is used by females during the mating season, showing males they are ready to mate.[9]


The IUCN estimates only 200 individuals are left, although because the species is rarely spotted, an actual number is not known, leading this species to be listed as critically endangered. Few speculations are given as to why this species has declined so rapidly and is not showing much progress towards making a comeback. Some reasons include: poaching of the species for meat, habitat loss due to logging and other human activity, and the lack of information and knowledge of this species makes them more susceptible to dangers.[5]

The community-managed Kokolopori Reserve in the north-eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo was initially considered a key to its survival and the only conservation efforts for the species.[5] A second population, about 400 km (250 mi) from the first and partially protected by the Lomami National Park, was discovered in 2014.[3][10]


  1. ^ Groves, C.P. (2005). Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 156. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. OCLC 62265494.
  2. ^ IUCN (21 January 2019). "Dryas Monkey Cercopithecus dryas". Retrieved 7 May 2019.
  3. ^ a b Hart, T. (11 September 2016). "Monkeys of the Lomami National Park". bonoboincongo.com. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
  4. ^ Colyn, M.; Gautier-Hion, A.; Vanden Audenaerde, D. T. (1991). "Cercopithecus dryas Schwarz 1932 and C. salongo Vanden Audenaerde, Thys 1977 are the same species with an age-related coat pattern". Folia Primatologica. 56 (56): 167–170. doi:10.1159/000156543.
  5. ^ a b c d e Hart, J.; Butynski, T.M. & Hurley, M. (2008). "Cercopithecus dryas". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008: e.T4216A10645463. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T4216A10645463.en. Retrieved 11 January 2018. Database entry includes justification for why this species was listed as critically endangered
  6. ^ Hart, Terese (14 April 2019). "Dryas monkey: Critically Endangered? Not anymore". TL2 Project. Retrieved 7 May 2019.
  7. ^ a b c d Reiko Goodwin © All the World's Primates(alltheworldsprimates.org) Downloaded 12/8/2011.
  8. ^ Burton,F. 1995. the Multimedia Guide to the Non-human Primates. Prentice-Hall Canada Inc.
  9. ^ Estes, R.D. 1991. The Behavior Guide to African Mammals. University of California Press.
  10. ^ Dasgupta, S. (3 February 2017). "New population of rare Dryas monkey videotaped for the first time". Mongabay. Retrieved 6 December 2017.

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