Cirrus SR22

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SR22
CirrusDesignSR22C-FJSH02.JPG
Role Civil utility aircraft
National origin United States
Manufacturer Cirrus Aircraft
Produced 2001–present
Number built 4,365 through 2013[1]
Unit cost
US$499,900 (base price, 2015)[2]
Developed from Cirrus SR20

The Cirrus SR22 is a single-engine four- or five-seat composite aircraft built from 2001 by Cirrus Aircraft of Duluth, Minnesota.

It is a development of the Cirrus SR20, with a larger wing, higher fuel capacity, and a more powerful, 310-horsepower (231 kW) engine.

The SR22 has been the world's best-selling single-engine, four-seat aircraft every year since 2004.[3]

It is equipped with a whole-plane emergency recovery parachute system, the Cirrus Airframe Parachute System (CAPS). This has contributed to its market success and has given it the name "the plane with the parachute".[4][5][6][7][8]

Design and development[edit]

Cirrus SR22T G3
Cirrus SR22 G2 front view showing how the doors open
Cirrus SR22 Gen 5

The SR22, certified in November 2000, is a more powerful version of the earlier SR20. The SR22 is a low-wing cantilever monoplane of composite construction, featuring fixed (non-retractable) tricycle landing gear with a castering nose wheel and steering via differential braking on the main wheels. It is powered by a nose-mounted 310 hp (231 kW) Continental IO-550-N piston engine. The four-seat cabin is accessed through doors on either side of the fuselage.

The Cirrus SR22 is equipped with the Cirrus Airframe Parachute System (CAPS), a whole-plane parachute recovery system that is capable of lowering the entire aircraft to the ground in an emergency.[9]

In 2004 the company introduced the SR22 G2 (Generation 2) and in 2007 the SR22 G3 (Generation 3). Both were defined by airframe modifications, G2 by fuselage and G3 by modified wing and landing gear.[citation needed]

In 2013, the manufacturer introduced the SR22 G5 (Generation 5) (there was no G4). Key changes were an increase in gross weight to 3,600 lb (1,633 kg) and a standard five-seat cabin arrangement.[10] The G5 received only minor changes for 2014, including integrated LED lighting and Beringer brakes.[11][12]

In 2014, the SR22 and SR22T were the best-selling four-to-five-seat fixed wing aircraft in the world, and had been for twelve years in a row.[13][14]

In 2016, Cirrus introduced enhancements to the SR Series, including Bluetooth wireless connectivity, remote keyless entry, convenience lighting system, and an easy access door latch.[15][16]

Turbocharged models[edit]

Cirrus introduced the SR22 Turbo in 2006, with a Tornado Alley turbonormalizing upgrade kit, factory installed under a Supplemental Type Certificate. It included twin turbonormalizers and twin intercoolers.[17] The conversion includes built-in oxygen and a Hartzell three-blade lightweight composite propeller. The weight of the conversion reduces the SR22's useful load. Air conditioning is available with the SR22 Turbo, but this further reduces the useful load. The turbo version has a certified ceiling of 25,000 feet (7,600 m), a maximum cruise speed of 211 knots (391 km/h), and a top speed of 219 knots (406 km/h).[18][19][20]

In 2010, Cirrus introduced the SR22T. This used a new engine, the Continental TSIO-550K, which produces 315 hp (235 kW) with a 7.5:1 compression ratio and can run on 94 octane fuel.[21]

Glass cockpit[edit]

Pre-2008 Cirrus instrument panel with the Avidyne Entegra primary flight display
Instrument panel with Cirrus Perspective avionics by Garmin

SR22s and SR20s built before 2003 were equipped with traditional analog instruments and a 10" Multi-function display (MFD). In February 2003, Cirrus began offering SR22s with the Avidyne Entegra primary flight display (PFD), making the plane the first of its kind to come with a glass cockpit.[22][23] Later that year, this instrumentation became standard equipment on all SR-series aircraft.[24] Retrofits are available for the older aircraft that replace the instrument panels with one that includes the PFD, a new multifunction display and the installation of back-up mechanical instruments.[25]

On 22 May 2008, Cirrus and Garmin revealed a new cockpit, Cirrus Perspective (by Garmin).[26] Both cockpits were available for a period (the Avidyne cockpit was initially standard equipment). After 2008 the SR22 became available with only the Perspective panel.

