Charaka Samhita

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

The Charaka Saṃhitā or Compendium of Caraka (Sanskrit चरकसंहिता IAST: Caraka-saṃhitā) is a Sanskrit text on Ayurveda (Indian traditional medicine).[1][2] Along with the Suśruta-saṃhitā, it is one of the two foundational Hindu texts of this field that have survived from ancient India.[3][4][5]

The pre-2nd century CE text consists of eight books and one hundred twenty chapters.[6][7] It describes ancient theories on human body, etiology, symptomology and therapeutics for a wide range of diseases.[8] The Charaka Samhita also includes sections on the importance of diet, hygiene, prevention, medical education, the teamwork of a physician, nurse and patient necessary for recovery to health.[9][10][11]


The ideal medical student

He should be of a mild disposition, noble by nature, never mean in his acts, free from pride, strong memory, liberal mind, devoted to truth, likes solitude, of thoughtful disposition, free from anger, of excellent character, compassionate, one fond of study, devoted to both theory and practice, who seeks the good of all creatures.

Caraka Samhita 3.VIII.6 (Abridged)[12][13]

The Charaka Samhita states that the content of the book was first taught by Atreya, and then subsequently codified by Agniveśa, revised by Caraka, and the manuscripts that survive into the modern era are based on one edited by Dridhabala.[14] Dridhabala stated in the Charaka Samhita that he had to write one third of the book all by himself because this portion of the book had been lost, and that he also re-wrote the last part of the book.[15]

Based on textual analysis, and the literal meaning of the Sanskrit word Caraka, Chattopadhyay speculated that Caraka does not refer to one person but multiple people.[16] Vishwakarma and Goswami state that the text exists in many versions and entire chapters are missing in some versions.[17]


Dates of composition of the Charaka Samhita are uncertain. Meulenbeld’s History of Indian Medical Literature dates it to be between fourth century BCE to the second century CE,[7] with Caraka's compilation likely between 100 BCE and 200 CE.[18] The Dṛḍhbala revision and completion, the source of current texts, is dated to the 6th century CE.[19]


In Sanskrit, caraka is a term for a wanderer, sannyasi (ascetic), and sometimes used in the context of the ancient tradition of wandering physicians who brought their medical expertise and magico-religious rites from village to village.[20][21]

Surendranath Dasgupta states that the medical tradition of wandering physicians are traceable to the Atharvaveda, particularly the Caranavaidya shakha – one of the nine known shakha of Atharvaveda-based Vedic schools.[20] The name of this school literally means "wandering physicians".[20] Their texts have not survived into the modern era, but manuscripts from two competing schools – Paippalada and Saunakiya, have.[20]

The Atharvaveda contains chapters relating to medicine, surgery and magico-religious rites.[22] This Atharvaveda layer of text was likely compiled contemporaneously with Samaveda and Yajurveda, or about 1200 BCE - 1000 BCE.[23][24] Dasgupta and other scholars state that the Atreya-Caraka school and its texts may have emerged from this older tradition, and he cites a series of Atharvaveda hymns to show that almost all organs and nomenclature found in Caraka Samhita is also found in the Vedic hymns.[25][26]


The aim of life science

Life is of four kinds: Sukha (happy), Duhkha (unhappy), Hita (good) and Ahita (bad).

Sukham-Ayuh is a life unaffected by bodily or psychic diseases, is endowed with vigor, capabilities, energy, vitality, activity, knowledge, successes and enjoyments. The opposite of this is the Asukham-Ayuh.

Hitam-Ayuh is the life of a person who is always willing to do good to all living beings, truthful, non-stealing, calm, self-restrained, taking steps after examining the situation, virtuous, achieves Dharma-Artha-Kama, without conflict with others, worshipping whatever is worthy, devoted to knowledge-understanding-serenity of mind, and to charity and peace. The opposite of this is the Ahitam-Ayuh.

The aim of Ayurveda is to teach what is conducive to these four kinds of life.

