County-class destroyer

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HMS Kent, Portsmouth Navy Yards, July 1989.jpg
HMS Kent at Portsmouth in 1989
Class overview
Builders:
Operators:
Preceded by: Daring class
Succeeded by: Type 82
Subclasses:
  • Batch 1
  • Batch 2
In commission: 16 November 1962 – 22 September 2006
Completed: 8
Cancelled: 2[1]
Laid up:
Lost:
General characteristics
Type: Destroyer
Displacement: 6,200 tons
Length: 520.16 ft (158.54 m)
Beam: 54 ft (16 m)
Draught: 21 ft (6.4 m)
Propulsion:
Speed: 30 knots (56 km/h; 35 mph)
Range: 3,500 nautical miles (6,500 km; 4,000 mi)
Complement: 471 (33 officers, 438 ratings)
Armament:
Aircraft carried:Wessex HAS Mk 3 helicopter
Aviation facilities: Flight deck and enclosed hangar for embarking one helicopter

The County class was a class of guided missile destroyer, the first such vessels built by the Royal Navy. Designed specifically around the Seaslug anti-aircraft missile system, the primary role of these ships was area air-defence around the aircraft carrier task force in the nuclear-war environment.[2][3]

The class was designed as a hybrid cruiser-destroyer, with a much larger displacement (similar to that of the Dido-class cruiser) than its predecessor, the Daring class. During the final design period in 1956–1958 a full gun armament was envisaged,[4] based on a modern combined gas turbine and steam turbine ('COSAG') propulsion unit, as enlarged Daring fleet escorts, armed with two twin Mk 6 4.5, two twin L/70 40mm and a twin 3 inch/70 guns. A detailed March 1957 study [5] opted for a medium tensile 505 ft hull and a fit of 18 Seaslug and 4 special (nuclear) Seaslug for extended range AA, anti missile and anti ship.[6] twin Mk 5 Bofors 40mm were maintained with the future and effectiveness of Project Greenlight (Seacat missile), under doubt[7] and Limbo was the only anti-submarine weapon.

A revised design in March 1958 added Seaslug and Seacat missiles and added a telescopic hangar. First Sea Lord Mountbatten staged an impressive demonstration shoot for flag officeres and politicians , from Seaslug test ship HMS Girdle Ness in which ten successive Seaslugs were launched and rode the beam, including salvo of two Seaslug and the success of the included hits in the lethal zone of two piston engine Fairey Firefly radio controlled drones, at 16 km, undemanding targets with a speed of only 315/375mph [8] but this apparent success, enabled Defence Minister, Duncan Sandys to gain the approval of Cabinet Defence Committee for Seaslug production to be approved in 1958 [9] While the missile worked against World War two level targets, the beam guidance systems remained dubious at range and in rough water which meant eight fixed stabilisers were added. Advocacy for the guided missiles fit[10] was led by the First Sea Lord, Admiral Mountbatten[11] and the Cabinet agreed, despite staff reports over missile unreliability and inaccuracy,[10] confirmed by the dismal performance in the following 1959 Seaslug target launches at Woomera in Sth Australia [12], which convinced many RAN officers, Seaslug was not a suitable AA weapon for the design or RAN, the vulnerability of the above-waterline missile magazine.[13] Final, late 1958 revisions,[14] were to adopt a high flush deck from B turret, increasing internal space, the cancellation of the nuclear Seaslug, and provision of portable fins for the Seaslug, all allowed storage of 20 extra missile bodies in tubular form for rapid assembly. Against staff advice, a tight fitting, fixed side hangar for the anti-submarine Wessex helicopter was added on the insistence of the First Sea Lord.[15] While a flawed layout, it proved usable when tested on final deployment in the South Atlantic in 1982 on HMS Antrim. Lord Mountbatten believed that by describing the County class as destroyers rather than cruisers, and demonstrating the apparently impressive performance of Seaslug on the missile range against Gloster Meteor UC15 drones, he could justify a modern Royal Navy and a large number of County-class 'destroyers'.[16]

While short on the support and logistic spares stocks of a traditional cruiser, they were still envisaged by the DNC as being 'probably' used in the cruiser role[17] with space for Flag staff offices, and admiral's barge accommodation[18] in the 1960s: the last decade when the UK oversaw significant colonial territory ("East of Suez"). Its missile capability had been overtaken by aircraft development by 1962–63, when HMS Devonshire and Hampshire entered service, but in the early and mid-1960s the modern lines of these guided-missile destroyers, with their traditional RN cruiser style and their impressive-looking missiles, enabled the overstretched Royal Navy to project sufficient power to close down the threat of a militant, left-leaning Indonesia to Malaysia and Borneo during the Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation.[19]

Ships of the class[edit]

Eight vessels were built in two batches between 1959 and 1970, the later four vessels carrying the improved Seaslug GWS2 and updated electronics requiring rearranged mastheads. The major identifying feature was the Batch 2 vessels' prominent "double-bedstead" AKE-2 antennas of the Type 965 air-search radar, and their taller foremast carrying the Type 992Q low-angle search radar.