In 2009, the third-generation Cirrus SR22 GTS came equipped with a new enhanced vision system (EVS), a sophisticated dual-wavelength instrument that offers both infrared and synthetic vision.[27]

At the 2010 EAA AirVenture, Cirrus announced its plans to certify Garmin's ESP system (Electronic Stability and Protection) on the Cirrus SR22. It included advanced flight envelope protection that could stabilize the aircraft with the push of a button, to avoid spiral from developing.[28]

Flight into known icing[edit]

Cirrus completed testing for flight into known icing conditions (FIKI) on 12 January 2009. The equipment change involved installing a larger fluid tank for the TKS Ice Protection System and protecting more areas of the aircraft. The FAA approved the new installation in April 2009.[29][30][31]

Operational History[edit]

Ryan Campbell departing OSH on record attempt

Robert Goyer of Flying magazine wrote in a 2012 review that the Cirrus SR22 "is the most sophisticated single-engine civilian airplane ever built and by a long shot."[32]

Ryan Campbell used an SR22 to become the youngest pilot to fly solo around the world. He completed his trip on 7 September 2013 in Australia. His SR-22, Spirit of the Sapphire Coast, was modified by removing three seats and adding a 160 U.S. gallons (610 L; 130 imp gal) fuselage tank for a total of 250 U.S. gallons (950 L; 210 imp gal) usable.[33]

As of 2015, the SR22 series has deployed the parachute recovery system 53 times carrying 107 survivors.[34]

Variants[edit]

Early version SR22
2006 Turbo Charged model
SR22
Original version
SR22 G2
Improved variant
SR22 Turbo G2
In July 2006, Cirrus announced a turbo normalized SR22. Some initial limited models were identified as Signature Edition SE22 G2s—equipped with additional features including an unequally painted exterior, black leather seats, and the signatures of Cirrus founders Dale and Alan Klapmeier on the cowling.[35]
SR22 G3
2007 variant with increased fuel capacity from 81 to 92 U.S. gallons (310 to 350 L; 67 to 77 imp gal), lighter stronger carbon fiber wing spar and longer landing gear for increased prop clearance.[36] Upgraded models, such as the GTS, come with airbag seatbelts.[37]
SR22T landing
SR22T
Introduced June 2010, with a turbocharged Continental TSIO-550-K producing 315 hp (235 kW). The engine has low-compression pistons, producing a 7.5 to 1 compression ratio to allow the engine to run on lower octane fuel, 94UL.[38][39][40] The SR22T has a maximum cruise speed of 214 kn (396 km/h), empty weight of 2,348 lb (1,065 kg), and a maximum operating altitude of 25,000 ft (7,620 m). This model also has a decreased useful load of 1,052 lb (477 kg) and reduced range of 1,046 nmi (1,937 km),[41] as well as a Hartzell three-Blade Lightweight Composite Prop.[42]
SR22TN
Version with a Tornado Alley turbo-normalizing kit added to the Continental IO-550-N engine producing 310 hp (231 kW).[38]
SR22 G5 and SR22T G5
On 17 January 2013 Cirrus Aircraft announced the fourth generation of the SR22 and SR22T (skipping G4 as a designation for the new version of the aircraft). Features included a 200 lb (91 kg) increase in the maximum takeoff weight, and some previous options—60/40 split back seat, ADS-B transponder, and Garmin GFC700 autopilot—became standard equipment. The wheel pants were redesigned, and included an access door for the inflator valve. Cirrus improved the aircraft's ballistic parachute using a larger canopy to account for the higher takeoff weight, and a more powerful rocket. The rocket firing changed to a fail-safe electronic ignition, with a maximum operating speed of 140 knots (up from 133 knots). Earlier versions used a pyrotechnic rocket ignition system. Maximum flap speeds were increased to 150 knots (first notch); 110 knots (second notch); and added another 3.5 degrees of extension. Fuel burn slightly increased at cruise speeds, rate of climb was reduced, liftoff speed increased to 80 knots (was 72 knots), and stall speed increased to 60 knots (was 58 knots).[43][44]

Operators[edit]

ImagineAir Cirrus SR22

The aircraft is used by flying schools, air charter and small air taxi carriers as well as private individuals and companies. The largest current dedicated fleet operator is ImagineAir, which commenced operations in 2007. SATSair was formerly the largest operator, with 26 aircraft. It began operation in 2004 and went out of business in 2009.[45][46]

In 2015 Emirates purchased 22 aircraft for training purposes,[47] and the French Air Force uses six SR22s as training aircraft.[48]

Accidents and incidents[edit]

Between 2001 and May 2014, 147 US-registered Cirrus SR22 aircraft crashed, resulting in 122 fatalities.[49]

In 2011, the accident record of the SR20/SR22 was examined by Aviation Consumer magazine. It found that the series' overall accident record is better than average for light aircraft, exceeded only by the Diamond DA40 and DA42. However its fatal accident rate is worse, at 1.6 per 100,000 flight hours—which places it higher than the United States general aviation rate of 1.2, and higher than the Diamond DA40 (0.35), Cessna 172 (0.45), Diamond DA42 (0.54), Cessna 182 (0.69), and the Cessna 400 (1.0), despite the SR22's full aircraft parachute system.[50]