Caraka Samhita Chapters 1.1, 1.30 (Abridged)[27][28]

The extant text has eight sthāna (books), totalling 120 chapters. The text includes a table of contents embedded in its verses, stating the names and describing the nature of the eight books, followed by a listing of the 120 chapters.[29] These eight books are[6]

  1. Sutra Sthana (General principles) - 30 chapters deal with general principles, philosophy, definitions, prevention through healthy living, and the goals of the text.[30]
  2. Nidana Sthana (Pathology) - 8 chapters on causes of diseases.[31]
  3. Vimana Sthana (Specific determination) 8 chapters contain training of a physician, ethics of medical practice, pathology, diet and nourishment, taste of medicines.[32]
  4. Śarira Sthana (Anatomy) - 8 chapters describe embryology & anatomy of a human body (with a section on other living beings).[33]
  5. Indriya Sthana (Sensory organ based prognosis) - 12 chapters elaborate on diagnosis & prognosis, mostly based on sensory response of the patient.[31]
  6. Cikitsa Sthana (Therapeutics) - 30 chapters deal with medicines and treatment of diseases.[34]
  7. Kalpa Sthana (Pharmaceutics and toxicology) - 12 chapters describe pharmacy, the preparation and dosage of medicine, signs of their abuse, and dealing with poisons.[31]
  8. Siddhi Sthana (Success in treatment) - 12 chapters describe signs of cure, hygiene and healthier living.[31]

Seventeen chapters of Cikitsā sthāna and complete Kalpa sthāna and Siddhi sthāna were added later by Dridhabala.[35] The text starts with Sūtra sthāna which deals with fundamentals and basic principles of Ayurveda practice. Unique scientific contributions credited to the Charaka Saṃhitā include:

  • a rational approach to the causation and cure of disease
  • introduction of objective methods of clinical examination

Physician, nurse, patient and medicines[edit]

The text asserts that there are four important parts to medical practice – the patient, the physician, the nurse and the medicines.[10] All four are essential to recovery and return to health, states the text. The physician provides knowledge and coordinates the treatment, he is who can "explore the dark interior of the body with the lamp of knowledge", according to the text and Valiathan's translation.[10][36] The physician must express joy and cheer towards those who can respond to treatment, masterfully avoid and save time in cases where the patient suffers from incurable disease, while compassionate towards all.[10] The nurse must be knowledgeable, skilled at preparing formulations and dosage, sympathetic towards everyone and clean.[9] The patient is responsible for being positive, have the ability to describe how he or she feels, remember and respectfully follow the physician instructions.[9][10]

The Charaka Samhita, states Curtin, was among the earliest texts that set a code of ethics on physicians and nurses, attributing "moral as well as scientific authority to the healer".[37][38] The text, in chapters 8 and 9 of the Vimana Sthana dedicates numerous verses to discussing the code. It mandates that the physician must seek consent before entering a patient's quarters, must be accompanied by a male member of the family if he is attending a woman or minor, must inform and gain consent from patient or the guardians if the patient is a minor, must never resort to extortion for his service, never involve himself in any other activities with the patient or patient's family (such as negotiating loans, arranging marriage, buying or selling property), speak with soft words and never use cruel words, only do "what is calculated to do good to the patient", and maintain the patient's privacy.[39]

There is no end in the knowledge of medical science, claims verse 3.8.12 of the Charaka Samhita, and the physician must constantly learn and devote himself to it.[40] The text asserts that a physician should discuss his findings and questions with other physicians because "when one discusses with another that is possessed of a knowledge of the same science, such discussion leads to increase of knowledge and happiness".[41] The verses that follow outline that discussions can be hostile or peaceful, the former are unproductive, the latter useful; even if one faces hostile criticism, one must persuade with gentle words and manner, asserts the text.[42]

Religious ideas[edit]

The Charaka Samhita, like many ancient Hindu literature, reveres and attributes Hindu gods as the ultimate source of its knowledge.[8] The Charaka Samhita mentions Bharadvaja learning from god Indra, after pleading that "poor health was disrupting the ability of human beings from pursuing their spiritual journey", and then Indra provides both the method and specifics of medical knowledge.[8][43] The method, asserts the text, revolves around three principles - etiology, symptomology and therapeutics.[8] Thus, states Glucklich, the text presumes proper goals to include both spiritual and physical health.[8]