Ships' names[edit]

Four of the "Counties" took names used by the famous three-funnelled interwar County-class cruisers: London, Norfolk, Devonshire and Kent. (The last of these, HMS Cumberland, had survived until 1959 as a trials ship). Devonshire, Hampshire and Antrim also inherited the names of Devonshire-class armoured cruisers of the First World War.

Four of the new ships were named after counties containing a Royal Navy Dockyard; these were: Devonshire (Devonport Dockyard), Hampshire (Portsmouth Dockyard), Kent (Chatham Dockyard), and Fife (Rosyth dockyard). Glamorgan and Antrim were named after the counties in Wales and Northern Ireland which contain the port cities and regional capitals of Cardiff and Belfast (by analogy to London, England). Norfolk commemorated the county of Nelson's birth, and the important 19th-century ports of Great Yarmouth and King's Lynn.

Three of the ships' names have been subsequently re-used: HMS London was a Type 22 frigate, in RN service from 1987–1999, and now serving with the Romanian Naval Forces as Regina Maria. HMS Kent and HMS Norfolk were used for RN Type 23 frigates which were named after British dukedoms.

Ship Builder Laid Down Launched Commissioned Fate
Batch 1
Devonshire Cammell Laird, Birkenhead 9 March 1959 10 June 1960 15 November 1962 Sunk as target, 17 July 1984
Hampshire John Brown & Company, Clydebank 26 March 1959 16 March 1961 15 March 1963 Broken up at Briton Ferry, 1979
Kent Harland & Wolff, Belfast 1 March 1960 27 September 1961 15 August 1963 Broken up at Alang, 1998
London Swan Hunter, Wallsend 26 February 1960 7 December 1961 4 November 1963 Sold to Pakistan as Babur, March 1982
Batch 2
Fife Fairfield Shipbuilding, Govan 1 June 1962 9 July 1964 21 June 1966 Sold to Chile as Blanco Encalada, August 1987
Glamorgan Vickers-Armstrongs, Newcastle 13 September 1962 9 July 1964 14 October 1966 Sold to Chile as Almirante Latorre, September 1986
Antrim Upper Clyde Shipbuilders, Govan 20 January 1966 19 October 1967 14 July 1970 Sold to Chile as Almirante Cochrane, June 1984
Norfolk Swan Hunter, Wallsend 15 March 1966 16 November 1967 7 March 1970 Sold to Chile as Capitán Prat, April 1982

Design features[edit]

Batch 2 ship HMS Norfolk following modification that has removed the 'B' turret and replaced it with four Exocet boxes

The County class was designed around the GWS1 Seaslug beam riding anti-aircraft missile system. Seaslug was a first-generation surface-to-air missile intended to hit high-flying nuclear-armed bombers and shadowing surveillance aircraft like the Tupolev Tu-95 "Bear", which could direct strikes against the British fleet from missile destroyers and cruise missile-armed submarines. Bears were formidable targets for a missile like Seaslug[citation needed]; the long-range Soviet turboprop aircraft flew at an altitude of 7.5 miles, at 572 mph (921 km/h)[20] and were barely within the engagement capability of Seaslug.[citation needed]