By the end of 2013, the accident rate had been reduced to a fatality rate of 1.01 per 100,000 flight hours. This was attributed to better training, particularly in use of the ballistic parachute system.[51]

The accident rate continued to decrease in 2014, with a fatal rate of .42 per 100,000 flight hours, one of the industry's lowest. This marked the fewest fatalities in a single year for Cirrus since 2001, and the first year where the number of CAPS deployments (12) exceeded the number of fatal accidents (3).[52][53][4]

Specifications[edit]

SR22, 2003 model-year "Centennial" Edition, showing part of the aircraft's rear window
2015 SR22 GTS G5

Data from Cirrus website[54] and The Incomplete Guide to Airfoil Usage[55]

General characteristics

  • Crew: one
  • Capacity: four passengers
  • Length: 26 ft 0 in (7.92 m)
  • Wingspan: 38 ft 4 in (11.68 m)
  • Height: 8 ft 11 in (2.72 m)
  • Airfoil: Roncz
  • Empty weight: 2,225 lb (1,009 kg)
  • Gross weight: 3,600 lb (1,633 kg)
  • Fuel capacity: 92 US gallons (348 litres)
  • Powerplant: 1 × Continental IO-550-N Six cylinder horizontally opposed aircraft engine, 310 hp (230 kW)
  • Propellers: 3-bladed

Performance

  • Cruise speed: 183 kn (211 mph; 339 km/h)
  • Stall speed: 60 kn (69 mph; 111 km/h) flaps down
  • Range: 1,049 nmi (1,207 mi; 1,943 km) with reserves at 65% power
  • Service ceiling: 17,500 ft (5,300 m)
  • Rate of climb: 1,270 ft/min (6.5 m/s)

Avionics
Garmin Cirrus Perspective integrated avionics system including:[56]

See also[edit]

Related development
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

References[edit]

