Page semi-protected

Homeopathy

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Homeopathy
Alternative medicine
Homoeopathy
Samuel Hahnemann
Samuel Hahnemann, originator of homeopathy
Pronunciation
Claims"Like cures like", dilution increases potency, disease caused by miasms.
Related fieldsAlternative medicine
Year proposed1796
Original proponentsSamuel Hahnemann
Subsequent proponentsJames Tyler Kent, Royal S. Copeland, George Vithoulkas
MeSHD006705
See alsoHumorism, heroic medicine

Homeopathy or homoeopathy is a pseudoscientific[1][2][3][4] system of alternative medicine. It was conceived in 1796 by the German physician Samuel Hahnemann. Its practitioners, called homeopaths, believe that a substance that causes symptoms of a disease in healthy people would cure similar symptoms in sick people; this doctrine is called similia similibus curentur, or "like cures like".[5] Homeopathic preparations are termed remedies and are made using homeopathic dilution. In this process, the selected substance is repeatedly diluted until the final product is chemically indistinguishable from the diluent. Often not even a single molecule of the original substance can be expected to remain in the product.[6] Between each dilution homeopaths may hit and/or shake the product, claiming this makes the diluent remember the original substance after its removal. Practitioners claim that such preparations, upon oral intake, can treat or cure disease.[7]

All relevant scientific knowledge about physics, chemistry, biochemistry and biology[8][9][10][11][12][13] gained since at least the mid-19th century[14] contradicts homeopathy. Homeopathic remedies are biochemically inert, and have no effect on any known disease.[8][15][16] Hahnemann's theory of disease, centered around principles he termed miasms, is inconsistent with subsequent identification of viruses and bacteria as causes of disease. Clinical trials have been conducted and generally demonstrated no objective effect from homeopathic preparations.[17][18][19]:206[20] The fundamental implausibility of homeopathy as well as a lack of demonstrable effectiveness has led to it being characterized within the scientific and medical communities as quackery and fraud.[3][21][22]

Homeopathy achieved its greatest popularity in the 19th century. It was introduced to the United States in 1825 with the first homeopathic school opening in 1835. Throughout the 19th century, dozens of homeopathic institutions appeared in Europe and the United States. During this period homeopathy had apparent success as many of the modern treatments of the time were harmful and ineffective. By the end of the century the practice began to wane, with the last school in the US exclusively teaching homeopathy closing in 1920. During the 1970s homeopathy made a significant comeback with sales of some homeopathic products increased tenfold. This corresponded to the rise of the New Age movement and may be in part due to the longer consultations practitioners provide and an irrational preference for "natural" products.

In the 21st century a series of meta-analyses have shown that the therapeutic claims of homeopathy lack scientific justification. As a result, national and international bodies have recommended the withdrawal of government funding for homeopathy in healthcare. National bodies from Australia, the United Kingdom, Switzerland and France, as well as the European Academies' Science Advisory Council and the Russian Academy of Sciences have all concluded that homeopathy is ineffective, and recommended against the practice receiving any further funding.[23][24][25][26] The National Health Service in England no longer provides funding for homeopathic remedies and asked the Department of Health to add homeopathic remedies to the list of forbidden prescription items.[27][28][29] France is looking to remove funding by 2021,[30] while Spain has also announced moves to ban homeopathy and other pseudotherapies from health centers.[31]

History

Homeopathy, the longest established alternative medicine to come out of Europe, was created in 1796 by Samuel Hahnemann.[32] Hahnemann rejected the mainstream medicine of the late 18th century as irrational and inadvisable because it was largely ineffective and often harmful.[33][34] He advocated the use of single drugs at lower doses and promoted an immaterial, vitalistic view of how living organisms function.[35] The term homeopathy was coined by Hahnemann and first appeared in print in 1807.[36] He also coined the expression "allopathic medicine", which was used to pejoratively refer to traditional Western medicine.[37]

Concept

Samuel Hahnemann Monument, Washington D.C. with "Similia Similibus Curentur" - Like cures Like.

Hahnemann conceived of homeopathy while translating a medical treatise by the Scottish physician and chemist William Cullen into German. Being sceptical of Cullen's theory that cinchona cured malaria because it was bitter, Hahnemann ingested some bark specifically to investigate what would happen. He experienced fever, shivering and joint pain: symptoms similar to those of malaria itself. From this, Hahnemann came to believe that all effective drugs produce symptoms in healthy individuals similar to those of the diseases that they treat, in accord with the "law of similars" that had been proposed by ancient physicians.[38] This led to the name "homeopathy", which comes from the Greek: ὅμοιος hómoios, "-like" and πάθος páthos, "suffering".[39]

The law of similars doctrine is called similia similibus curentur, or "like cures like".[5] Hahnemann's law of similars is an ipse dixit that does not derive from the scientific method.[40] An account of the effects of eating cinchona bark noted by Oliver Wendell Holmes, published in 1861, failed to reproduce the symptoms Hahnemann reported.[14]:128 Subsequent scientific work showed that cinchona cures malaria because it contains quinine, which kills the Plasmodium falciparum parasite that causes the disease; the mechanism of action is unrelated to Hahnemann's ideas.[41]

Provings

Hahnemann began to test what effects various substances may produce in humans, a procedure later called "homeopathic proving". These tests required subjects to test the effects of ingesting substances by clearly recording all their symptoms as well as the ancillary conditions under which they appeared.[42] He published a collection of provings in 1805, and a second collection of 65 preparations appeared in his book, Materia Medica Pura (1810).[43]

As Hahnemann believed that large doses of drugs that caused similar symptoms would only aggravate illness, he advocated for extreme dilutions. A technique was devised for making dilutions that Hahnemann claimed would preserve the substance's therapeutic properties while removing its harmful effects.[44] Hahnemann believed that this process aroused and enhanced "the spirit-like medicinal powers of the crude substances".[45] He gathered and published a complete overview of his new medical system in his book, The Organon of the Healing Art (1810), with 6th edition published in 1921 still used by homeopaths today.[46]

Miasms and disease

In the Organon, Hahnemann introduced the concept of "miasms" as the "infectious principles" underlying chronic disease[47] and as "peculiar morbid derangement[s] of vital force".[48] Hahnemann associated each miasm with specific diseases, and thought that initial exposure to miasms causes local symptoms, such as skin or venereal diseases. His assertion was that if these symptoms were suppressed by medication, the cause went deeper and began to manifest itself as diseases of the internal organs.[49] Homeopathy maintains that treating diseases by directly alleviating their symptoms, as is sometimes done in conventional medicine, is ineffective because all "disease can generally be traced to some latent, deep-seated, underlying chronic, or inherited tendency".[50] The underlying imputed miasm still remains, and deep-seated ailments can be corrected only by removing the deeper disturbance of the vital force.[51]

Hahnemann's hypotheses for miasms originally presented only three local symptoms: psora (the itch), syphilis (venereal disease) or sycosis (fig-wart disease).[52] Of these the most important was psora, described as being related to any itching diseases of the skin and was claimed to be the foundation of many further disease conditions. Hahnemann believed it to be the cause of such diseases as epilepsy, cancer, jaundice, deafness, and cataracts.[53] Since Hahnemann's time, other miasms have been proposed, some replacing illnesses previously attributed to the psora, including tuberculosis and cancer miasms.[49]

Hahnemann's miasm theory remains disputed and controversial within homeopathy even in modern times. The theory of miasms has been criticized as an explanation developed to preserve the system of homeopathy in the face of treatment failures, and for being inadequate to cover the many hundreds of sorts of diseases, as well as for failing to explain disease predispositions, as well as genetics, environmental factors, and the unique disease history of each patient.[19]:148–9

19th century: rise to popularity and early criticism

Homeopathy Looks at the Horrors of Allopathy, an 1857 painting by Alexander Beydeman, showing historical figures and personifications of homeopathy observing the brutality of medicine of the 19th century.

Homeopathy achieved its greatest popularity in the 19th century. It was introduced to the United States in 1825 by Hans Birch Gram, a student of Hahnemann.[54] The first homeopathic school in the United States opened in 1835 and the American Institute of Homeopathy was established in 1844. Throughout the 19th century, dozens of homeopathic institutions appeared in Europe and the United States,[55] and by 1900, there were 22 homeopathic colleges and 15,000 practitioners in the United States.[56]

Because medical practice of the time relied on ineffective and often dangerous treatments, patients of homeopaths often had better outcomes than those being treated by medical practitioners.[57] Though ineffective, homeopathic preparations would rarely be detrimental, thus users are less likely to be harmed by the treatment that is supposed to be helping them.[46] The relative success of homeopathy in the 19th century may have led to the abandonment of the ineffective and harmful treatments of bloodletting and purging and begun the move towards more effective, science-based medicine.[58] One reason for the growing popularity of homeopathy was its apparent success in treating people suffering from infectious disease epidemics.[59] During 19th-century epidemics of diseases such as cholera, death rates in homeopathic hospitals were often lower than in conventional hospitals, where the treatments used at the time were often harmful and did little or nothing to combat the diseases.[60]

Even during its rise in popularity, homeopathy was criticized by scientists and physicians. Sir John Forbes, physician to Queen Victoria, said in 1843 that the extremely small doses of homeopathy were regularly derided as useless and considered it "an outrage to human reason".[61] James Young Simpson said in 1853 of the highly diluted drugs: "No poison, however strong or powerful, the billionth or decillionth of which would in the least degree affect a man or harm a fly."[62] 19th-century American physician and author Oliver Wendell Holmes was also a vocal critic of homeopathy and published an essay entitled Homœopathy and Its Kindred Delusions (1842).[14] The members of the French Homeopathic Society observed in 1867 that some leading homeopathists of Europe not only were abandoning the practice of administering infinitesimal doses but were also no longer defending it.[63] The last school in the US exclusively teaching homeopathy closed in 1920.[46]

Revival in the 20th century

According to Paul Ulrich Unschuld, the Nazi regime in Germany was fascinated by homeopathy, and spent large sums of money on researching its mechanisms, but without gaining a positive result. Unschuld further argues that homeopathy never subsequently took root in the United States, but remained more deeply established in European thinking.[64] In the United States, the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938 (sponsored by Royal Copeland, a Senator from New York and homeopathic physician) recognized homeopathic preparations as drugs. In the 1950s, there were only 75 solely homeopathic practitioners in the U.S.[65] By the mid to late 1970s, homeopathy made a significant comeback and sales of some homeopathic companies increased tenfold.[66]

Some homeopaths credit for the revival to Greek homeopath George Vithoulkas, who conducted a "great deal of research to update the scenarios and refine the theories and practice of homeopathy" in the 1970,[67][68] but Edzard Ernst and Simon Singh consider it to be linked to the rise of the New Age movement.[34] Bruce Hood has argued that the increased popularity of homeopathy in recent times may be due to the comparatively long consultations practitioners are willing to give their patients, and to an irrational preference for "natural" products, which people think are the basis of homeopathic preparations.[69]

Towards the end of the century opposition to homeopathy began to increase again; with William T. Jarvis, the President of the National Council Against Health Fraud, saying that "Homeopathy is a fraud perpetrated on the public with the government's blessing, thanks to the abuse of political power of Sen. Royal S. Copeland."[70]

21st century

Since the beginning of the 21st century, a series of meta-analyses have further shown that the therapeutic claims of homeopathy lack scientific justification.[71] This had lead to a decrease or suspension of funding by many governments. In a 2010 report, the Science and Technology Committee of the United Kingdom House of Commons recommended that homeopathy should no longer be a beneficiary of National Health Service (NHS) funding due its lack of scientific credibility;[71] the funding ceased in 2017.[28] They also asked the Department of Health in the UK to add homeopathic remedies to the blacklist of forbidden prescription items.[29]

In 2015, the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia found there were "there are no health conditions for which there is reliable evidence that homeopathy is effective".[72] The federal government only ended up accepting three of the 45 recommendations made by the 2018 review of Pharmacy Remuneration and Regulation.[73] The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) held a hearing in 2015, requesting public comment on the regulation of homeopathic drugs.[74] In 2017 the FDA announced it would strengthen regulation of homeopathic products.[75]

The American non-profit Center for Inquiry (CFI) filed a lawsuit in 2018 against the CVS pharmacy for consumer fraud over its sale of homeopathic medicines.[76] It claimed that CVS was selling homeopathic products on an easier-to-obtain basis than standard medication.[77] In 2019, CFI brought a similar lawsuit against Walmart for "committing wide-scale consumer fraud and endangering the health of its customers through its sale and marketing of homeopathic medicines".[78][79] They also conducted a survey in which they found consumers felt ripped off when informed of the lack of evidence for the efficacy of homeopathic remedies, such as those sold by Walmart and CVS.[80][81]

In 2019, the French healthcare minister announced that social security reimbursements for homeopathic drugs will be phased out before 2021.[30] France has long had a stronger belief in the virtues of homeopathic drugs than many other countries and the world's biggest manufacturer of alternative medicine drugs, Boiron, is located in that country.[82] Spain has also announced moves to ban homeopathy and other pseudotherapies.[31] In 2016, the University of Barcelona cancelled its master's degree in Homeopathy citing "lack of scientific basis", after advice from the Spanish Ministry of Health.[83] Shortly afterwards the University of Valencia announced the elimination of its Masters in Homeopathy.[84]