The Charaka Samhita, in addition to initial recitations, uses the foundational assumptions and values embedded in various layers of the Vedas. These assumptions include the Vedic doctrine that a human being is a microcosmic replica of the universe,[8] and the ancient Hindu theory of six elements (five Prakriti and one Brahman),[8] three humors (Vayu, Pitta, Kapha),[44] three Guṇas (Sattva, Rajas and Tamas) as constituent forces innate in a human body,[45] and others.[46] The Charaka Samhita is premised on the Hindu assumption that Atman (soul) exists, it is immutable, and thereafter the text defines physical and mental diseases as caused by a lack of correlation and imbalance in body, or mind, or both, because of external factors (Prakriti, objects of senses), age or a want of correlation (appropriate harmony, equilibrium) between the three humors or the three Gunas.[47]

The Sushruta Samhita and Caraka Samhita have religious ideas throughout, states Steven Engler, who then concludes "Vedic elements are too central to be discounted as marginal".[48][49][50] These ideas appear, for example, in the theoretical foundations and Vedic metaphors used in these texts.[48][49] In addition, states Engler, the text includes another layer of ideas, where empirical rational ideas flourish in competition or cooperation with religious ideas, as well as the evidence of later additions of some Brahminic ideas.[48]

There is a close relationship between the philosophic presuppositions and the approach to medicine in Charaka Samhita.[51][52]

Nutrition and diet[edit]

Diet and health

Innumerable diseases, bodily and mental, have for their root Tamas (stupefaction, darkness). Through fault of the understanding, one indulges in the five injurious objects, suppresses the urgings of nature and accomplishes acts that are highly rash. The man of Ignorance then becomes united with conditions for disease. The man of Knowledge, however, purified by knowledge avoids those conditions. One should never take any food, acting only from a desire for it or guided by ignorance. Only food that is beneficial should be eaten, after proper examination. Verily, the body is the result of food.

Caraka Samhita, 1.XXVIII.41-48[53][54][55]

Charaka Samhita dedicates Chapters 5, 6, 25, 26 and 27 to "Aharatattva" (dietetics), stating that wholesome diet is essential for good health and to prevent diseases, while unwholesome food is an important cause of diseases.[56]

The tastes are six. They are sweet, sour, saline, pungent, bitter and astringent.
Properly used, they nourish the body.
Improperly used (excess or deficient), they verily lead to the provocation of the Dosha.
The Dosha are three: Vayu, Pitta and Kapha.
When they are in their normal state, they are beneficial to the body.
When, however, they become disorganized, verily they afflict the body with diseases of diverse kinds.

— Charaka Samhita, 3.I.3-4[57][58]

The text suggests that foods are source of heat, nutritive value as well as physiological substances that act like drugs inside human body. Furthermore, along with medicine, Caraka Samhita in Chapters 26 and 27, states that proper nutrition is essential for expedient recovery from sickness or surgery.[56]

Meat for dietetics and medicine[edit]

The Charaka Samhita suggests a regimen of Mamsa Rasa (meat soup) during pregnancy from 6th month onwards.[59]

Freshly cut meat is also recommended by the text for treatment of poison, wherein the cut meat is pressed against the affected part or spot of insect or reptile bite to absorb away the poison.[60]

Ray et al. list medicinal substances from over one hundred fifty animal origins that are described in Charaka Samhita, and the chapters these are found in.[61] These range from meat of wild animals such as fox and crocodile, to that of freshly cut fish, fish oil, eggs of birds, bee's wax.[61] Additionally, the text describes hundreds of formulations (gruel) it asserts to be of medicinal value from a mixtures of animal products and herb or plant products,[62][63] as well as inert minerals such as various salts, soots and alkalis.[64][65]

Ancient pharmacy[edit]

Numerous chapters in the Charaka Samhita are dedicated to identifying and classifying seeds, roots, flowers, fruits, stems, aromatic leaves, barks of different trees, plants juices, mountain herbs, animal products ranging from their milk to their excretory waste after the animals eat certain diet or grasses, different types of honey, stones, salts and others.[66] The text also describes numerous recipes, detailing how a particular formulation should be prepared. A typical recipe appears in the Chikitsa Sthana book of the Charaka Samhita as follows:[66]

Anu Taila recipe

Take a measure of sesame seeds.
Macerate them in goat's milk.
Then pound them in goat's milk.
Place the pounded product on a piece of clean cloth.
Place the product and cloth over a vessel filled with goat's milk.
Apply mild heat to the vessel. Let vapors from heated milk slightly boil the sesame past.
Mix the boiled paste with pulverized liquorice, adding an equal measure of goat's milk.
Press the oil out of the mixed product.
Add this oil to the (standard) decoction of ten roots in the ratio of one to four.
To this oil mix, add paste of Rasna, Madhuka and Saindhava salt in the ratio of four to one.
Boil all these together. Filter. Extract and collect the oil.
Repeat the root-paste-salt-oil combining and boiling process ten times.
The resulting oil is called Anu-taila.

