Clupeiformes

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Clupeiformes
Temporal range: Late Jurassic to present
Herring2.jpg
Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Superclass: Osteichthyes
Class: Actinopterygii
Subclass: Neopterygii
Infraclass: Teleostei
Superorder: Clupeomorpha
Order: Clupeiformes
Bleeker, 1959
Families

See text

Clupeiformes is the order of ray-finned fish that includes the herring family, Clupeidae, and the anchovy family, Engraulidae. The group includes many of the most important forage and food fish.

Clupeiformes are physostomes, which means that the gas bladder has a pneumatic duct connecting it to the gut. They typically lack a lateral line, but still have the eyes, fins and scales that are common to most fish, though not all fish have these attributes. They are generally silvery fish with streamlined, spindle-shaped, bodies, and they often school. Most species eat plankton which they filter from the water with their gill rakers.[1]

Families[edit]

Phylogeny of Clupeiformes by Lavoué et al 2014.[2]
Clupeiformes
Denticipitoidei

Denticipitidae


Clupeoidei

Engraulidae

Coiliinae



Engraulinae





Spratelloidinae




Pristigasteridae





Dussumieriidae s.s.



Chirocentridae



Clupeidae

Clupeinae




Ehiravinae




Alosinae



Dorosomatinae











The order includes about 405 species in seven families:[3][4]

Timeline of genera[edit]

Quaternary Neogene Paleogene Cretaceous Jurassic Holocene Pleistocene Pliocene Miocene Oligocene Eocene Paleocene Late Cretaceous Early Cretaceous Late Jurassic Middle Jurassic Early Jurassic Austroclupea Sarmatella Engraulis Xyne Quisque Ganolytes Ganoessus Etringus Alisea Pseudohilsa Sardinops Ilisha Anchoa Stolephorus Sardina Pomolobus Opisthonema Alosa Sardinella Etrumeus Chirocentrus Harengula Clupea Hacquetia Knightia Gasteroclupea Histiothrissa Scombroclupea Ornategulum Daitingichthys Pachythrissops Quaternary Neogene Paleogene Cretaceous Jurassic Holocene Pleistocene Pliocene Miocene Oligocene Eocene Paleocene Late Cretaceous Early Cretaceous Late Jurassic Middle Jurassic Early Jurassic

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nelson, Gareth (1998). Paxton, J.R.; Eschmeyer, W.N., eds. Encyclopedia of Fishes. San Diego: Academic Press. pp. 91–95. ISBN 0-12-547665-5. 
  2. ^ Sébastien Lavoué, Peter Konstantinidis & Wei-Jen Chen: Progress in Clupeiform Systematics. in Konstantinos Ganias (Hrsg.): Biology and Ecology of Sardines and Anchovies. CRC Press, 2014, ISBN 978-1482228540
  3. ^ Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2012). "Clupeiformes" in FishBase. August 2012 version.
  4. ^ Lavoue ´ S,; Miya M,; Musikasinthorn P,; Chen W-J,; Nishida M (2013). "Mitogenomic Evidence for an Indo-West Pacific Origin of the Clupeoidei (Teleostei: Clupeiformes)". PLoS ONE. 8 (2). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056485.