Preparations and treatment

Homeopathic repertory by James Tyler Kent

Homeopathic preparations are referred to as "homeopathic remedies".[85] Practitioners rely on two types of reference when prescribing: Materia medica and repertories. A homeopathic materia medica is a collection of "drug pictures", organized alphabetically. A homeopathic repertory is a quick reference version of the materia medica that indexes the symptoms and then the associated remedies for each. In both cases different compilers may dispute particular inclusions.[86] The first symptomatic homeopathic materia medica was arranged by Hahnemann. The first homeopathic repertory was Georg Jahr's Symptomenkodex, published in German in 1835, and translated into English as the Repertory to the more Characteristic Symptoms of Materia Medica in 1838. This version was less focused on disease categories and was the forerunner to later works by James Tyler Kent.[87][88] There are over 118 repertories published in English with Kents being one of the most used.[89]

Consultation

Homeopaths generally begin with a consultation, which can be a 10-15 minute appointment or last for over an hour, where the patient describes their medical history. The patient will describe the "modalities" - or if the symptoms change depending on the weather and other external factors.[90] They also solicit information on mood, likes and dislikes, their physical, mental and emotional states, life circumstances, any physical or emotional illnesses and their personalty.[91] The totality of the information obtained (also called the “symptom picture”) is matched is matched to the "drug picture" in the materia medica or repertory and is used to determine the appropriate homeopathic remedies. In classical homeopathy, the practitioner attempts to match a single preparation to the totality of symptoms (the simlilum), while "clinical homeopathy" involves combinations of preparations based on the various symptoms of an illness.[67]

Preparation

Oscillococcinum in pill form

Homeopathy uses animal, plant, mineral, and synthetic substances in its preparations, generally referring to them using Latin or faux-Latin names.[92] Examples include arsenicum album (arsenic oxide), natrum muriaticum (sodium chloride or table salt), Lachesis muta (the venom of the bushmaster snake), opium, and thyroidinum (thyroid hormone). Homeopaths say this is to ensure accuracy.[93] In the USA the common name must be displayed, although the Latin one can also be present.[92] Homeopathic pills are made from an inert substance (often sugars, typically lactose), upon which a drop of liquid homeopathic preparation is placed and allowed to evaporate.[94][95]

Isopathy is a therapy derived from homeopathy where the preparations come from diseased or pathological products such as fecal, urinary, respiratory discharges, blood, and tissue.[87] They are called nosodes (from the Greek nosos, disease) with preparations made from "healthy" specimens being termed "sarcodes". Many so-called "homeopathic vaccines" are a form of isopathy.[96] Tautopathy is a form of isopathy where the preparations are composed of drugs or vaccines that a person has consumed in the past, in the belief that this can reverse lingering damage caused by the initial use.[97] There is no convincing scientific evidence for isopathy as an effective method of treatment.[98]

Some modern homeopaths use preparations they call "imponderables" because they do not originate from a substance but some other phenomenon presumed to have been "captured" by alcohol or lactose. Examples include X-rays[99] and sunlight.[100] Another derivative is electrohomoeopathy, where an electric bio-energy of therapeutic value is supposedly extracted from plants. Popular in the late nineteenth century, electrohomeopathy is considered pseudo scientific and has been described as "utter idiocy".[101] In 2012, the Allahabad High Court in Uttar Pradesh, India, handed down a decree which stated that electrohomeopathy was an unrecognized system of medicine which was quackery.[102]

Other minority practices include paper preparations, where the substance and dilution are written on pieces of paper and either pinned to the patients' clothing, put in their pockets, or placed under glasses of water that are then given to the patients. Radionics, the use of electromagnetic radiation such as radio waves, can also be used to manufacture preparations. Such practices have been strongly criticized by classical homeopaths as unfounded, speculative, and verging upon magic and superstition.[103][104] Flower preparations are produced by placing flowers in water and exposing them to sunlight. The most famous of these are the Bach flower remedies, which were developed by Edward Bach.[105]

Dilutions

This bottle is labelled Arnica montana (wolf's bane) D6, i.e. the nominal dilution is one part in a million (10-6).

Hahnemann found that undiluted doses caused reactions, sometimes dangerous ones, so specified that preparations be given at the lowest possible dose.[106] A solution that is more dilute is described as having a higher "potency", and more dilute substances are considered by homeopaths to be stronger and deeper-acting.[107] The general method of dilution is serial dilution, where solvent is added to part of the previous mixture, but the "Korsakovian" method may also be used. In the Korsakovian method the vessel in which the preparations are manufactured is emptied, refilled with solvent, with the volume of fluid adhering to the walls of the vessel deemed sufficient for the new batch.[19]:270 The Korsakovian method is sometimes referred to as K on the label of a homeopathic preparation.[108][109] Another method is Fluxion, which dilutes the substance by continuously passing water through the vial.[110] Insoluble solids, such as granite, diamond, and platinum, are diluted by grinding them with lactose ("trituration").[19]:23

Three main logarithmic dilution scales are in regular use in homeopathy. Hahnemann created the "centesimal" or "C scale", diluting a substance by a factor of 100 at each stage. There is also a decimal dilution scale (notated as "X" or "D") in which the preparation is diluted by a factor of 10 at each stage.[111] The centesimal scale was favoured by Hahnemann for most of his life, although in his last ten years Hahnemann developed a quintamillesimal (Q) scale which diluted the drug 1 part in 50,000[112] A 2C dilution works out to one part of the original substance in 10,000 parts of the solution.[113] A 6C dilution ends up with the original substance diluted by a factor of 100−6 (one part in one trillion). The end product is usually so diluted as to be indistinguishable from the diluent (pure water, sugar or alcohol).[44][114][115] The greatest dilution reasonably likely to contain at least one molecule of the original substance is around 12C.[116]

Hahnemann advocated dilutions of 1 part to 1060, that is 30C, for most purposes.[117] Hahnemann regularly used dilutions up to 300C but opined that "there must be a limit to the matter".[42]:322 To counter the reduced potency at high dilutions he formed the view that vigorous shaking by striking on an elastic surface – a process termed succussion – was necessary.[106] There are differences of opinion on the number and force of strikes, and some practitioners dispute the need for succussion at all. There are no laboratory assays and the importance and techniques for succussion cannot be determined with any certainty from the literature.[19]:67–69

Critics of homeopathy commonly attempt to illustrate the dilutions involved in homeopathy with analogies.[118] An example given states that a 12C solution is equivalent to a "pinch of salt in both the North and South Atlantic Oceans",[119][120] which is approximately correct.[121] One-third of a drop of some original substance diluted into all the water on earth would produce a preparation with a concentration of about 13C.[118][122][123] A 200C dilution of duck liver, marketed under the name Oscillococcinum, would require 10320 universes worth of molecules to simply have just one original molecule in the final substance.[124] The high dilutions characteristically used are often considered to be the most controversial and implausible aspect of homeopathy.[125]

Provings

Homeopaths claim that they can determine the properties of their preparations by following a method which they call "proving".[126] As performed by Hahnemann, provings involved administering various preparations to healthy volunteers. The volunteers were then observed, often for months at a time. They were made to keep extensive journals detailing all of their symptoms at specific times throughout the day. They were forbidden from consuming coffee, tea, spices, or wine for the duration of the experiment; playing chess was also prohibited because Hahnemann considered it to be "too exciting", though they were allowed to drink beer and encouraged to exercise in moderation.[127] At first Hahnemann used undiluted doses for provings, but he later advocated provings with preparations at a 30C dilution,[117] and most modern provings are carried out using ultra-dilute preparations.[128]

Provings are claimed to have been important in the development of the clinical trial, due to their early use of simple control groups, systematic and quantitative procedures, and some of the first application of statistics in medicine.[129] The lengthy records of self-experimentation by homeopaths have occasionally proven useful in the development of modern drugs: For example, evidence that nitroglycerin might be useful as a treatment for angina was discovered by looking through homeopathic provings, though homeopaths themselves never used it for that purpose at that time.[130] The first recorded provings were published by Hahnemann in his 1796 Essay on a New Principle.[131] His Fragmenta de Viribus (1805)[132] contained the results of 27 provings, and his 1810 Materia Medica Pura contained 65.[133] For James Tyler Kent's 1905 Lectures on Homoeopathic Materia Medica, 217 preparations underwent provings and newer substances are continually added to contemporary versions.[134][135]

Though the proving process has superficial similarities with clinical trials, it is fundamentally different in that the process is subjective, not blinded, and modern provings are unlikely to use pharmacologically active levels of the substance under proving.[136] As early as 1842, Oliver Holmes had noted that provings were impossibly vague, and the purported effect was not repeatable among different subjects.[14]

Evidence and efficacy

Outside of the alternative medicine community, scientists have long considered homeopathy a sham[137] or a pseudoscience,[138][139][140][141] and the medical community regards it as quackery.[140] There is an overall absence of sound statistical evidence of therapeutic efficacy, which is consistent with the lack of any biologically plausible pharmacological agent or mechanism.[15] Proponents argue that homeopathic medicines must work by some, as yet undefined, biophysical mechanism.[142] No homeopathic preparation has been shown to be different from placebo.[143]

Lack of scientific evidence

The lack of convincing scientific evidence supporting its efficacy[144] and its use of preparations without active ingredients have led to characterizations of homeopathy as pseudoscience and quackery,[145][146][147] or, in the words of a 1998 medical review, "placebo therapy at best and quackery at worst".[148] The Russian Academy of Sciences considers homeopathy a "dangerous 'pseudoscience' that does not work", and "urges people to treat homeopathy 'on a par with magic'".[145] The Chief Medical Officer for England, Dame Sally Davies, has stated that homeopathic preparations are "rubbish" and do not serve as anything more than placebos.[149] In 2013, Mark Walport, the UK Government Chief Scientific Adviser and head of the Government Office for Science said "homoeopathy is nonsense, it is non-science."[150] His predecessor, John Beddington, referring to his views that homeopathy "has no underpinning of scientific basis" being "fundamentally ignored" by the Government.[151]

Jack Killen, acting deputy director of the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, says homeopathy "goes beyond current understanding of chemistry and physics". He adds: "There is, to my knowledge, no condition for which homeopathy has been proven to be an effective treatment."[144] Ben Goldacre says that homeopaths who misrepresent scientific evidence to a scientifically illiterate public, have "... walled themselves off from academic medicine, and critique has been all too often met with avoidance rather than argument".[152] Homeopaths often prefer to ignore meta-analyses in favour of cherry picked positive results, such as by promoting a particular observational study (one which Goldacre describes as "little more than a customer-satisfaction survey") as if it were more informative than a series of randomized controlled trials.[152]

In an article entitled "Should We Maintain an Open Mind about Homeopathy?"[153] published in the American Journal of Medicine, Michael Baum and Edzard Ernst – writing to other physicians – wrote that "Homeopathy is among the worst examples of faith-based medicine... These axioms [of homeopathy] are not only out of line with scientific facts but also directly opposed to them. If homeopathy is correct, much of physics, chemistry, and pharmacology must be incorrect...".

Plausibility of dilutions

A homeopathic preparation made from marsh tea: the "15C" dilution shown here means the original solution was diluted to 1/1030 of its original strength.

The very low concentration of homeopathic preparations, which often lack even a single molecule of the diluted substance,[154] has been the basis of questions about the effects of the preparations since the 19th century.[12] The extreme dilutions used in homeopathic preparations usually leave not one molecule of the original substance in the final product.[154] The laws of chemistry give this dilution limit, which is related to Avogadro's number, as being roughly equal to 12C homeopathic dilutions (1 part in 1024).[155][156][157] James Randi and the 10:23 campaign groups have highlighted the lack of active ingredients by taking large 'overdoses'.[158] None of the hundreds of demonstrators in the UK, Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the US were injured and "no one was cured of anything, either".[158]

Modern advocates of homeopathy have proposed a concept of "water memory", according to which water "remembers" the substances mixed in it, and transmits the effect of those substances when consumed. This concept is inconsistent with the current understanding of matter, and water memory has never been demonstrated to have any detectable effect, biological or otherwise.[159][160] Existence of a pharmacological effect in the absence of any true active ingredient is inconsistent with the law of mass action and the observed dose-response relationships characteristic of therapeutic drugs[161] Homeopaths contend that their methods produce a therapeutically active preparation, selectively including only the intended substance, though critics note that any water will have been in contact with millions of different substances throughout its history, and homeopaths have not been able to account for a reason why only the selected homeopathic substance would be a special case in their process.[139]

Practitioners also hold that higher dilutions produce stronger medicinal effects. This idea is also inconsistent with observed dose-response relationships, where effects are dependent on the concentration of the active ingredient in the body.[161] Some contend that the phenomenon of hormesis may support the idea of dilution increasing potency,[162][163] but the dose-response relationship outside the zone of hormesis declines with dilution as normal, and nonlinear pharmacological effects do not provide any credible support for homeopathy.[164]

Efficacy

Explanations for efficacy of homeopathic preparations:[19]:155–167[165]
The placebo effect the intensive consultation process and expectations for the homeopathic preparations may cause the effect
Therapeutic effect of the consultation the care, concern, and reassurance a patient experiences when opening up to a compassionate caregiver can have a positive effect on the patient's well-being.
Unassisted natural healing time and the body's ability to heal without assistance can eliminate many diseases of their own accord.
Unrecognized treatments an unrelated food, exercise, environmental agent, or treatment for a different ailment, may have occurred.
Regression towards the mean since many diseases or conditions are cyclical, symptoms vary over time and patients tend to seek care when discomfort is greatest; they may feel better anyway but because of the timing of the visit to the homeopath they attribute improvement to the preparation taken.
Non-homeopathic treatment patients may also receive standard medical care at the same time as homeopathic treatment, and the former is responsible for improvement.
Cessation of unpleasant treatment often homeopaths recommend patients stop getting medical treatment such as surgery or drugs, which can cause unpleasant side-effects; improvements are attributed to homeopathy when the actual cause is the cessation of the treatment causing side-effects in the first place, but the underlying disease remains untreated and still dangerous to the patient.