— Charaka Samhita 6.XXVI[67][68]

The text, thereafter, asserts that this Anu-taila is to be used as a rubbing oil and as nasal drop for a certain class of ailments.[69] Glucklich mentions other medical texts from ancient India which include the use of Anu-taila in skin therapy.[70]

Sexual health[edit]

The Charaka Samhita discusses sexual diseases as well as its theory of treatment of sexual dysfunctions and virility (Vajikarana). The text emphasizes methods of body cleansing, sexual health promoting conduct, behavior and diet. Certain herb and mineral combinations are part of its regimen.[71] The text asserts that obesity and a life style lacking exercise is linked to sexual dysfunctions, dedicating many verses on it.[71][72]

The text, states Arnold, contains great number of verses relating to women's sexual health, suggesting "great antiquity of certain methods and therapeutic agents used in the treatment of gynecological cases", for example the cautery, pessaries, and astringent washes.[73]

Medical education[edit]

Chapter VIII of the Charaka Samhita's Vimana Sthana book includes a section for the student aiming to become a physician.[74][13] The text asserts that any intelligent man who knows the challenge and patience necessary to become a physician must first decide his Guru (teacher) and the books he must study.[75] The Charaka Samhita claims, according to Kaviratna and Sharma translation, that "diverse treatises on medicine are in circulation", and the student must select one by reputed scholar known for his wisdom, is free from tautology, ascribed to a Rishi, well compiled and has bhasya (commentaries), which treats nothing but the professed subject, is devoid of slangs and unfamiliar words, explain its inferences, is non-contradictory, and is well illustrated.[75][13]

The teacher for apprenticeship should be one who is knows the field, has experience gained from successfully treating diseases, who is compassionate towards who approach him, who lives a life of inner and outer Shaucha, is well equipped, who knows the characteristics of health and disease, one who is without malice towards anyone, is free of anger, who respects privacy and pain of his patients, is willing to teach, and is a good communicator.[40][13] When one finds such a teacher, asserts the Charaka Samhita, the student must revere the teacher like a deity or one's own father because it is from his grace that one gets educated.[40][13]

When the teacher accepts a student as his apprentice, asserts the Charaka Samhita, he should in the presence of fire initiate the student with the following mandates during the period of apprenticeship – "thou shalt be a brahmacharya, wear beard and mustache, thou shalt be always truthful, abstain from meat and unclean diet, never harbor envy, never bear weapons, thou shalt do anything I say except if that may lead to another person's death or to great harm or to a sin, thou shalt behave like my son, never be impatient, always be attentive, behave with humility, act after reflection, and always seek whether sitting or standing the good of all living creatures".[76][13]


The most celebrated commentary on this text is the Carakatātparyaṭīkā "Commentary on the Meaning of the Caraka" or the Ayurveda Dīpikā, "The Lamp to Ayurveda" written by Cakrapāṇidatta (1066). Other notable commentaries are Bhattaraka Harichandra's Carakanyāsa (c. 4th-6th century), Jejjaṭas Nirantarapadavyākhyā (c.875), Shivadasa Sena's Carakatattvapradīpikā (c.1460). Among the more recent commentaries are Narasiṃha Kavirāja's Carakatattvaprakāśa and Gaṅgādhara Kaviratna's Jalpakalpatāru (1879).

The earliest scholarly bhasya (review, commentary) in Sanskrit may be of Bhattar Harichandra's Charakanyasa on the redaction by Dridhabala.[77] Two manuscripts of this bhasya have survived into the modern era, and currently stored as number 9290 in Asiatic Society of Kolkata and number 13092 manuscript at the Government East Library, Chennai.[77]

Comparison with Sushruta Samhita[edit]

The Charaka Samhita is among the most important ancient medical treatises. It is one of the foundational texts of the medical tradition in India, alongside the Susruta Saṃhitā, the Bheḷa-Saṃhitā, and the medical portions of the Bower Manuscript.[78][79][80]