  1. ^ General Aviation Manufacturers Association (2014). "2013 General Aviation Statistical Databook & Industry Outlook" (PDF). Retrieved 27 January 2015. 
  2. ^ Cirrus Aircraft (2015). "SR22 Domestic Price List" (PDF). Retrieved 23 December 2014. 
  3. ^ General Aviation Manufacturers Association (January 2008). "2007 General Aviation Statistical Databook & Industry Outlook" (PDF). Retrieved 2 July 2010. 
  4. ^ a b Anders, Clark (22 May 2015). "Cirrus SR22: The Plane with the Parachute". Disciples of Flight. Retrieved 11 June 2015. 
  5. ^ Cirrusaircraft.com. "Smart Safety". Retrieved 2 November 2015. 
  6. ^ Fallows, James (January 2015). "The Parachute That Saved a Plane". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2 November 2015. 
  7. ^ Goyer, Robert (August 2010). "After Ten Years, Cirrus Chute Controversy Persists". Flying. Retrieved 2 November 2015. 
  8. ^ Robert Goyer (2011). "10 Ways that the SR22 Changed Flying". 
  9. ^ Federal Aviation Administration (May 2008). "TYPE CERTIFICATE DATA SHEET NO. A00009CH Rev. 13" (PDF). Retrieved 14 October 2008. 
  10. ^ "Cirrus Aircraft". Cirrus Aircraft. Retrieved 29 May 2013. 
  11. ^ "The All-New 2014 Generation 5 Cirrus". October 2013. Retrieved 16 November 2013. 
  12. ^ Goyer, Robert (October 2013). "New Cirrus SR22s Introduced for 2014". Retrieved 16 November 2013. 
  13. ^ Durden, Rick (21 February 2014). "2013: A Good Year for Cirrus". AVweb. Retrieved 24 February 2014. 
  14. ^ Cirrus Aircraft News (11 February 2015). "Cirrus Aircraft Deliveries in 2014 Drive Strongest Performance in Six Years". Retrieved 1 March 2015. 
  15. ^ "Cirrus Aircraft 2016 SR Series Introduction". Vimeo.com. January 2016. Retrieved 10 June 2016. 
  16. ^ Cirrus Aircraft News (16 February 2016). "Cirrus Aircraft Unveils Enhanced 2016 SR Series". Retrieved 10 June 2016. 
  17. ^ Cirrus Design (2007). "SR22 features & options". Retrieved 14 November 2007. 
  18. ^ Cirrus Design (2007). "SR22 performance". Retrieved 14 November 2007. 
  19. ^ Cirrus Design (2007). "Turbo normalizing". Retrieved 14 November 2007. 
  20. ^ Cirrus Design (2007). "The speed you need". Retrieved 14 November 2007. 
  21. ^ Cox, Bill (20 July 2010). "Cirrus SR22T: Turbo Without the STC". Plane & Pilot. Retrieved 3 March 2012. 
  22. ^ Media Fly-By. "Cirrus Soars at First Flight Celebration". Retrieved 2 February 2015. 
  23. ^ National Transportation Safety Board. "Introduction of Glass Cockpit Avionics into Light Aircraft" (PDF). Retrieved 11 September 2015. 
  24. ^ Press Release (2003). "Avidyne's Flightmax Entegra Integrated Flight Deck Selected By Cirrus Design For SR20 And New SRV Aircraft". Retrieved 8 September 2015. 
  25. ^ Goyer, Robert: Avidyne Glass for Steam Gauge Cirrus Airplanes, Flying magazine February 2008, pp. 18-19. Hachette Filipacchi US Media
  26. ^ Cirrus Design (2008). "Cirrus Perspective by Garmin". Retrieved 25 October 2008. 
  27. ^ John Croft (2009). "The Third Generation Cirrus SR22 is Blazing a Trail". Retrieved 9 October 2014. 
  28. ^ Robert Goyer (2010). "Envelope Protection Comes to GA". Retrieved 19 October 2014. 
  29. ^ Niles, Russ (January 2009). "Cirrus Introduces FIKI, Announces Layoffs". Retrieved 12 January 2009. 
  30. ^ Cirrus Design (January 2009). "Cirrus Aircraft Announces Known Ice Protection Availability For SR22 And Turbo Aircraft Models". Archived from the original on 8 July 2011. Retrieved 12 January 2009. 
  31. ^ Grady, Mary (April 2009). "Cirrus Announces FAA OK For FIKI System, Update on Jet". Retrieved 13 April 2009. 
  32. ^ "2012 Cirrus SR22". Retrieved 26 December 2015. 
  33. ^ "Ryan Campbell world record attempt". Retrieved 2 September 2013. 
  34. ^ "OSHKOSH: Cirrus enters final stretch of SF50 testing". flightglobal.com. 21 July 2015. Retrieved 10 November 2016. 
  35. ^ Grady, Mary (December 2006). "Aviation: Pilot Program". Retrieved 30 January 2015. 
  36. ^ Cirrus Design (2008). "G3 What's New". Archived from the original on 29 March 2008. Retrieved 20 September 2007. 
  37. ^ "Airbags in the SR22". AOPA. Retrieved 13 November 2016. 
  38. ^ a b Bertorelli, Paul (June 2010). "Cirrus Rolls Out a New Turbocharged Model". Retrieved 21 June 2010. 
  39. ^ Van West, Jeff (June 2010). "Cirrus' New Turbo: Baffling". Retrieved 24 June 2010. 
  40. ^ "Aviation Fuel Future". Retrieved 3 July 2012. 
  41. ^ "Cirrus Designs SR22 Turbo Specifications". Retrieved 16 July 2011. 
  42. ^ "SR22T Price Sheet" (PDF). Retrieved 16 July 2011. 
  43. ^ "Cirrus Launches Generation 5 SR22". Retrieved 17 January 2013. 
  44. ^ "Generation 5 Cirrus SR22". Retrieved 17 May 2013. 
  45. ^ Imagine Air Jet Services (2005). "Company Background". Retrieved 4 November 2009. 
  46. ^ Niles, Russ (October 2009). "SATSAir Shuts Down". Retrieved 26 October 2009. 
  47. ^ Pope, Steven (November 2015). "Emirates Selects Cirrus SR22 for Pilot Training". Retrieved 12 November 2015. 
  48. ^ "Les avions et hélicos de l'Armée de l'Air en 2015". avionslegendaires.net. 25 December 2015. Retrieved 10 November 2016. 
  49. ^ NTSB (2014). "NTSB Database & Synopses-Query". Retrieved 10 May 2014.  Nb.-Make=Cirrus, Model=SR22, Registration="N" (US only)
  50. ^ "Aviation Consumer: Cirrus Safety Record Just Average". AVweb. 20 December 2011. Retrieved 22 December 2011. 
  51. ^ Bertorelli, Paul (10 April 2014). "Cirrus Reports Dramatic Accident Reduction". Avweb. Retrieved 14 April 2014. 
  52. ^ Zimmerman, John (11 February 2015). "Fatal Cirrus crashes are way down – thank the parachute". Air Facts. Retrieved 11 June 2015. 
  53. ^ Beach, Rick (1 July 2014). "Mid-Year 2014 Update on Improved Cirrus accident rates". Cirrus Owners and Pilots Association. Retrieved 11 June 2015. 
  54. ^ Cirrus Design. "Specifications". Retrieved 16 January 2010. 
  55. ^ Lednicer, David (October 2007). "Incomplete Guide to Airfoil Usage". Retrieved 15 January 2010. 
  56. ^ Garmin (2014). "Pilot's Guide for the Cirrus SR20/SR22/SR22T" (PDF). Retrieved 28 February 2015. 

External links[edit]