No individual homeopathic preparation has been unambiguously shown by research to be different from placebo.[143] The methodological quality of the early primary research was low, with problems such as weaknesses in study design and reporting, small sample size, and selection bias. Since better quality trials have become available, the evidence for efficacy of homeopathy preparations has diminished; the highest-quality trials indicate that the preparations themselves exert no intrinsic effect.[166][167]:206[168] A review conducted in 2010 of all the pertinent studies of "best evidence" produced by the Cochrane Collaboration concluded that "the most reliable evidence – that produced by Cochrane reviews – fails to demonstrate that homeopathic medicines have effects beyond placebo."[169]

Government-level reviews have been conducted in recent years. In 2009 the United Kingdom's House of Commons Science and Technology Committee concluded that there was no compelling evidence of effect other than placebo.[11] The Australian National Health and Medical Research Council completed a comprehensive review of the effectiveness of homeopathic preparations in 2015, in which it concluded that "there were no health conditions for which there was reliable evidence that homeopathy was effective."[170] The European Academies' Science Advisory Council (EASAC) published its official analysis in 2017 finding a lack of evidence that homeopathic products are effective, and raising concerns about quality control.[13] In contrast a 2011 book was published, purportedly financed by the Swiss government, that concluded that homeopathy was effective and cost efficient.[171] Although hailed by proponents as proof that homeopathy works,[172] it was found to be scientifically, logically and ethically flawed, with most authors having a conflict of interest.[172] The Swiss Federal Office of Public Health later released a statement saying the book was published without the consent of the Swiss government.[173]

Meta-analyses, essential tools to summarize evidence of therapeutic efficacy,[174] and systematic reviews have found that the methodological quality in the majority of randomized trials in homeopathy have shortcomings and that such trials were generally of lower quality than trials of conventional medicine.[175][176] A major issue has been publication bias, where positive results are more likely to be published in journals.[177][178][179] This has been particularly marked in alternative medicine journals, where few of the published articles (just 5% during the year 2000) tend to report null results.[152] A systematic review of the available systematic reviews confirmed in 2002 that higher-quality trials tended to have less positive results, and found no convincing evidence that any homeopathic preparation exerts clinical effects different from placebo.[143] The same conclusion was also reached in 2005 in a meta-analysis published in The Lancet. A 2017 systematic review and meta-analysis found that the most reliable evidence did not support the effectiveness of non-individualized homeopathy.[180]

Health organizations, including the UK's National Health Service,[181] the American Medical Association,[182] the FASEB,[183] and the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia,[170] have issued statements saying that there is no good-quality evidence that homeopathy is effective as a treatment for any health condition.[181] In 2009, World Health Organization official Mario Raviglione criticized the use of homeopathy to treat tuberculosis; similarly, another WHO spokesperson argued there was no evidence homeopathy would be an effective treatment for diarrhoea.[184] They warned against the use of homeopathy for serious conditions such as depression, HIV and malaria.[185] The American College of Medical Toxicology and the American Academy of Clinical Toxicology recommend that no one use homeopathic treatment for disease or as a preventive health measure.[186] These organizations report that no evidence exists that homeopathic treatment is effective, but that there is evidence that using these treatments produces harm and can bring indirect health risks by delaying conventional treatment.[186]

Purported effects in other biological systems

While some articles have suggested that homeopathic solutions of high dilution can have statistically significant effects on organic processes including the growth of grain[187] and enzyme reactions, such evidence is disputed since attempts to replicate them have failed.[188][189][190][191][192][193] In 2001 and 2004, Madeleine Ennis published a number of studies that reported that homeopathic dilutions of histamine exerted an effect on the activity of basophils.[194][195] In response to the first of these studies, Horizon aired a programme in which British scientists attempted to replicate Ennis' results; they were unable to do so.[196] A 2007 systematic review of high-dilution experiments found that none of the experiments with positive results could be reproduced by all investigators.[197]

In 1988, French immunologist Jacques Benveniste published a paper in the journal Nature while working at INSERM.[198] The paper purported to have discovered that basophils, released histamine when exposed to a homeopathic dilution of anti-immunoglobulin E antibody. Sceptical of the findings, Nature assembled an independent investigative team to determine the accuracy of the research After investigation the team found that the experiments were "statistically ill-controlled", "interpretation has been clouded by the exclusion of measurements in conflict with the claim", and concluded, "We believe that experimental data have been uncritically assessed and their imperfections inadequately reported."[199][200][201]

Ethics and safety

Homeopathic preparation Rhus toxicodendron, derived from poison ivy.

The provision of homeopathic preparations has been described as unethical.[202] Michael Baum, Professor Emeritus of Surgery and visiting Professor of Medical Humanities at University College London (UCL), has described homeopathy as a "cruel deception".[203] Edzard Ernst, the first Professor of Complementary Medicine in the United Kingdom and a former homeopathic practitioner,[204][205][206] has expressed his concerns about pharmacists who violate their ethical code by failing to provide customers with "necessary and relevant information" about the true nature of the homeopathic products they advertise and sell.[207] In 2013 the UK Advertising Standards Authority concluded that the Society of Homeopaths were targeting vulnerable ill people and discouraging the use of essential medical treatment while making misleading claims of efficacy for homeopathic products.[208] In 2015 the Federal Court of Australia imposed penalties on a homeopathic company for making false or misleading statements about the efficacy of the whooping cough vaccine and recommending homeopathic remedies as an alternative.[209]

Old homeopathic belladonna preparation.

A 2000 review by homeopaths reported that homeopathic preparations are "unlikely to provoke severe adverse reactions".[210] In 2012, a systematic review evaluating evidence of homeopathy's possible adverse effects concluded that "homeopathy has the potential to harm patients and consumers in both direct and indirect ways".[211] A 2016 systematic review and meta-analysis found that, in homeopathic clinical trials, adverse effects were reported among the patients who received homeopathy about as often as they were reported among patients who received placebo or conventional medicine.[212]

Some homeopathic preparations involve poisons such as Belladonna, arsenic, and poison ivy. In rare cases, the original ingredients are present at detectable levels. This may be due to improper preparation or intentional low dilution. Serious adverse effects such as seizures and death have been reported or associated with some homeopathic preparations.[211] Instances of arsenic poisoning have occurred.[213] In 2009, the FDA advised consumers to stop using three discontinued cold remedy Zicam products because it could cause permanent damage to users' sense of smell.[214] In 2016 the FDA issued a safety alert to consumers[215] warning against the use of homeopathic teething gels and tablets following reports of adverse events after their use.[216] A previous FDA investigation had found that these products were improperly diluted and contained "unsafe levels of belladonna" and that the reports of serious adverse events in children using this product were "consistent with belladonna toxicity".[217]

Patients who choose to use homeopathy rather than evidence-based medicine risk missing timely diagnosis and effective treatment, thereby worsening the outcomes of serious conditions such as cancer.[218][219][218][219][220][221] Critics have cited cases of patients failing to receive proper treatment for diseases that could have been easily managed with conventional medicine and who have died as a result.[222][223] They have also condemned the "marketing practice" of criticizing and downplaying the effectiveness of medicine.[224][223] Homeopaths claim that use of conventional medicines will "push the disease deeper" and cause more serious conditions, a process referred to as "suppression".[225] In 1978, Anthony Campbell, a consultant physician at the Royal London Homeopathic Hospital, criticized statements by George Vithoulkas claiming that syphilis, when treated with antibiotics, would develop into secondary and tertiary syphilis with involvement of the central nervous system.[226] Vithoulkas' claims echo the idea that treating a disease with external medication used to treat the symptoms would only drive it deeper into the body and conflict with scientific studies, which indicate that penicillin treatment produces a complete cure of syphilis in more than 90% of cases.[227]

The use of homeopathy as a preventive for serious infectious diseases, called homeoprophylaxis, is especially controversial.[228] Some homeopaths (particularly those who are non-physicians) advise their patients against immunization.[220][229][230] Others have suggested that vaccines be replaced with homeopathic "nosodes".[231] While Hahnemann was opposed to such preparations, modern homeopaths often use them although there is no evidence to indicate they have any beneficial effects.[232][233] Promotion of homeopathic alternatives to vaccines has been characterized as dangerous, inappropriate and irresponsible.[234][235] In December 2014, the Australian homeopathy supplier Homeopathy Plus! was found to have acted deceptively in promoting homeopathic alternatives to vaccines.[236] In 2019, an investigative journalism piece by the Telegraph revealed that homeopathy practitioners were actively discouraging patients from vaccinating their children.[237] Cases of homeopaths advising against the use of anti-malarial drugs have also been identified.[221][238][239] putting visitors to the tropics in severe danger.[221][238][239][240]

A 2006 review recommends that pharmacy colleges include a required course where ethical dilemmas inherent in recommending products lacking proven safety and efficacy data be discussed and that students should be taught where unproven systems such as homeopathy depart from evidence-based medicine.[241]

Regulation and prevalence

Hampton House, the former site of Bristol Homeopathic Hospital.

Homeopathy is fairly common in some countries while being uncommon in others; is highly regulated in some countries and mostly unregulated in others. It is practiced worldwide and professional qualifications and licences are needed in most countries.[242] A 2019 WHO report found that 100 out of 133 Member States surveyed in 2012 acknowledged that their population used homeopathy, with 22 saying the practice was regulated and 13 providing health insurance coverage.[243] In some countries, there are no specific legal regulations concerning the use of homeopathy, while in others, licences or degrees in conventional medicine from accredited universities are required. In 2001 homeopathy had been integrated into the national health care systems of many countries, including India, Mexico, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and the United Kingdom.[242]

Regulation

Some homeopathic treatment is covered by the public health service of several European countries, including France (being phased out in 2021),[30] Scotland,[244] and Luxembourg.[245] In other countries, such as Belgium, homeopathy is not covered. In Austria, the public health service requires scientific proof of effectiveness in order to reimburse medical treatments and homeopathy is listed as not reimbursable,[246] but exceptions can be made;[247] private health insurance policies sometimes include homeopathic treatments.[242] In 2018, Austria’s Medical University of Vienna stopped teaching homeopathy.[248] The Swiss government withdrew coverage of homeopathy and four other complementary treatments in 2005, stating that they did not meet efficacy and cost-effectiveness criteria,[249] but following a referendum in 2009 the five therapies were reinstated for a further 6-year trial period.[250] In Germany, homeopathic treatments are covered by 70 percent of government medical plans, and available in almost every pharmacy.[248]

The English NHS recommended against prescribing homeopathic preparations in 2017.[251] In 2018 prescriptions worth £55,000 were written in defiance of the guidelines, representing less than 0.001% of the total NHS prescribing budget.[252][253] In 2016 the UK's Committee of Advertising Practice compliance team wrote to homeopaths[254] in the UK to "remind them of the rules that govern what they can and can't say in their marketing materials".[255] The letter told homeopaths to "ensure that they do not make any direct or implied claims that homeopathy can treat medical conditions" and asks them to review their marketing communications "including websites and social media pages" to ensure compliance.[256] Homeopathic services offered at Bristol Homeopathic Hospital in the UK ceased in October 2015,[257][258]

Member states or the European Union are required to ensure that homeopathic products are registered, although this process does not require any proof of efficacy.[259] In Spain lobby groups are trying to get rid of this easy registration procedure for homeopathic remedies.[259] In Bulgaria, Hungary, Latvia, Romania and Slovenia homeopathy, by law, can only be practiced by medical practitioners. However, in Slovenia if doctors practice homeopathy their medical license will be revoked.[259] In Germany, to become a homeopathic physician, one must attend a three-year training program, while France, Austria and Denmark mandate licences to diagnose any illness or dispense of any product whose purpose is to treat any illness.[242] Homeopaths in the UK are under no legal regulations, meaning anyone can call themselves homeopaths and administer homeopathic remedies.[251]

Homeopathics at a homeopathic pharmacy in Varanasi, India.