The Charaka Samhita is the oldest known Hindu text on Ayurveda (life sciences), and it was followed by the Sushruta Samhita. Except for some topics and their emphasis, both discuss many similar subjects such as General Principles, Pathology, Diagnosis, Anatomy, Sensorial Prognosis, Therapeutics, Pharmaceutics and Toxicology.[81][82][78] The Sushruta and Charaka texts differ in one major aspect, with Sushruta Samhita providing the foundation of surgery, while Charaka Samhita being primarily a foundation of medicine.[81]

A source for socio-cultural and ecological history of ancient India[edit]

Bhavana and Shreevathsa suggest that the text is not only an interesting source of ancient medical practices, it may be a source of valuable information on ancient ecological, social, and economic conditions in ancient India.[14] The text describes geography and ethnic groups with words such as Jangala, Aanoopa, and Sadharana, then lists the trees, vegetables, lakes and rivers, bird life and animals found in these regions.[14] Many of the drugs and potions mentioned, they state, are linked to region of their origin (e.g. Maghadi from Maghada and Kashmarya from Kashmir).[14] Ray et al. list the numerous mammals, reptiles, insects, fishes, amphibians, arthropods and birds and the respective chapters of Charaka Samhita these are mentioned in.[83]

The text also states that the food habits of ancient Indians varied by regions.[14] Mamsa (meat) was popular with people who lived in Bahlika, Pahlava, Cheena, Shoolika, Yavana and Shaka. People of Prachya preferred Matsya (fish), according to Bhavana and Shreevathsa translation.[14] Those living in Sindhu Desha (now Gujarat and south Pakistan) were habituated to milk, according to Charaka Samhita, while people of Ashmaka and Avantika consumed more oily and sour food.[14] The people of Dakshina Desha (South India) preferred Peya flavors, whereas those of Uttara (North) and Pashchima (West) liked Mantha flavors. Residents of Madhya Desha (Central India) preferred barley, wheat and milk products according to the text.[14]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Meulenbeld, G. J. A History of Indian Medical Literature (Groningen, 1999-2002), vol. IA, pp. 7-180. OCLC 165833440.
  2. ^ Valiathan, M. S. (2003) The Legacy of Caraka Orient Longman ISBN 81-250-2505-7 reviewed in Current Science, Vol.85 No.7 Oct 2003, Indian Academy of Sciences seen at [1] June 1, 2006
  3. ^ E. Schultheisz (1981), History of Physiology, Pergamon Press, ISBN 978-0080273426, page 60-61, Quote: "(...) the Charaka Samhita and the Susruta Samhita, both being recensions of two ancient traditions of the Hindu medicine".
  4. ^ Wendy Doniger (2014), On Hinduism, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0199360079, page 79, Quote: A basic assumption of Hindu medical texts like the Charaka Samhita (composed sometime between 100 BCE and 100 CE) is the doctrine of the three (...);
    Sarah Boslaugh (2007), Encyclopedia of Epidemiology, Volume 1, SAGE Publications, ISBN 978-1412928168, page 547, Quote: "The Hindu text known as Sushruta Samhita (600 AD) is possibly the earliest effort to classify diseases and injuries"
  5. ^ Thomas Banchoff (2009), Religious pluralism, globalization, and world politics, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195323412, page 284, Quote: An early Hindu text, the Caraka Samhita, vividly describes the beginning of life (...)
  6. ^ a b Balodhi JP (1987). "Constituting the outlines of a philosophy of ayurveda: mainly on mental health import.". Indian J Psychiatry. 29 (2): 127–31. PMC 3172459free to read. PMID 21927226. 
  7. ^ a b Meulenbeld, Gerrit Jan (1999-01-01). "Caraka, his identity and date". A History of Indian Medical Literature. Groningen: E. Forsten. IA, part 1, chapter 10. ISBN 9069801248. OCLC 42207455. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g Ariel Glucklich (2008). The Strides of Vishnu: Hindu Culture in Historical Perspective. Oxford University Press, USA. pp. 141–142. ISBN 978-0-19-531405-2. 