The Indian government recognizes homeopathy as one of its national systems of medicine and they are sold with medical claims.[260][243] It has established the Department of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH) under the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare.[261] The south Indian state of Kerala also has a cabinet-level AYUSH department.[262] The Central Council of Homoeopathy was established in 1973 to monitor higher education in homeopathy, and the National Institute of Homoeopathy in 1975.[263] Principals and standards for homeopathic products are covered by the Homoeopathic pharmacopoeia of India.[92] A minimum of a recognized diploma in homeopathy and registration on a state register or the Central Register of Homoeopathy is required to practice homeopathy in India.[264]

In the United States each state is responsible for the laws and licensing requirements for homeopathy.[265] In 2015, the FDA held a hearing on homeopathic product regulation.[266] Representatives from the Center for Inquiry and the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry gave a testimonial which summarized the harm that is done to the general public from homeopathics and proposed regulatory actions:[267] In 2016 the United States Federal Trade Commission (FTC) issued an "Enforcement Policy Statement Regarding Marketing Claims for Over-the-Counter Homeopathic Drugs" which specified that the FTC will apply the same standard to homeopathic drugs that it applies to other products claiming similar benefits.[268] A related report concluded that claims of homeopathy effectiveness "are not accepted by most modern medical experts and do not constitute competent and reliable scientific evidence that these products have the claimed treatment effects."[269] In 2019 the FDA removed an enforcement policy that permitted unapproved homeopathics to be sold.[270] Currently no homeopathic products are approved by the FDA.[271]

Homeopathic remedies are regulated as natural health products for in Canada.[92] Ontario became the first province in the country to regulate the practice of homeopathy, a move that caused widespread criticism.[272] Health Canada requires all products to have a licence before being sold and applicants have to submit evidence on "the safety, efficacy and quality of a homeopathic medicine".[273] In 2015 the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation tested the system by applying for and then receiving a government approved licence for a made-up drug aimed at kids.[274]

In Australia, the sale of homeopathic products is regulated by the Therapeutic Goods Administration.[275] In 2015, the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia concluded that there is "no reliable evidence that homeopathy is effective and should not be used to treat health conditions that are chronic, serious, or could become serious". They recommended anyone considering using homeopathy should first get advice from a registered health practitioner.[276] A 2017 review into Pharmacy Remuneration and Regulation recommended that products be banned from pharmacies;[277] while noted the concerns the government did not adopt the recommendation.[278] In New Zealand there are no regulations specific to homeopathy[279] and the New Zealand Medical Association does not oppose the use of homeopathy,[280] a stance that has been called unethical by some doctors.[281]

Prevalence

Homeopathy is one of the most commonly used forms of alternative medicines and it has a large worldwide market.[92] The exact size is uncertain, but information available on homeopathic sales suggests it forms a large share of the medical market.[92]

In the UK about 1000 UK doctors practice homeopathy, most being general practitioners who prescribe a limited number of remedies. A further 1500 homeopaths with no medical training are also thought to practice. Over ten thousand German and French doctors use homeopathy.[90] In the United States a National Health Interview Survey estimated 5 million adults and 1 million children used homeopathy in 2011. An analysis of this survey concluded that most cases were self-prescribed for colds and musculoskeletal pain.[282] Major retailers like Walmart, CVS, and Walgreens sell homeopathic products that resemble conventional medicines.[248]

The homeopathic drug market in Germany is worth about 650 million euro with a 2014 survey finding that 60 percent of Germans reported trying homeopathy.[248] A 2009 survey found that only 17 percent of respondents knew how homeopathic medicine was made.[248] France spent more than 408 million USD on homeopathic products in 2008.[92] In the United States the homeopathic market is worth about the $3 billion-a-year;[283] with 2.9 billion spent in 2007.[92] Australia spent 7.3 million USD on homeopathic medicines in 2008.[92]

A 2017 systemic review found no English language surveys on homeopathic use from India, despite it being very popular there.[284] Homeopathy is used in China, although it arrived a lot later than in many other countries; partly due to the restriction on foreigners that persisted until late in the nineteenth century.[285] Throughout Africa there is a high reliance on traditional medicines, which can be attributed to the cost of modern medicines and the relative prevalence of practitioners. Many African countries do not have any official training facilities.[242]

Veterinary use

Homeopathic cures for small animals on the Isle of Man

The idea of using homeopathy as a treatment for animals is termed "veterinary homeopathy" and dates back to the inception of homeopathy; Hahnemann himself wrote and spoke of the use of homeopathy in animals other than humans.[286] The use of homeopathy in the organic farming industry is heavily promoted.[287] Given that homeopathy's effects in humans are due to the placebo effect and the counseling aspects of the consultation, such treatments are even less effective in animals.[288] Studies have also found that giving animals placebos can play active roles in influencing pet owners to believe in the effectiveness of the treatment when none exists.[289] This means that animals given homeopathic remedies will continue to suffer, resulting in animal welfare concerns.[290][291]

Little existing research on the subject is of a high enough scientific standard to provide reliable data on efficacy.[289][292][293] A 2016 review of peer-reviewed articles from 1981 to 2014 by scientists from the University of Kassel, Germany, concluded that there is not enough evidence to support homeopathy as an effective treatment of infectious diseases in livestock.[294] The UK's Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) has adopted a robust position against use of "alternative" pet preparations including homeopathy.[295] The British Veterinary Association's position statement on alternative medicines says that it "cannot endorse" homeopathy,[296] and the Australian Veterinary Association includes it on its list of "ineffective therapies".[297]

See also

References

  1. ^ Tuomela, R (1987). "Chapter 4: Science, Protoscience, and Pseudoscience". In Pitt JC, Marcello P (eds.). Rational Changes in Science: Essays on Scientific Reasoning. Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science. 98. Springer. pp. 83–101. doi:10.1007/978-94-009-3779-6_4. ISBN 978-94-010-8181-8.
  2. ^ Smith K (2012). "Homeopathy is Unscientific and Unethical". Bioethics. 26 (9): 508–12. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8519.2011.01956.x.
  3. ^ a b Baran GR, Kiana MF, Samuel SP (2014). "Science, Pseudoscience, and Not Science: How Do They Differ?". Chapter 2: Science, Pseudoscience, and Not Science: How Do They Differ?. Healthcare and Biomedical Technology in the 21st Century. Springer. pp. 19–57. doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-8541-4_2. ISBN 978-1-4614-8540-7. within the traditional medical community it is considered to be quackery
  4. ^ Ladyman J (2013). "Chapter 3: Towards a Demarcation of Science from Pseudoscience". In Pigliucci M, Boudry M (eds.). Philosophy of Pseudoscience: Reconsidering the Demarcation Problem. University of Chicago Press. pp. 48–49. ISBN 978-0-226-05196-3. Yet homeopathy is a paradigmatic example of pseudoscience. It is neither simply bad science nor science fraud, but rather profoundly departs from scientific method and theories while being described as scientific by some of its adherents (often sincerely).
  5. ^ a b Hahnemann, Samuel (1833). The homœopathic medical doctrine, or "Organon of the healing art". Dublin: W. F. Wakeman. pp. iii, 48–49. Observation, reflection, and experience have unfolded to me that the best and true method of cure is founded on the principle, similia similibus curentur. To cure in a mild, prompt, safe, and durable manner, it is necessary to choose in each case a medicine that will excite an affection similar (ὅμοιος πάθος) to that against which it is employed. Translator: Charles H. Devrient, Esq.
  6. ^ "Homeopathy". Royal Pharmaceutical Society. Retrieved November 17, 2019.
  7. ^ "Homeopathy". nhs.uk. October 18, 2017. Retrieved November 10, 2019.
  8. ^ a b Shang, Aijing; Huwiler-Müntener, Karin; Nartey, Linda; Jüni, Peter; Dörig, Stephan; Sterne, Jonathan AC; Pewsner, Daniel; Egger, Matthias (2005). "Are the clinical effects of homoeopathy placebo effects? Comparative study of placebo-controlled trials of homoeopathy and allopathy". The Lancet. 366 (9487): 726–32. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67177-2. PMID 16125589. S2CID 17939264.
  9. ^ Ernst, E. (December 2012). "Homeopathy: a critique of current clinical research". Skeptical Inquirer. 36 (6).
  10. ^ "Homeopathy". American Cancer Society. Retrieved October 12, 2014.
  11. ^ a b UK Parliamentary Committee Science and Technology Committee - "Evidence Check 2: Homeopathy"
  12. ^ a b Grimes, D.R. (2012). "Proposed mechanisms for homeopathy are physically impossible". Focus on Alternative and Complementary Therapies. 17 (3): 149–55. doi:10.1111/j.2042-7166.2012.01162.x.
  13. ^ a b "Homeopathic products and practices: assessing the evidence and ensuring consistency in regulating medical claims in the EU" (PDF). European Academies' Science Advisory Council. September 2017. p. 1. Retrieved October 1, 2017. ... we agree with previous extensive evaluations concluding that there are no known diseases for which there is robust, reproducible evidence that homeopathy is effective beyond the placebo effect.
  14. ^ a b c d Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. (1842). Homoeopathy and its kindred delusions: Two lectures delivered before the Boston Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. Boston. as reprinted in Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. (1861). Currents and counter-currents in medical science. Ticknor and Fields. pp. 72–188. OCLC 1544161. OL 14731800M.
  15. ^ a b Ernst, E. (2002). "A systematic review of systematic reviews of homeopathy". British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 54 (6): 577–82. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2125.2002.01699.x. PMC 1874503. PMID 12492603.
  16. ^ "Evidence Check 2: Homeopathy – Science and Technology Committee". British House of Commons Science and Technology Committee. February 22, 2010. Retrieved April 5, 2014.
  17. ^ Caulfield, Timothy; Debow, Suzanne (2005). "A systematic review of how homeopathy is represented in conventional and CAM peer reviewed journals". BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 5: 12. doi:10.1186/1472-6882-5-12. PMC 1177924. PMID 15955254.
  18. ^ "Fun with homeopaths and meta-analyses of homeopathy trials". sciencebasedmedicine.org. Retrieved November 9, 2019.
  19. ^ a b c d e f Shelton, JW (2004). Homeopathy: How it really works. Amherst, New York: Prometheus Books. ISBN 978-1-59102-109-4.
  20. ^ Ernst, E. (2010). "Homeopathy: What does the "best" evidence tell us?". Medical Journal of Australia. 192 (8): 458–60. doi:10.5694/j.1326-5377.2010.tb03585.x. PMID 20402610. S2CID 42180344.
  21. ^ Collins, Nick (April 18, 2013). "Homeopathy is nonsense, says new chief scientist". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved September 9, 2013.
  22. ^ Paul S. Boyer (2001). The Oxford companion to United States history. p. 630. ISBN 9780195082098. Retrieved January 15, 2013. After 1847, when regular doctors organized the American Medical Association (AMA), that body led the war on "quackery", especially targeting dissenting medical groups such as homeopaths, who prescribed infinitesimally small doses of medicine. Ironically, even as the AMA attacked all homeopathy as quackery, educated homeopathic physicians were expelling untrained quacks from their ranks.
  23. ^ Musgrave, I (April 8, 2014). "No evidence homeopathy is effective: NHMRC review". The Conversation. Retrieved January 10, 2015.
  24. ^ "Swiss make New Year's regulations". Swiss Info. Retrieved December 16, 2015.
  25. ^ "Homeopathic remedies are 'nonsense and risk significant harm' say 29 European scientific bodies". The Independent. September 23, 2017. Retrieved October 10, 2017.
  26. ^ "Memorandum #2. Homeopathy as pseudoscience". Commission on Pseudoscience and Research Fraud of Russian Academy of Sciences. Retrieved June 25, 2019.
  27. ^ "NHS to ban homeopathy and herbal medicine, as 'misuse of resources'". Daily Telegraph. July 21, 2017. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
  28. ^ a b Donnelly, Laura (June 5, 2018). "High Court backs NHS decision to stop funding homeopathy". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved August 26, 2018.
  29. ^ a b Gallagher, James (November 13, 2015). "Homeopathy 'could be blacklisted'". BBC News. Retrieved December 5, 2017.
  30. ^ a b c France-Presse, Agence (July 10, 2019). "France to stop reimbursing patients for homeopathy". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved July 30, 2019.
  31. ^ a b Güell, Oriol (November 14, 2018). "Spain moves to ban pseudo-therapies from universities and health centers". El País. ISSN 1134-6582. Retrieved July 30, 2019.
  32. ^ Loudon, Irvine (December 2006). "A brief history of homeopathy". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 99 (12): 607–610. doi:10.1177/014107680609901206. ISSN 0141-0768. PMC 1676328. PMID 17139061.
  33. ^ Lasagna L (1970) [1962]. The doctors' dilemmas. New York: Collier Books. p. 33. ISBN 978-0-8369-1669-0.
  34. ^ a b Edzard Ernst; Singh, Simon (2008). Trick or Treatment: The Undeniable Facts about Alternative Medicine. New York: W. W. Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-06661-6.
  35. ^ W. Steven Pray (August 1, 2003). a History of Nonprescription Product Regulation. Psychology Press. p. 192. ISBN 978-0-7890-1538-9. Retrieved January 21, 2013.
  36. ^ Dean ME (2001). "Homeopathy and "the progress of science"" (PDF). Hist Sci. 39 (125 Pt 3): 255–83. Bibcode:2001HisSc..39..255E. doi:10.1177/007327530103900301. PMID 11712570. S2CID 23943688. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 1, 2006. Retrieved March 31, 2009.
  37. ^ Whorton JC (2004). Nature Cures: The History of Alternative Medicine in America. New York: Oxford University Press US. pp. 18, 52. ISBN 978-0-19-517162-4.
  38. ^ Robert W. Ullman; Judyth Reichenberg-Ullman (October 1, 1994). The patient's guide to homeopathic medicine. Picnic Point Press. pp. 1–2. ISBN 978-0-9640654-2-0. Retrieved January 24, 2013.
  39. ^ Merrell, Woodson C.; Shalts, Edward (2002). "Homeopathy". The Medical Clinics of North America. 86 (1): 47–62. doi:10.1016/s0025-7125(03)00071-3. ISSN 0025-7125. PMID 11795090.
  40. ^ J. D. White; John Hugh McQuillen; George Jacob Ziegler; James William White; Edward Cameron Kirk; Lovick Pierce Anthony, eds. (December 1894). "A wail from the waste-basket". The Dental Cosmos (editorial). 36 (12): 1030–32.
  41. ^ Atwood, Kimball (January 4, 2008). "Homeopathy and evidence-based medicine: back to the future". Science Based Medicine. Retrieved September 9, 2013.
  42. ^ a b Richard Haehl (1922). Samuel Hahnemann: His Life and Work : Based on Recently Discovered State Papers, Documents, Letters, Etc. B. Jain Publishers. p. 101. ISBN 978-81-7021-693-3. Retrieved January 24, 2013.
  43. ^ Anne Taylor Kirschmann (2004). A vital force: women in American homeopathy. Rutgers University Press. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-8135-3320-9. Retrieved January 28, 2013.
  44. ^ a b "Dynamization and dilution". Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Creighton University Department of Pharmacology. Archived from the original on August 26, 2002. Retrieved March 24, 2009.
  45. ^ Hahnemann S (1833). The organon of the healing art (5th ed.). aphorism 269. ISBN 978-0-87983-228-5.. Hahnemann S (1842). The organon of the healing art (6th ed.) (published 1921). aphorism 270. ISBN 978-0-87983-228-5.
  46. ^ a b c "History of Homeopathy". Creighton University Department of Pharmacology. July 2007. Archived from the original on July 5, 2007. Retrieved July 23, 2007.
  47. ^ John Henry Clarke (January 1, 2001). Homeopathy explained. Nanopathy. pp. 22–. GGKEY:JWCD56EF80T. Retrieved January 12, 2013.
  48. ^ Grimes, D. R. (2012). "Proposed mechanisms for homeopathy are physically impossible". Focus on Alternative and Complementary Therapies. 17 (3): 154. doi:10.1111/j.2042-7166.2012.01162.x.
  49. ^ a b King S. "Miasms in homeopathy". Classical homeopathy. Archived from the original on March 7, 2009. Retrieved March 25, 2009.
  50. ^ Ward JW (July 1937). "Taking the history of the case". Pacific Coast Journal of Homeopathy. Retrieved October 22, 2007. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  51. ^ "Cause of disease in homeopathy". Creighton University Department of Pharmacology. Archived from the original on December 31, 2009. Retrieved July 23, 2007.
  52. ^ Helmuth, William Tod (1911). "Homoeopathy" . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. 13 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 645.
  53. ^ Hahnemann S (1828). Die chronischen Krankheiten, ihre eigenthümliche Natur und homöopathische Heilung [The chronic diseases, their specific nature and homoeopathic treatment]. Dresden and Leipzig: Arnoldische Buchhandlung.[page needed]
  54. ^ Miller, Timothy (1995). America's alternative religions. State University of New York Press, Albany. pp. 80. ISBN 978-0-7914-2397-4.
  55. ^ Winston J (2006). Homeopathy Timeline. The Faces of Homoeopathy. Whole Health Now. ISBN 978-0-473-05607-0. Retrieved July 23, 2007.
  56. ^ Toufexis A, Cole W, Hallanan DB (September 25, 1995). "Is homeopathy good medicine?". Time.
  57. ^ Ernst, E.; Kaptchuk, TJ (1996). "Homeopathy revisited". Archives of Internal Medicine. 156 (19): 2162–4. doi:10.1001/archinte.156.19.2162. PMID 8885813.
  58. ^ Kaufman M (1971). Homeopathy in America: The rise and fall of a medical heresy. The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-1238-5.[page needed]
  59. ^ Coulter HL (1973). Divided Legacy. Berkeley: North Atlantic. pp. II:544–46, III:267–70, 298–305. OCLC 9538442.
  60. ^ Death rates in conventional hospitals were typically two- to eight-fold higher than in homeopathic hospitals for patients with these infectious diseases; see Bradford TL (2007) [1900]. The logic of figures or comparative results of homeopathic and other treatments. Kessinger. ISBN 978-1-4304-8892-7.[page needed]
  61. ^ Forbes J (1846). Homeopathy, allopathy and young physic. London.
  62. ^ Simpson JY (1853). Homoeopathy, its tenets and tendencies, theoretical, theological and therapeutical. Edinburgh: Sutherland & Knox. p. 11.
  63. ^ Allen JA, ed. (1867). "Homœopathists vs homœopathy". Chic Med J. 24: 268–69.
  64. ^ Paul Ulrich Unschuld (August 9, 2009). What Is Medicine?: Western and Eastern Approaches to Healing. University of California Press. p. 171. ISBN 978-0-520-94470-1. Retrieved September 7, 2013.
  65. ^ "Homeopathic Hassle". Time. August 20, 1956.
  66. ^ Rader WM (March 1, 1985). "Riding the coattails of homeopathy's revival". FDA Consumer Magazine.
  67. ^ a b Jonas, WB; TJ Kaptchuk; K Linde (2003). "A critical overview of homeopathy". Annals of Internal Medicine. 138 (5): 393–99. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-138-5-200303040-00009. PMID 12614092. S2CID 22787732.
  68. ^ Lockie, Andrew (2000). Encyclopedia of Homeopathy (1st ed.). New York: Dorling Kindersley. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-7566-1871-1.
  69. ^ Bruce M. Hood (April 7, 2009). SuperSense. HarperCollins. p. 157. ISBN 978-0-06-186793-4. Retrieved September 7, 2013.
  70. ^ William T. Jarvis. "Response to Isadora Stehlin "Homeopathy: real medicine or empty promises?" (originally published in FDA Consumer April 1997".
  71. ^ a b Crockett, Chambers (2012). "Death by homeopathy: issues for civil, criminal and coronial law and for health service policy". Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics. 19 (3): 454–78. PMID 22558899.
  72. ^ "The Australian report". HRI Research. Hri Research. April 6, 2017. Retrieved August 13, 2018.
  73. ^ Abusson, Kate (May 3, 2018). "Pharmacies avoid homeopathy ban as government parks recommendations". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved August 13, 2018.