  9. ^ a b c Robert Svoboda (1992). Ayurveda: Life, Health and Longevity. Penguin Books. pp. 189–190. ISBN 978-0140193220. 
  10. ^ a b c d e MS Valiathan (2009), An Ayurvedic view of life, Current Science, Volume 96, Issue 9, pages 1186-1192
  11. ^ F.A. Hassler, Charaka Samhita, Science, Vol. 22, No. 545, pages 17-18
  12. ^ Kaviratna & Sharma 1913, pp. 549-550 (Volume 2 of 5).
  13. ^ a b c d e f Sanskrit: Vimana Sthana, Chapter 8, pages 323-326 (Note this manuscript archive numbers the verses differently than numbering found in other manuscripts)
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h Bhavana KR and Shreevathsa (2014). "Medical geography in Charaka Samhita.". Ayu. 35 (4): 371–377. doi:10.4103/0974-8520.158984. PMC 4492020free to read. PMID 26195898. 
  15. ^ Debiprasad Chatopadhyaya (1978). Science and Society in Ancient India. pp. 29–32. 
  16. ^ Debiprasad Chatopadhyaya (1978). Science and Society in Ancient India. pp. 29–30. 
  17. ^ Vishwakarma R, Goswami PK (2013). "A review through Charaka Uttara-Tantra.". Ayu. 34 (1): 17–20. doi:10.4103/0974-8520.115438. PMC 3764873free to read. PMID 24049400. 
  18. ^ Gerit Jan Meulenbeld (1999), A History of Indian Medical Literature, Volume 1A, Groningen: Forsten, page 114
  19. ^ Philipp Maas (2010), "On What Became of the Carakasaṃhitā after Dṛḍhabala’s Revision", eJournal of Indian Medicine, Vol. 3, No. 1, pages 1–22
  20. ^ a b c d Surendranath Dasgupta (1922). A History of Indian philosophy, Vol 1. Cambridge University Press. pp. 283–284. 
  21. ^ Monier-Williams, Monier (1899). "Sanskrit-English Dictionary". Cologne Dictionaries. OUP. Retrieved 2016-01-29. 
  22. ^ Kenneth Zysk (2012), Understanding Mantras (Editor: Harvey Alper), Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120807464, pages 123-129
  23. ^ Michael Witzel (2003), "Vedas and Upaniṣads", in The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism (Editor: Gavin Flood), Blackwell, ISBN 0-631215352, page 68
  24. ^ M. S. Valiathan. The Legacy of Caraka. Orient Blackswan. p. 22. 
  25. ^ Surendranath Dasgupta (1922). A History of Indian philosophy, Vol 1. Cambridge University Press. pp. 284–289 with footnotes. 
  26. ^ Thakar VJ (2010). "Historical development of basic concepts of Ayurveda from Veda up to Samhita.". Ayu. 31 (4): 400–402. doi:10.4103/0974-8520.82024. PMC 3202268free to read. PMID 22048529. 
  27. ^ Surendranath Dasgupta (1922). A History of Indian philosophy, Vol 1. Cambridge University Press. pp. 277–278. 
  28. ^ S. Cromwell Crawford (2003), Hindu Bioethics for the Twenty-first Century, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791457795, pages 41-42
  29. ^ Ray, Gupta & Roy 1980, pp. 424-438.
  30. ^ Ray, Gupta & Roy 1980, pp. 4-5, 16-20, 23.
  31. ^ a b c d Ray, Gupta & Roy 1980, pp. 4-5.
  32. ^ Ray, Gupta & Roy 1980, pp. 4-5, 20-22.
  33. ^ Ray, Gupta & Roy 1980, pp. 4-5, 26.
  34. ^ Ray, Gupta & Roy 1980, pp. 4-5, 23-25.
  35. ^ Anthony Cerulli (2011). Somatic Lessons: Narrating Patienthood and Illness in Indian Medical Literature. SUNY Press. p. 37. 
  36. ^ Ray, Gupta & Roy 1980, pp. 21-22.
  37. ^ Curtin, Leah (2001). "Guest Editorial". International Nursing Review. 48 (1): 1–2. doi:10.1046/j.1466-7657.2001.00067.x. 
  38. ^ Rao, M. S. (2012). "The history of medicine in India and Burma". Medical History. Cambridge University Press. 12 (01): 52–61. doi:10.1017/S002572730001276X. 
  39. ^ Kaviratna & Sharma 1913, pp. 553-558 (Volume 2 of 5).
  40. ^ a b c Kaviratna & Sharma 1913, pp. 547-548 (Volume 2 of 5).
  41. ^ Kaviratna & Sharma 1913, p. 557 (Volume 2 of 5).
  42. ^ Kaviratna & Sharma 1913, p. 558-559 (Volume 2 of 5).
  43. ^ Kaviratna & Sharma 1913, pp. 1-4 (Volume 1 of 5).
  44. ^ Surendranath Dasgupta (1922). A History of Indian philosophy, Vol 1. Cambridge University Press. pp. 325–339 with footnotes. 