  74. ^ Kelly Servick (April 21, 2015). "FDA takes new look at homeopathy". Science. Retrieved April 23, 2015. Under FDA guidelines issued in 1988, a company can sell homeopathic products over the counter without demonstrating their safety or efficacy, and―unlike dietary supplements―their packaging can include claims about treating specific conditions, as long as they are "self-limiting" and not chronic. Such conditions include sprains, colds, or allergies.
  75. ^ Frazier, Kendrick (2018). "FDA to Regulate Some Homeopathic Products; CFI Hails Move". Skeptical Inquirer. 42 (2): 12.
  76. ^ "CENTER FOR INQUIRY SUES CVS FOR FRAUD OVER SALE OF HOMEOPATHIC FAKE MEDICINE" (Press release). Center for Inquiry. July 9, 2018. Retrieved July 9, 2018.
  77. ^ Bellamy, Jann. "CVS sued for deceiving consumers in sale of homeopathic remedies". Science Based Medicine. Retrieved January 22, 2019.
  78. ^ Fidalgo, Paul (September 2019). "CFI sues Walmart for fraud for selling homeopathic fake medicine". Skeptical Inquirer. Amherst, NY: Center for Inquiry.
  79. ^ Vyse, Stuart. "What Should Become of a Monument to Pseudoscience?". Skeptical Inquirer. Center for Inquiry. Retrieved December 2, 2019.
  80. ^ Frazier, Kendrick (2019). "CFI survey on Homeopathy: Consumers feel scammed by Walmart and CVS". Skeptical Inquirer. 43 (6): 7.
  81. ^ Fidalgo, Paul. "CONSUMERS FEEL "SCAMMED" BY WALMART AND CVS OVER HOMEOPATHIC FAKE MEDICINE, SURVEY SHOWS". Center for Inquiry. Center for Inquiry. Retrieved November 9, 2019.
  82. ^ France will end healthcare refunds for homeopathic drugs.
  83. ^ Ansede, Manuel (March 4, 2016). "La Universidad de Barcelona fulmina su máster de homeopatía". El País.
  84. ^ "El Máster de Homeopatía de la Universidad de Valencia cancela su edición para el próximo curso". Diario ABC. April 7, 2016.
  85. ^ "Homeopathic drugs: No better than placebos?". The Washington Post. December 21, 2015. Retrieved December 22, 2015.
  86. ^ Jonas: Mosby's Dictionary of Complementary and Alternative Medicine. (c) 2005, Elsevier
  87. ^ a b Bellavite, Paolo; Conforti, Anita; Piasere, Valeria; Ortolani, Riccardo (2005). "Immunology and Homeopathy. 1. Historical Background". Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2 (4): 441–52. doi:10.1093/ecam/neh141. PMC 1297514. PMID 16322800.
  88. ^ Mathur KN (2003). Prinzipien der homöopathischen Verschreibung: Synopsis weltweiter klinischer Erfahrungen (in German). Georg Thieme Verlag. pp. 122–23. ISBN 978-3-8304-9021-0. OCLC 76518035.
  89. ^ "Repertories today and yesterday". National Center for Homeopathy. Archived from the original on April 14, 2017. Retrieved August 31, 2020.
  90. ^ a b Vickers, Andrew; Zollman, Catherine (October 23, 1999). "Homoeopathy". BMJ : British Medical Journal. 319 (7217): 1115–1118. doi:10.1136/bmj.319.7217.1115. ISSN 0959-8138. PMC 1116906. PMID 10531108.
  91. ^ Stehlin I (1996). "Homeopathy: Real medicine or empty promises?". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Archived from the original on September 24, 2009. Retrieved October 1, 2007.
  92. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Safety issues in the preparation of homeopathic medicines" (PDF). World Health Organization.
  93. ^ "FAQs". The American Association of Homeopathic Pharmacists. Retrieved August 31, 2020.
  94. ^ Ernst, E (2005). "Is homeopathy a clinically valuable approach?" (PDF). Trends in Pharmacological Sciences. 26 (11): 547–48. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.385.5505. doi:10.1016/j.tips.2005.09.003. PMID 16165225.
  95. ^ Sagar, SM (2007). "Homeopathy: Does a teaspoon of honey help the medicine go down?". Current Oncology. 14 (4): 126–27. doi:10.3747/co.2007.150. PMC 1948865. PMID 17710203.
  96. ^ Kayne SB (2006). Homeopathic pharmacy: theory and practice (2 ed.). Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 171. ISBN 978-0-443-10160-1.
  97. ^ Owen, David (January 1, 2007). Principles and Practice of Homeopathy: The Therapeutic and Healing Process. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 56. ISBN 978-0443100895.
  98. ^ Lack, Caleb W.; Rousseau, Jacques (March 8, 2016). Critical Thinking, Science, and Pseudoscience: Why We Can't Trust Our Brains. Springer Publishing Company. p. 206. ISBN 9780826194268.
  99. ^ Lee J, Thompson E (2007). "X-ray drug picture". The Homeopath. 26 (2): 43–48. ISSN 0263-3256.
  100. ^ Lee J, Thompson E (2007). "Postironium - the vastness of the universe knocks me off my feet". The Homeopath. 26 (2): 49–54. ISSN 0263-3256.
  101. ^ Kempf, EJ (1906). "European Medicine: A Résumé of Medical Progress During the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries". Medical Library and Historical Journal. 4 (1): 86–100. PMC 1692573. PMID 18340908.
  102. ^ "Electro-homeopathy clinics to be sealed after Holi". Times of India. March 5, 2012. Retrieved August 13, 2018.
  103. ^ Shah R. "Call for introspection and awakening" (PDF). Life Force Center. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 2, 2007. Retrieved July 24, 2007.
  104. ^ Barwell B (2000). "The wo-wo effect". Homoeopathica. 20 (3). Archived from the original on July 26, 2009. Retrieved April 2, 2009.
  105. ^ Vanhaselen, R (1999). "The relationship between homeopathy and the Dr Bach system of flower remedies: A critical appraisal". British Homoeopathic Journal. 88 (3): 121–27. doi:10.1054/homp.1999.0308. PMID 10449052.
  106. ^ a b Kayne SB (2006). Homeopathic pharmacy: theory and practice (2 ed.). Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 53. ISBN 978-0-443-10160-1.
  107. ^ "Glossary of Homeopathic Terms". Creighton University Department of Pharmacology. Archived from the original on October 16, 2012. Retrieved February 15, 2009.
  108. ^ "Homeopathy: Diluted out of existence?". scilogs.com/in_scientio_veritas. January 22, 2011. Retrieved June 15, 2015.
  109. ^ "Homeopathic Medicine Potency or Dilution". ritecare.com. Archived from the original on August 21, 2015. Retrieved June 15, 2015.
  110. ^ Winston, Julian (April 1, 1989). "A brief history of potentizing machines". British Homoeopathic Journal. 78 (2): 59–68. doi:10.1016/S0007-0785(89)80050-X. ISSN 0007-0785.
  111. ^ "Homeopathic Medicine Potency or Dilution". Archived from the original on August 21, 2015. Retrieved June 15, 2015.
  112. ^ Adler, U. C.; Adler, M. S. (2006). "Hahnemann's experiments with 50 millesimal potencies: a further review of his casebooks". Homeopathy. 95 (3): 171–181. doi:10.1016/j.homp.2006.03.003. ISSN 1475-4916. PMID 16815521.
  113. ^ In standard chemistry, this produces a substance with a concentration of 0.01%, measured by the volume-volume percentage method.
  114. ^ Smith T (1989). Homeopathic Medicine. Healing Arts Press. pp. 14–15.
  115. ^ "Similia similibus curentur (Like cures like)". Creighton University Department of Pharmacology. Archived from the original on August 8, 2007. Retrieved August 20, 2007.
  116. ^ Page 3. "Alternative Medicine: Homeopathy-A Review" (PDF). International Journal of Pharmacotherapy. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 3, 2015. Retrieved August 10, 2015.
  117. ^ a b Hahnemann S (1921). The Organon of the Healing Art (6th ed.). aphorism 128. ISBN 978-0-87983-228-5.
  118. ^ a b For further discussion of homeopathic dilutions and the mathematics involved, see Homeopathic dilutions.
  119. ^ Bambridge AD (1989). Homeopathy investigated. Kent, England: Diasozo Trust. ISBN 978-0-948171-20-8.
  120. ^ Andrews P (1990). "Homeopathy and Hinduism". The Watchman Expositor. Watchman Fellowship.
  121. ^ A 12C solution produced using sodium chloride (also called natrum muriaticum in homeopathy) is the equivalent of dissolving 0.36 mL of table salt, weighing about 0.77 g, into a volume of water the size of the Atlantic Ocean, since the volume of the Atlantic Ocean and its adjacent seas is 3.55×108 km3 or 3.55×1020 L : Emery KO, Uchupi E (1984). The geology of the Atlantic Ocean. Springer. ISBN 978-0-387-96032-6.
  122. ^ The volume of all water on earth is about 1.36×109 km3: Earth's water distribution. Water Science for Schools. United States Geological Survey. August 28, 2006. ISBN 978-0-07-825402-4.
  123. ^ Gleick PH, Water resources, In Schneider SH, ed. (1996). Encyclopedia of climate and weather. 2. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 817–823.
  124. ^ Robert L. Park (2008). Superstition: Belief in the Age of Science. Princeton University Press. pp. 145–46. ISBN 978-0-691-13355-3.
  125. ^ Fisher, P (2007). "The Memory of Water: a scientific heresy?". Homeopathy. 96 (3): 141–2. doi:10.1016/j.homp.2007.05.008. PMID 17678808.
  126. ^ Dantas, F; Fisher, P; Walach, H; Wieland, F; Rastogi, D; Teixeira, H; Koster, D; Jansen, J; Eizayaga, J (2007). "A systematic review of the quality of homeopathic pathogenetic trials published from 1945 to 1995". Homeopathy. 96 (1): 4–16. doi:10.1016/j.homp.2006.11.005. PMID 17227742.
  127. ^ Bradford, Thomas Lindsley (1895). The Life and Letters of Dr. Samuel Hahnemann. Philadelphia: Boericke & Tafel. pp. 103–04. ISBN 978-1330001509. Retrieved August 27, 2015.
  128. ^ Kayne SB (2006). Homeopathic pharmacy: theory and practice (2 ed.). Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 52. ISBN 978-0-443-10160-1.
  129. ^ Cassedy JH (1999). American Medicine and Statistical Thinking, 1800–1860. iUniverse. ISBN 978-1-58348-428-9.[page needed]
  130. ^ Fye WB (1986). "Nitroglycerin: a homeopathic remedy". Circulation. 73 (1): 21–29. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.73.1.21. PMID 2866851.
  131. ^ Hahnemann S (1796). C. W. Hufelands (ed.). "Versuch über ein neues Prinzip zur Auffindung der Heilkräfte der Arzneisubstanzen, nebst einigen Blicken auf die bisherigen". Journal der Practischen Heilkunde (in German). II (3).
  132. ^ Hahnemann S (1805). Fragmenta de Viribus medicamentorum Positivis (in Latin). Leipzig.
  133. ^ Hahnemann S, Stapf E, Gross G, de Brunnow EG (1826–1828). Materia medica pura; sive, Doctrina de medicamentorum viribus in corpore humano sano observatis; e Germanico sermone in Latinum conversa (in Latin). Dresden: Arnold. OCLC 14840659.
  134. ^ Kent, James Tyler (1905). Lectures on Homoeopathic Materia Medica. Boericke & Tafel. ISBN 978-0-7222-9856-5.
  135. ^ Kent, James Tyler (March 31, 2020). Lectures on Homoeopathic Materia Medica: Together With Kent's "New Remedies" Incorporated and Arranged in One Alphabetical Order. B. Jain Publishers (P) Limited. ISBN 978-81-319-0259-2.
  136. ^ "Are the principles of Homeopathy scientifically valid?". Creighton University School of Medicine. Archived from the original on August 16, 2012.
  137. ^ Caulfield, Timothy; Rachul, Christen (2011). "Supported by science?: What Canadian naturopaths advertise to the public". Allergy, Asthma & Clinical Immunology. 7: 14. doi:10.1186/1710-1492-7-14. PMC 3182944. PMID 21920039. Within the non-CAM scientific community, homeopathy has long been viewed as a sham
  138. ^ Tuomela, R (1987). "Chapter 4: Science, Protoscience, and Pseudoscience". In Pitt JC, Marcello P (eds.). Rational Changes in Science: Essays on Scientific Reasoning. Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science. 98. Springer. pp. 83–101. doi:10.1007/978-94-009-3779-6_4. ISBN 978-94-010-8181-8.
  139. ^ a b Smith K (2012). "Homeopathy is Unscientific and Unethical". Bioethics. 26 (9): 508–12. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8519.2011.01956.x.
  140. ^ a b Baran GR, Kiana MF, Samuel SP (2014). "Science, Pseudoscience, and Not Science: How Do They Differ?". Chapter 2: Science, Pseudoscience, and Not Science: How Do They Differ?. Healthcare and Biomedical Technology in the 21st Century. Springer. pp. 19–57. doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-8541-4_2. ISBN 978-1-4614-8540-7. within the traditional medical community it is considered to be quackery
  141. ^ Ladyman J (2013). "Chapter 3: Towards a Demarcation of Science from Pseudoscience". In Pigliucci M, Boudry M (eds.). Philosophy of Pseudoscience: Reconsidering the Demarcation Problem. University of Chicago Press. pp. 48–49. ISBN 978-0-226-05196-3. Yet homeopathy is a paradigmatic example of pseudoscience. It is neither simply bad science nor science fraud, but rather profoundly departs from scientific method and theories while being described as scientific by some of its adherents (often sincerely).
  142. ^ Vickers, Andrew; Zollman, Catherine (October 23, 1999). "Homoeopathy". BMJ : British Medical Journal. 319 (7217): 1115–1118. doi:10.1136/bmj.319.7217.1115. ISSN 0959-8138. PMC 1116906. PMID 10531108.
  143. ^ a b c Ernst, E. (2002). "A systematic review of systematic reviews of homeopathy". British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 54 (6): 577–82. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2125.2002.01699.x. PMC 1874503. PMID 12492603.
  144. ^ a b Adler J (February 4, 2004). "No way to treat the dying". Newsweek.
  145. ^ a b Dearden, Lizzie (February 7, 2017). "Russian Academy of Sciences says homeopathy is dangerous 'pseudoscience' that does not work". The Independent. Retrieved February 7, 2017.
  146. ^ Atwood, KC (2003). ""Neurocranial restructuring" and homeopathy, neither complementary nor alternative". Archives of Otolaryngology–Head & Neck Surgery. 129 (12): 1356–57. doi:10.1001/archotol.129.12.1356. PMID 14676179.
  147. ^ Ndububa, VI (2007). "Medical quackery in Nigeria; why the silence?". Nigerian Journal of Medicine. 16 (4): 312–17. doi:10.4314/njm.v16i4.37328. PMID 18080586.
  148. ^ Ernst, E; Pittler, MH (1998). "Efficacy of homeopathic arnica: a systematic review of placebo-controlled clinical trials". Archives of Surgery. 133 (11): 1187–90. doi:10.1001/archsurg.133.11.1187. PMID 9820349.
  149. ^ Silverman, Rosa. "Homeopathy is 'rubbish', says chief medical officer". The Daily Telegraph. London. ISSN 0307-1235. OCLC 49632006. Retrieved January 24, 2013.
  150. ^ Nick Collins (April 18, 2013). "Homeopathy is nonsense, says new chief scientist". The Daily Telegraph.
  151. ^ Richard Gray (April 9, 2013). "Homeopathy on the NHS is 'mad' says outgoing scientific adviser". The Daily Telegraph.
  152. ^ a b c Goldacre, Ben (2007). "Benefits and risks of homoeopathy". The Lancet. 370 (9600): 1672–73. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61706-1. PMID 18022024. S2CID 43588927.