  45. ^ Wendy Doniger (2014), On Hinduism, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0199360079, page 79
  46. ^ Ariel Glucklich (1993). The Sense of Adharma. Oxford University Press. pp. 97–98. ISBN 978-0198024484. 
  47. ^ Kaviratna & Sharma 1913, pp. 4-8 (Volume 1 of 5).
  48. ^ a b c Engler 2003, pp. 416-463.
  49. ^ a b Ray, Gupta & Roy 1980, pp. 5-7.
  50. ^ Kaviratna & Sharma 1913, pp. 400-402 with footnotes (Volume 1 of 5), Sashira Sthanam Chapter 1 verses 1-92, pages 651-676 (of Kaviratna Vol 2 of 5), etc..
  51. ^ Samantha K. Hastings (2014). Annual Review of Cultural Heritage Informatics: 2012-2013. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. pp. 48–49. ISBN 978-0759123342. 
  52. ^ Pramod Thakar (1995), Philosophical Foundations in Ancient Indian Medicine: Science, Philosophy, and Ethics in Caraka-samhita, PhD Thesis awarded by Boston College, OCLC 42271152
  53. ^ Kaviratna & Sharma 1913, pp. 400-401 (Volume 1 of 5).
  54. ^ Thakkar J, Chaudhari S, Sarkar PK (2011). "Ritucharya: Answer to the lifestyle disorders.". Ayu. 32 (4): 466–471. doi:10.4103/0974-8520.96117. PMC 3361919free to read. PMID 22661838. 
  55. ^ Sanskrit: Sutra Sthana, Chapter 28, pages 225-226
  56. ^ a b Ray, Gupta & Roy 1980, pp. 18-19.
  57. ^ Kaviratna & Sharma 1913, pp. 446 (Volume 2 of 5).
  58. ^ Sanskrit: Vimana Sthana, Chapter 28, pages 225-226, verse 4-5 (Note this archive numbers the verses differently than numbering found in other manuscripts)
  59. ^ Dwivedi M (1995). "Ayurvedic concept of food in pregnancy.". Anc Sci Life. 14 (4): 245–7. PMC 3331247free to read. PMID 22556705. 
  60. ^ Ray, Gupta & Roy 1980, pp. 24-25.
  61. ^ a b Ray, Gupta & Roy 1980, pp. 38-51.
  62. ^ Ray, Gupta & Roy 1980, pp. 52-77.
  63. ^ Kaviratna & Sharma 1913, pp. 13-18 (Volume 1 of 5).
  64. ^ Ray, Gupta & Roy 1980, pp. 78-85.
  65. ^ Kaviratna & Sharma 1913, p. 17 (Volume 1 of 5), see discussion of yavakshara in footnote "j".
  66. ^ a b Kaviratna & Sharma 1913, pp. Volumes 2, 3 and 4.
  67. ^ Kaviratna & Sharma 1913, pp. 1746-1747 (Volume 4).
  68. ^ Sanskrit: Chikitsa Sthana, Chapter 26, pages 902-903 (Note this archive numbers the verses differently than numbering found in other manuscripts)
  69. ^ Kaviratna & Sharma 1913, pp. 1746-1749 (Volume 4).
  70. ^ Ariel Glucklich (1993). The Sense of Adharma. Oxford University Press. pp. 96–97. ISBN 978-0198024484. 
  71. ^ a b Dalal PK, Tripathi A, Gupta SK (2013). "Vajikarana: Treatment of sexual dysfunctions based on Indian concepts.". Indian J Psychiatry. 55 (Suppl 2): S273–6. doi:10.4103/0019-5545.105550. PMC 3705695free to read. PMID 23858267. 
  72. ^ Geetha P, Aravind BS, Pallavi G, Rajendra V, Rao R, Akhtar N (2012). "Sexual dysfunction (Kṛcchra Vyavāya) in obesity (Sthaulya): Validation by an observational study". Anc Sci Life. 32 (2): 76–81. doi:10.4103/0257-7941.118535. PMC 3807961free to read. PMID 24167331. 
  73. ^ Arnold CH (1936). "Historical Gynecology". Cal West Med. 44 (1): 40–3. PMC 1760219free to read. PMID 18743509. 
  74. ^ Kaviratna & Sharma 1913, pp. 546 (Volume 2 of 5).
  75. ^ a b Kaviratna & Sharma 1913, pp. 546-547 (Volume 2 of 5).
  76. ^ Kaviratna & Sharma 1913, pp. 552-553 (Volume 2 of 5).
  77. ^ a b Gaur BL (2012). "Bhattar Harichandra: The first commentator of Charaka Samhita.". Ayu. 33 (3): 328–31. doi:10.4103/0974-8520.108815. PMC 3665101free to read. PMID 23723636. 
  78. ^ a b Meulenbeld 1999, pp. 203–389 (Volume IA).
  79. ^ Ray, Gupta & Roy 1980, pp. 203–389.
  80. ^ Wujastyk, Dominik (2003). The Roots of Ayurveda. London etc.: Penguin. pp. 149–160. ISBN 0140448241. 
  81. ^ a b Menon IA, Haberman HF (1969). "Dermatological writings of ancient India". Med Hist. 13 (4): 387–392. doi:10.1017/s0025727300014824. PMC 1033984free to read. PMID 4899819. 
  82. ^ Ray, Gupta & Roy 1980.
  83. ^ Ray, Gupta & Roy 1980, pp. 30-37.