  153. ^ Baum, Michael; Ernst, Edzard (2009). "Should We Maintain an Open Mind about Homeopathy?". The American Journal of Medicine. 122 (11): 973–74. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2009.03.038. PMID 19854319. Homeopathy is among the worst examples of faith-based medicine… These axioms [of homeopathy] are not only out of line with scientific facts but also directly opposed to them. If homeopathy is correct, much of physics, chemistry, and pharmacology must be incorrect… To have an open mind about homeopathy or similarly implausible forms of alternative medicine (e.g., Bach Flower remedies, spiritual healing, crystal therapy) is, therefore, not an option
  154. ^ a b Ernst, E (2005). "Is homeopathy a clinically valuable approach?" (PDF). Trends in Pharmacological Sciences. 26 (11): 547–48. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.385.5505. doi:10.1016/j.tips.2005.09.003. PMID 16165225.
  155. ^ For further discussion of homeopathic dilutions and the mathematics involved, see Homeopathic dilutions.
  156. ^ Barrett S (December 28, 2004). "Homeopathy: the ultimate fake". Quackwatch. Retrieved July 25, 2007.
  157. ^ Faziola L. "Dynamization and dilution". Homeopathy Tutorial. Creighton University School of Medicine. Retrieved July 24, 2007.
  158. ^ a b Sam Jones, "Homeopathy protesters to take 'mass overdose' outside Boots", The Guardian, January 29, 2010
  159. ^ Maddox J (1988). "When to believe the unbelievable". Nature (editorial). 333 (6176): 1349–56. Bibcode:1988Natur.333Q.787.. doi:10.1038/333787a0. S2CID 4369459.
  160. ^ Maddox, J; Randi, J; Stewart, W (1988). ""High-dilution" experiments a delusion". Nature. 334 (6180): 287–91. Bibcode:1988Natur.334..287M. doi:10.1038/334287a0. PMID 2455869. S2CID 9579433.
  161. ^ a b Levy, G (1986). "Kinetics of drug action: An overview". Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 78 (4 Pt 2): 754–61. doi:10.1016/0091-6749(86)90057-6. PMID 3534056.
  162. ^ Oberbaum, M; Singer, SR; Samuels, N. (July 2010). "Hormesis and homeopathy: bridge over troubled waters". Hum Exp Toxicol. 29 (7): 567–71. doi:10.1177/0960327110369777. PMID 20558608. S2CID 8107797.
  163. ^ Khuda‐Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman (2003). "Towards understanding molecular mechanisms of action of homeopathic drugs: an overview". Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry. 253 (1/2): 339–45. doi:10.1023/A:1026048907739. PMID 14619985. S2CID 10971539.
  164. ^ Smith, Kevin (April 2012). "Homeopathy is unscientific and unethical". Bioethics. 26 (9): 508–12. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8519.2011.01956.x.
  165. ^ Brien S; Lachance S; Prescott P; McDermott C; Lewith G (June 2011). "Homeopathy has clinical benefits in rheumatoid arthritis patients that are attributable to the consultation process but not the homeopathic remedy: a randomized controlled clinical trial". Rheumatology. 50 (6): 1070–82. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/keq234. PMC 3093927. PMID 21076131.
  166. ^ Caulfield, Timothy; Debow, Suzanne (2005). "A systematic review of how homeopathy is represented in conventional and CAM peer reviewed journals". BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 5: 12. doi:10.1186/1472-6882-5-12. PMC 1177924. PMID 15955254.
  167. ^ Shelton, JW (2004). Homeopathy: How it really works. Amherst, New York: Prometheus Books. ISBN 978-1-59102-109-4.
  168. ^ Linde, K; Scholz, M; Ramirez, G; Clausius, N; Melchart, D; Jonas, WB (1999). "Impact of study quality on outcome in placebo-controlled trials of homeopathy". Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 52 (7): 631–36. doi:10.1016/S0895-4356(99)00048-7. PMID 10391656.
  169. ^ Ernst, E. (2010). "Homeopathy: What does the "best" evidence tell us?". Medical Journal of Australia. 192 (8): 458–60. doi:10.5694/j.1326-5377.2010.tb03585.x. PMID 20402610. S2CID 42180344.
  170. ^ a b National Health and Medical Research Council (2015). NHMRC statement on homeopathy and NHMRC information paper – Evidence on the effectiveness of homeopathy for treating health conditions. Canberra: National Health and Medical Research Council. p. 16. ISBN 978-1-925129-29-8. Archived from the original on April 19, 2017. Retrieved August 18, 2016. There is no reliable evidence that homoeopathy is effective for treating health conditions.
  171. ^ Bonhöft, Gudrun; Matthiessen, Peter (2012). Homeopathy in healthcare: effectiveness, appropriateness, safety, costs. Springer.
  172. ^ a b Shaw, David (May 2012). "The Swiss report on homeopathy: a case study of research misconduct". Swiss Medical Weekly. 142: w13594. doi:10.4414/smw.2012.13594. PMID 22653406.
  173. ^ Gurtner, Felix (December 2012). "The report "Homeopathy in healthcare: effectiveness, appropriateness, safety, costs" is not a "Swiss report"". Swiss Medical Weekly. 142: w13723. doi:10.4414/smw.2012.13723. PMID 23255156.
  174. ^ Liberati, A; Altman, DG; Tetzlaff, J; Mulrow, C; Gøtzsche, PC; Ioannidis, J PA; Clarke, M; Devereaux, PJ; Kleijnen, J; Moher, D (2009). "The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate health care interventions: explanation and elaboration". PLOS Medicine. 6 (7): e1000100. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1000100. PMC 2707010. PMID 19621070.
  175. ^ Jonas, WB; Anderson, RL; Crawford, CC; Lyons, JS (2001). "A systematic review of the quality of homeopathic clinical trials". BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 1: 12. doi:10.1186/1472-6882-1-12. PMC 64638. PMID 11801202.
  176. ^ Linde, K; Jonas, WB; Melchart, D; Willich, S (2001). "The methodological quality of randomized controlled trials of homeopathy, herbal medicines and acupuncture". International Journal of Epidemiology. 30 (3): 526–31. doi:10.1093/ije/30.3.526. PMID 11416076.
  177. ^ Jeffrey D. Scargle (2000). "Publication Bias: The "file-drawer problem" in scientific inference" (PDF). Journal of Scientific Exploration. 14 (2): 94–106. arXiv:physics/9909033. Bibcode:1999physics...9033S.[unreliable source?]
  178. ^ Ioannidis, John P. A. (2005). "Why most published research findings are false". PLOS Medicine. 2 (8): e124. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0020124. PMC 1182327. PMID 16060722.
  179. ^ Kleijnen, J; Knipschild, P; Ter Riet, G (1991). "Clinical trials of homoeopathy". BMJ. 302 (6772): 316–23. doi:10.1136/bmj.302.6772.316. PMC 1668980. PMID 1825800.
  180. ^ Mathie, Robert T.; Ramparsad, Nitish; Legg, Lynn A.; Clausen, Jürgen; Moss, Sian; Davidson, Jonathan R. T.; Messow, Claudia-Martina; McConnachie, Alex (March 24, 2017). "Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of non-individualised homeopathic treatment: systematic review and meta-analysis". Systematic Reviews. 6 (1): 63. doi:10.1186/s13643-017-0445-3. ISSN 2046-4053. PMC 5366148. PMID 28340607.
  181. ^ a b "Health A-Z -- Homeopathy". National Health Service. Retrieved April 22, 2013.
  182. ^ AMA Council on Scientific Affairs (1997). "Alternative medicine: Report 12 of the Council on Scientific Affairs (A–97)". American Medical Association. Archived from the original on June 14, 2009. Retrieved March 25, 2009.
  183. ^ Weissmann, G (2006). "Homeopathy: Holmes, Hogwarts, and the Prince of Wales". The FASEB Journal. 20 (11): 1755–58. doi:10.1096/fj.06-0901ufm. PMID 16940145. S2CID 9305843.
  184. ^ "Homeopathy not a cure, says WHO". BBC News. August 20, 2009. Retrieved October 20, 2014.
  185. ^ Mashta, O (August 24, 2009). "WHO warns against using homoeopathy to treat serious diseases". BMJ. 339 (aug24 2): b3447. doi:10.1136/bmj.b3447. PMID 19703929. S2CID 9303173.
  186. ^ a b American College of Medical Toxicology; American Academy of Clinical Toxicology (February 2013). "Five things physicians and patients should question". Choosing Wisely: an initiative of the ABIM Foundation. American College of Medical Toxicology and American Academy of Clinical Toxicology. Retrieved December 5, 2013., which cites Woodward, KN (May 2005). "The potential impact of the use of homeopathic and herbal remedies on monitoring the safety of prescription products". Human & Experimental Toxicology. 24 (5): 219–33. doi:10.1191/0960327105ht529oa. PMID 16004184. S2CID 34767417.
  187. ^ Kolisko L (1959). Physiologischer und physikalischer Nachweis der Wirksamkeit kleinster Entitäten [Physiological and physical evidence of the effectiveness of the smallest entities] (in German). Stuttgart.
  188. ^ Walach, H; Köster, H; Hennig, T; Haag, G (2001). "The effects of homeopathic belladonna 30CH in healthy volunteers – a randomized, double-blind experiment". Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 50 (3): 155–60. doi:10.1016/S0022-3999(00)00224-5. PMID 11316508.
  189. ^ Hirst, SJ; Hayes, NA; Burridge, J; Pearce, FL; Foreman, JC (1993). "Human basophil degranulation is not triggered by very dilute antiserum against human IgE". Nature. 366 (6455): 525–27. Bibcode:1993Natur.366..525H. doi:10.1038/366525a0. PMID 8255290. S2CID 4314547.
  190. ^ Ovelgönne, J. H.; Bol, AWJM; Hop, WCJ; Wijk, R (1992). "Mechanical agitation of very dilute antiserum against IgE has no effect on basophil staining properties". Experientia. 48 (5): 504–08. doi:10.1007/BF01928175. PMID 1376282. S2CID 32110713.
  191. ^ Witt, Claudia M; Bluth, M; Hinderlich, S; Albrecht, H; Ludtke, R; Weisshuhn, Thorolf ER; Willich, Stefan N (2006). "Does potentized HgCl2 (mercurius corrosivus) affect the activity of diastase and amylase?". Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 12 (4): 359–65. doi:10.1089/acm.2006.12.359. PMID 16722785.
  192. ^ Guggisberg, A; Baumgartner, S; Tschopp, C; Heusser, P (2005). "Replication study concerning the effects of homeopathic dilutions of histamine on human basophil degranulation in vitro". Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 13 (2): 91–100. doi:10.1016/j.ctim.2005.04.003. PMID 16036166.
  193. ^ Vickers, AJ (December 1999). "Independent replication of pre-clinical research in homeopathy: a systematic review". Forschende Komplementärmedizin. 6 (6): 311–20. doi:10.1159/000021286. PMID 10649002. S2CID 22051466.
  194. ^ Brown, V; Ennis, M (April 2001). "Flow-cytometric analysis of basophil activation: inhibition by histamine at conventional and homeopathic concentrations". Inflammation Research. 50 Suppl 2: S47–48. doi:10.1007/PL00022402 (inactive September 27, 2020). PMID 11411598.CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of September 2020 (link)
  195. ^ Cumps, J.; Ennis, M.; Mannaioni, P. F.; Roberfroid, M.; Sainte-Laudy, J.; Wiegant, F.A.C.; Belon, P. (April 1, 2004). "Histamine dilutions modulate basophil activation". Inflammation Research. 53 (5): 181–88. doi:10.1007/s00011-003-1242-0. PMID 15105967. S2CID 8682416.
  196. ^ "Homeopathy: The Test". BBC. Retrieved April 29, 2015.
  197. ^ Witt, CM; Bluth, M; Albrecht, H; Weisshuhn, TE; Baumgartner, S; Willich, SN (June 2007). "The in vitro evidence for an effect of high homeopathic potencies--a systematic review of the literature". Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 15 (2): 128–38. doi:10.1016/j.ctim.2007.01.011. PMID 17544864.
  198. ^ Davenas, E.; Beauvais, F.; Amara, J.; Oberbaum, M.; Robinzon, B.; Miadonnai, A.; Tedeschi, A.; Pomeranz, B.; Fortner, P.; Belon, P.; Sainte-Laudy, J. (1988). "Human basophil degranulation triggered by very dilute antiserum against IgE". Nature. 333 (6176): 816–818. Bibcode:1988Natur.333..816D. doi:10.1038/333816a0. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 2455231. S2CID 12992106.
  199. ^ Maddox, J; Randi, J; Stewart, W (1988). ""High-dilution" experiments a delusion". Nature. 334 (6180): 287–91. Bibcode:1988Natur.334..287M. doi:10.1038/334287a0. PMID 2455869. S2CID 9579433.
  200. ^ Sullivan W (July 27, 1988). "Water that has a memory? Skeptics win second round". The New York Times. Retrieved October 3, 2007.
  201. ^ Benveniste defended his results by comparing the inquiry to the Salem witch hunts and asserting that "It may be that all of us are wrong in good faith. This is no crime but science as usual and only the future knows."
  202. ^ Shaw, DM (2010). "Homeopathy is where the harm is: Five unethical effects of funding unscientific 'remedies'". Journal of Medical Ethics. 36 (3): 130–31. doi:10.1136/jme.2009.034959. PMID 20211989. S2CID 206996446.
  203. ^ Hilly Janes (September 6, 2008). "The Lifestyle 50: The top fifty people who influence the way we eat, exercise and think about ourselves". The Times. Archived from the original on July 27, 2011.
  204. ^ Memorandum submitted by Edzard Ernst HO 16 to the House of Lords
  205. ^ Boseley S (July 21, 2008). "The alternative professor". The Guardian. London.
  206. ^ "Complementary therapies: The big con?". The Independent. London. April 22, 2008. Archived from the original on April 27, 2009. Retrieved May 4, 2010.
  207. ^ Sample I (July 21, 2008). "Pharmacists urged to 'tell the truth' about homeopathic remedies". The Guardian. London.
  208. ^ "ASA adjudication on Society of Homeopaths". ASA. July 3, 2013. Archived from the original on July 6, 2013. Retrieved July 4, 2013.
  209. ^ "Court imposes penalty for false or misleading claims by Homeopathy Plus and Ms Frances Sheffield". ACCC. October 14, 2015. Retrieved March 31, 2016.
  210. ^ Dantas, F; Rampes, H (2000). "Do homeopathic medicines provoke adverse effects? A systematic review". British Homoeopathic Journal. 89: S35–S38. doi:10.1054/homp.1999.0378. PMID 10939781.
  211. ^ a b Posadzki, P; Alotaibi, A; Ernst, E (2012). "Adverse effects of homeopathy: A systematic review of published case reports and case series". International Journal of Clinical Practice. 66 (12): 1178–88. doi:10.1111/ijcp.12026. PMID 23163497. S2CID 2930768.
  212. ^ Stub, T; Musial, F; Kristoffersen, AA; Alræk, T; Liu, J (June 2016). "Adverse effects of homeopathy, what do we know? A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials" (PDF). Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 26: 146–63. doi:10.1016/j.ctim.2016.03.013. hdl:10037/10908. PMID 27261996.
  213. ^ Chakraborti, D; Mukherjee, SC; Saha, KC; Chowdhury, UK; Rahman, MM; Sengupta, MK (2003). "Arsenic toxicity from homeopathic treatment". Journal of Toxicology. Clinical Toxicology. 41 (7): 963–67. doi:10.1081/CLT-120026518. PMID 14705842. S2CID 25453468.
  214. ^ Sources:
  215. ^ "Homeopathic Teething Tablets and Gels: FDA Warning – Risk to Infants and Children". FDA. September 30, 2016. Retrieved October 17, 2016.