  • Ācārya, Yādava Trivikrama (ed.) Maharṣiṇā Punarvasunopadiṣṭā, tacchiṣyeṇĀgniveśena praṇītā, CarakaDṛḍhabalābhyāṃ pratisaṃskṛtā Carakasaṃhitā, śrīCakrapāṇidattaviracitayā Āyurvedadīpikāvyākhyayā saṃvalitā Nirnaya Sagara Press, 1941. The best current edition of the Sanskrit text. Often reprinted. Online machine-readable transcription available at
  • Engler, Steven (2003). "" Science" vs." Religion" in Classical Ayurveda". Numen. 50 (4): 416–463. doi:10.1163/156852703322446679. 
  • Kaviratna, Avinash C.; Sharma, P. (1913). The Charaka Samhita 5 Vols. Sri Satguru Publications. ISBN 81-7030-471-7. 
  • Menon, I A and H F Haberman, Dermatological writings of ancient India Medical History. 1969 October; 13(4): 387–392. seen at The Wellcome Trust Centre for the History of Medicine at University College London [2] June 1, 2006
  • Muniyal Ayurveda, Manipal, Sacitra Caraka Samhita - Volume 1, published by Muniyal Institute of Ayurveda Medical Sciences, Manipal. 2005 [3]
  • Meulenbeld, G. J. A History of Indian Medical Literature (Groningen, 1999–2002), vol. IA, pp. 7–180, gives a detailed survey of the contents of the Carakasaṃhitā and a comprehensive discussion of all historical matters related to the text, its commentators, and its later history in the Islamic world and in Tibet.
  • Meulenbeld, Gerrit Jan (1999). A History of Indian Medical Literature: Text. Forsten. ISBN 978-90-6980-124-7. 
  • Sharma, P. V. Caraka-Saṃhitā: Agniveśa's Treatise Refined and annotated by Caraka and Redacted by Dṛḍhabala (text with English translation) Chaukhambha Orientalia, 1981–1994. The best modern English translation of the whole text. Volume 4 gives summaries of the commentary of Cakrapāṇidatta.
  • Ray, Priyadaranjan; Gupta, Hirendra Nath; Roy, Mira (1980). Suśruta Saṃhita (a Scientific Synopsis). New Delhi: INSA. 
  • Sharma, R. K. & Bhagwan Dash, V. Agniveśa's Caraka Saṃhitā (Text with English Translation & Critical Exposition Based on Cakrapāṇi Datta's Āyurveda Dīpikā) Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office, 1976-2002. Another good English translation of the whole text, with paraphrases of the commentary of Cakrapāṇidatta.
  • Wujastyk, Dominik, The Roots of Ayurveda (Penguin Classics, 3rd edition, 2003), pp. 1–50 gives an introduction to the Carakasaṃhitā and a modern translation of selected passages.

External links[edit]