  216. ^ "FDA warns against the use of homeopathic teething tablets and gels". FDA. September 30, 2016. Retrieved October 17, 2016.
  217. ^ Mole, Beth (October 13, 2016). "FDA: Homeopathic teething gels may have killed 10 babies, sickened 400". Ars Technica UK. Retrieved October 17, 2016.
  218. ^ a b Altunc, U.; Pittler, M. H.; Ernst, E (2007). "Homeopathy for childhood and adolescence ailments: systematic review of randomized clinical trials". Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 82 (1): 69–75. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.456.5352. doi:10.4065/82.1.69. PMID 17285788. However, homeopathy is not totally devoid of risks… it may delay effective treatment or diagnosis
  219. ^ a b Malik, IA; Gopalan, S (2002). "Use of CAM results in delay in seeking medical advice for breast cancer". European Journal of Epidemiology. 18 (8): 817–22. doi:10.1023/A:1025343720564. PMID 12974558. S2CID 19059757. CAM use [in the developing countries this study solely considered] was associated with delay in seeking medical advice (OR: 5.6; 95% CI: 2.3, 13.3) and presentation at an advanced stage of disease
  220. ^ a b Ernst, E; White, AR (1995). "Homoeopathy and immunization". The British Journal of General Practice. 45 (400): 629–30. PMC 1239445. PMID 8554846.
  221. ^ a b c Jones M (July 14, 2006). "Malaria advice 'risks lives'". Newsnight. BBC Television. Retrieved March 24, 2009.
  222. ^ Case of Baby Gloria, who died in 2002:
  223. ^ a b Alastair Neil Hope; State Coroner. "Coroner's inquest into the death of Penelope Dingle. Ref No: 17/10".
  224. ^ Goldacre, Ben (2007). "Benefits and risks of homoeopathy". The Lancet. 370 (9600): 1672–73. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61706-1. PMID 18022024. S2CID 43588927.
  225. ^ Schmukler AV (2006). Homeopathy: An A to Z Home Handbook. Llewellyn Worldwide. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-7387-0873-7.
  226. ^ Campbell A (October 1978). "The science of homoeopathy, by G. Vithoulkas". British Homoeopathic Journal (book review). 67 (4): 299–301. doi:10.1016/S0007-0785(78)80061-1.
  227. ^ Birnbaum NR, Goldschmidt RH, Buffett WO (1999). "Resolving the common clinical dilemmas of syphilis". American Family Physician. 59 (8): 2233–40, 2245–46. PMID 10221308.
  228. ^ "Is bad homeopathic advice putting travellers at risk?". Newsnight. BBC. January 5, 2011. Retrieved January 10, 2015.
  229. ^ Ernst, E. (1997). "The attitude against immunisation within some branches of complementary medicine". European Journal of Pediatrics. 156 (7): 513–15. doi:10.1007/s004310050650. PMID 9243229. S2CID 25420567.
  230. ^ Ernst, E (2001). "Rise in popularity of complementary and alternative medicine: reasons and consequences for vaccination". Vaccine. 20: S90–93, discussion S89. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(01)00290-0. PMID 11587822.
  231. ^ Pray WS (1996). "The challenge to professionalism presented by homeopathy". American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education. 60: 198–204.
  232. ^ Pray WS (1992). "A challenge to the credibility of homeopathy". American Journal of Pain Management (2): 63–71.
  233. ^ English, J (1992). "The issue of immunization". British Homoeopathic Journal. 81 (4): 161–63. doi:10.1016/S0007-0785(05)80171-1.
  234. ^ "Vaccine alternatives offered by homeopaths 'irresponsible'". Marketplace. CBC. November 28, 2014. Retrieved January 10, 2015.
  235. ^ Poling, Samantha (September 13, 2010). "Doctors warn over homeopathic 'vaccines'". BBC. Retrieved January 10, 2015.
  236. ^ "Court finds Homeopathy Plus! vaccine claims misleading". Australian Competition and Consumer Commission. December 23, 2014. Retrieved January 10, 2015.
  237. ^ Rushton, Katherine; Foggo, Daniel; Barnes, Sophie (November 1, 2019). "Homeopaths warning mothers not to have children vaccinated, investigation reveals". The Daily Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved November 3, 2019.
  238. ^ a b Jha A (July 14, 2006). "Homeopaths 'endangering lives' by offering malaria remedies". The Guardian. London.
  239. ^ a b Starr, M. (2000). "Malaria affects children and pregnant women most". BMJ. 321 (7271): 1288. doi:10.1136/bmj.321.7271.1288. PMC 1119021. PMID 11082103.
  240. ^ Coffman, Becky (January 28, 2019). "A cautionary tale: the risks of unproven antimalarials". Centers for Disease Control.
  241. ^ Pray WS (2006). "Ethical, scientific, and educational concerns with unproven medications". American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education. 70 (6): 141. doi:10.5688/aj7006141. PMC 1803699. PMID 17332867.
  242. ^ a b c d e "Legal Status of Traditional Medicine and Complementary/Alternative Medicine: A Worldwide Review" (PDF). World Health Organization. 2001. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 27, 2009. Retrieved September 1, 2020.
  243. ^ a b "WHO global report on traditional and complementary medicine 2019" (PDF). WHO. June 4, 2019. Retrieved September 4, 2020.
  244. ^ Green, Chris (August 2, 2017). "Scotland urged to stop funding homeopathy on NHS". iNews. Retrieved January 18, 2020.
  245. ^ Clarinval, France. "Homeopathy to remain reimbursable in Luxembourg". today.rt.lu. RTL Today. Retrieved May 4, 2020.
  246. ^ Hauptverband der österreichischen Sozialversicherungsträger (March 31, 2004). "Liste nicht erstattungsfähiger Arzneimittelkategorien gemäß § 351c Abs. 2 ASVG (List of treatments not reimbursable by social service providers in Austria)" (in German). Archived from the original on July 6, 2011.
  247. ^ Rechtssatz (legal rule), RS0083796 (in German) (Oberster Gerichtshof OGH - Austrian supreme court February 28, 1994).
  248. ^ a b c d e "In Germany, a Heated Debate Over Homeopathy". Undark Magazine. March 16, 2020. Retrieved September 2, 2020.
  249. ^ "The end of homoeopathy". The Lancet. 366 (9487): 690. 2005. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67149-8. PMID 16125567. S2CID 6115077.
  250. ^ Dacey J (January 14, 2011). "Alternative therapies are put to the test". swissinfo.ch. Retrieved January 17, 2011.
  251. ^ a b "Homeopathy". nhs.uk. October 18, 2017. Retrieved September 2, 2020.
  252. ^ "Homeopathy". nhs.uk. October 18, 2017. Retrieved January 18, 2020.
  253. ^ Donnelly, Laura; Taylor, Rosie (April 5, 2019). "NHS still spending £55,000 a year on homeopathy, despite ban". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved January 18, 2020.
  254. ^ "Diluting misleading claims – ASA update". Nightingale Collaboration. September 29, 2016. Retrieved September 30, 2016.
  255. ^ "Advertising standards for homeopathy". Advertising Standards Authority. September 29, 2016. Retrieved September 30, 2016.
  256. ^ CAP Compliance Team (September 28, 2016). "Advertising standsards for homeopaths" (PDF). Committee of Advertising Practice. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 3, 2016. Retrieved September 30, 2016.
  257. ^ "Bristol Homeopathic Hospital To Cease Offering Homeopathic Treatments". Good Thinking. June 5, 2015. Retrieved April 29, 2016.
  258. ^ Cardwell, Mark (June 10, 2015). "Homeopathy services will no longer be available at Bristol NHS Trust hospitals". Bristol Post. Archived from the original on September 28, 2015. Retrieved April 29, 2016.
  259. ^ a b c Commander, Emily (October 1, 2018). "Snake oil or science? Homeopathy in Europe". euronews. Retrieved September 4, 2020.
  260. ^ "Alternative System of Health Care". Government of India. Archived from the original on January 2, 2010. Retrieved January 15, 2010.
  261. ^ "AYUSH". Government of India. website. Archived from the original on August 22, 2013.
  262. ^ "Kerala AYUSH department- Final nod". Homoeoscan. June 4, 2015. Retrieved October 1, 2017.
  263. ^ "Professional Councils". University Grants Commission (UGC) website. Archived from the original on January 6, 2010.
  264. ^ "The Homoeopathy Central Council Act, 1973, s. 15 and Sch. II". Central Council of Homeopathy, India. Archived from the original on November 23, 2009. Retrieved January 18, 2010.
  265. ^ "Practicing & Studying Homeopathy". The National Center for Homeopathy. Retrieved September 2, 2020.
  266. ^ Frazier, Kendrick (2015). "CFI testimony urges FDA to regulate homeopathic products". Skeptical Inquirer. 39 (4): 6–7.
  267. ^ De Dora, Michael (April 20, 2015). "Homeopathic product regulation: evaluating the Food and Drug Administration's regulatory framework after a quarter-century. Testimony of the Center for Inquiry to the Food and Drug Administration" (PDF). FDA.
  268. ^ "FTC: Enforcement Policy Statement on Marketing Claims for OTC Homeopathic Drugs" (PDF). Federal Trade Commission. Retrieved November 18, 2016.
  269. ^ "Homeopathic Medicine & Advertising Workshop Report" (PDF). Federal Trade Commission. Retrieved November 18, 2016.
  270. ^ "FDA Toughens Enforcement of Homeopathic Products". The National Law Review. Retrieved September 2, 2020.
  271. ^ Research, Center for Drug Evaluation and (July 22, 2020). "Homeopathic Products". FDA.
  272. ^ "'A pseudo-science': Outrage after Ontario government funds college program in homeopathy". National Post. Retrieved September 2, 2020.
  273. ^ Canada, Health (October 26, 2006). "Evidence for Homeopathic Medicines". aem. Retrieved September 4, 2020.
  274. ^ "Drugstore remedies: Licence to Deceive". CBC. March 13, 2015.
  275. ^ "Regulation of homoeopathic and anthroposophic medicines in Australia". Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA). September 1, 2008. Retrieved September 1, 2020.
  276. ^ National Health and Medical Research Council (2015). NHMRC statement on homeopathy and NHMRC information paper – Evidence on the effectiveness of homeopathy for treating health conditions. Canberra: National Health and Medical Research Council. p. 16. ISBN 978-1-925129-29-8. Archived from the original on April 19, 2017. Retrieved August 18, 2016. There is no reliable evidence that homoeopathy is effective for treating health conditions.
  277. ^ "Review of Pharmacy Remuneration and Regulation Final Report" (PDF). 2017.
  278. ^ "AUSTRALIAN GOVERNMENT RESPONSE TO THE REVIEW OF PHARMACY REMUNERATION AND REGULATION" (PDF). 2018.
  279. ^ "Natural health products". Ministry of Health NZ. Retrieved September 1, 2020.
  280. ^ "Doctors and CAM (complementary and alternative medicine)" (PDF). MEDICAL COUNCIL OF NEW ZEALAND. 2017.
  281. ^ Holt, Shaun; Gilbey, Andrew; Colquhoun; David; Baum, Michael; Ernst, Edzard (April 15, 2011). "Call for doctors not to practice homeopathy or refer to homeopaths". New Zealand Medical Journal. 124 (1332): 87–88. ISSN 1175-8716. PMID 21747430.
  282. ^ "Homeopathy". NCCIH. Retrieved September 2, 2020.
  283. ^ Fox, Maggie (2017). "Homeopathic products useless and often even harmful, FDA says". NBC News. Retrieved September 4, 2020.
  284. ^ Relton, Clare; Cooper, Katy; Viksveen, Petter; Fibert, Philippa; Thomas, Kate (May 1, 2017). "Prevalence of homeopathy use by the general population worldwide: a systematic review". Homeopathy. 106 (2): 69–78. doi:10.1016/j.homp.2017.03.002. ISSN 1475-4916. PMID 28552176.
  285. ^ Lu, Di (September 20, 2019). "'Homoeopathy flourishes in the far East': A forgotten history of homeopathy in late nineteenth-century China". Notes and Records: The Royal Society Journal of the History of Science. 73 (3): 329–351. doi:10.1098/rsnr.2018.0041. S2CID 80714173.
  286. ^ Saxton, J (2007). "The diversity of veterinary homeopathy". Homeopathy. 96 (1): 3. doi:10.1016/j.homp.2006.11.010. PMID 17227741.
  287. ^ Doehring, C.; Sundrum, A. (December 17, 2016). "Efficacy of homeopathy in livestock according to peer-reviewed publications from 1981 to 2014". The Veterinary Record. 179 (24): 628. doi:10.1136/vr.103779. ISSN 0042-4900. PMC 5256414. PMID 27956476.
  288. ^ Lees, P.; Pelligand, L.; Whiting, M.; Chambers, D.; Toutain, P-L.; Whitehead, M.L. (August 19, 2017). "Comparison of veterinary drugs and veterinary homeopathy: part 2". The Veterinary Record. 181 (8): 198–207. doi:10.1136/vr.104279. ISSN 0042-4900. PMC 5738588. PMID 28821700. In human medicine, there may be a place for the counselling/psychotherapeutic aspects of homeopathic consults and the placebo effects generated by homeopathic products in patients who believe in such treatments, but in veterinary medicine these factors are unlikely to benefit patients, and the use of homeopathic products in veterinary medicine is contrary to best evidence, irrational, and inconsistent with current scientific and medical knowledge
  289. ^ a b Hektoen, L (2005). "Review of the current involvement of homeopathy in veterinary practice and research". Veterinary Record. 157 (8): 224–29. doi:10.1136/vr.157.8.224. PMID 16113167. S2CID 12525634.
  290. ^ Lees, P.; Pelligand, L.; Whiting, M.; Chambers, D.; Toutain, P-L.; Whitehead, M. L. (August 12, 2017). "Comparison of veterinary drugs and veterinary homeopathy: part 1". The Veterinary Record. 181 (7): 170–176. doi:10.1136/vr.104278. ISSN 0042-4900. PMC 5738587. PMID 28801498.
  291. ^ Whitehead, M L; Lees, P; Toutain, P L (2018). "Veterinary homeopathy regulation in the UK – a cause for concern". Regulatory Rapporteur. 15: 21–25.
  292. ^ Mathie, RT; Clausen, J (October 18, 2014). "Veterinary homeopathy: systematic review of medical conditions studied by randomised placebo-controlled trials". The Veterinary Record. 175 (15): 373–81. doi:10.1136/vr.101767. PMID 25324413. S2CID 22894207.
  293. ^ Mathie, RT; Clausen, J (September 15, 2015). "Veterinary homeopathy: systematic review of medical conditions studied by randomised trials controlled by other than placebo". BMC Veterinary Research. 11: 236. doi:10.1186/s12917-015-0542-2. PMC 4570221. PMID 26371366.
  294. ^ Doehring, C.; Sundrum, A. (December 12, 2016). "Efficacy of homeopathy in livestock according to peer-reviewed publications from 1981 to 2014". Veterinary Record. 179 (24): vetrec–2016–103779. doi:10.1136/vr.103779. ISSN 2042-7670. PMC 5256414. PMID 27956476.
  295. ^ Alternative pet remedies: Government clampdown
  296. ^ "Veterinary medicines". British Veterinary Association. Retrieved January 5, 2015.
  297. ^ "Ineffective therapies". Australian veterinary association. Archived from the original on February 7, 2015. Retrieved January 5, 2015.

External links