The Seaslug system was a large weapon. Each missile was 6 m (19 ft 8 in) long and weighed two tons; its handling arrangements and electronics systems were also large; so even fitting a single system aboard a ship the size of the Counties was a challenge. The missile was stowed horizontally in a long unarmoured magazine, above the waterline, that took up a great deal of internal space. The risk of fire near the magazine was checked by an automatic sprinkler system.[21] On the last four ships, some of the missiles were stored partly disassembled in the forward end of the magazine to enable the complement of missiles to be increased. These missiles had their wings and fins reattached before being moved into the aft sections of the handling spaces and eventually loaded onto the large twin launcher for firing. The limitations of the beam riding guidance for Seaslug meant both Mk 1 and 2 versions of the class had provision for nuclear armed Seaslug missiles for longer range effectiveness, but they were never developed. Due to First Lord Mountbatten's, view of the difficulty of restricting escalation and political reality,[22] and the change of focus of the RN in the late 1950s to East of Suez task forces.[clarification needed][23] The early versions of the equivalent US missile system also relied on beam riding and had a nuclear warhead variant, RIM7 Terrier as did the radar homing RIM 8 Talos and the semi active radar homing, RAF Bloodhound missile system.[24][verification needed] The County class and its Seaslug system were much a product of the age of nuclear deterrence and the design of the destroyers was intended to give maximum protection from nuclear fallout, with the operation rooms, where the ship was fought from, located 5 decks below, deep in the ship, with lift access from the bridge,[25] which maintained some duplicated command systems. The operations room, sited the main radar, sonar, electronic warfare screens and communication data and computer links. The electronics required for the Seaslug were the large Type 901 fire-control radar and the Type 965 air-search radar. These required a great deal of weight to be carried high up on the ship, further affecting ship layout. According to the Royal Navy architect, "Sea Slug did not live up to expectations" and was obsolete by 1957.[26] Its ineffectiveness and vulnerable magazine[27] and missile fuel, reduced confidence in the class, which had potential as command ships, having more operations room space than later Type 42 destroyer and ADAWS and the MIL-STD-6011 communications system.[citation needed]

In 1960, because US-designed missiles were seen at the time to be superior to the Seaslug, the Royal Australian Navy (RAN) proposed a County class armed with the US Tartar missile and two additional modifications: hangar space for three Wessex helicopters and a steam propulsion system, rather than the combined steam and gas system used in the County class. However, the RAN instead decided to proceed with the Perth class (a modified version of the US Charles F. Adams class). Two different reasons have been put forward for the Australian decision: according to an Australian history, British authorities would not allow a steam-propelled variant of the County,[28] whereas, according to a British account, the re-design required to accommodate the Tartar missile would have taken longer than the RAN deemed to be acceptable.[29]

The US Terrier missile had some support amongst the RN staff, but consideration was not given to acquiring it for the second batch of four ships,[citation needed] as the County class were 'shop windows' for advanced UK technology, and it was vital for the British missile and aerospace industry to continue the Seaslug project, to allow the development of the much improved Sea Dart missile. Following problems with the original version, a reworked Action Data Automation Weapon System (ADAWS) was successfully trialled on HMS Norfolk in 1970.[30] In the mid-1960s the County missile destroyers were assets; their impressive appearance and data links, feeding off the carriers' Type 984 radar, projected effective capability during the Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation.[31][32] The Mark 1 Seaslug was operationally reliable and proved useful as a missile target for the new Sea Dart missiles in the late 1970s and early 1980s. (The supersonic Mark 2 version proved less effective for this.) There are questions as to whether it was ever fully operational and there were problems with missiles breaking up when the boosters separated.[33] Inaccuracy, primitive beam-riding guidance and lack of infrared homing or a proximity fuze in the Mk 1 made it of limited value.[34] Short-range air defence was provided by the GWS-22 Seacat anti-aircraft missile system, which made the Counties the first Royal Navy warships to be armed with two different types of guided missile.

Batch 2 improvements[edit]

As constructed, the County-class ships were armed with a pair of twin QF 4.5-inch gun mountings. These had magazines for 225 shells for each gun, two-thirds of the magazine capacity for the same guns in the Leander-class frigates.[35] The second batch of four ships (Antrim, Fife, Glamorgan and Norfolk) were refitted in the mid-1970s – their 'B'-position turrets were removed and replaced by four single MM38 Exocet surface-to-surface anti-ship-missile launcher boxes in order to increase the fleets anti-ship capability following retirement of its aircraft carriers. [36] This made the County-class ships the only Royal Navy ships to be fitted with three separate types of guided missile: Seaslug, Seacat and Exocet. It also left the un-refitted ships as the last Royal Navy vessels able to fire a broadside from multiple main armament gun turrets. HMS London fired the last Royal Navy broadside on 10 December 1981 in the English Channel, after returning from its final deployment in the West Indies.[37] It had also fired off the last Seaslug Mk 1 stocks that year, as targets for Type 42 Sea Dart workups, prior to her hand-over to the Pakistani Navy. Sold by the British Government 23 March 1982, she sailed without notice from Portsmouth in late May 1982 for Pakistan during the Falklands crisis, and consideration may have been given to reclaiming it for war service.

Possible development[edit]

It was suggested by Vosper Thornycroft that the Counties could have been developed for the anti-submarine role by replacing the obsolete Seaslug GWS system with a larger hangar and flight deck and the possibility of removing Seaslug and rebuilding the missile tunnel as storage for extra Lynx helicopters.[11][page needed] Certainly, these arrangements as originally installed to operate a single Wessex anti-submarine helicopter were problematic, with a hangar so cramped it took an hour to get the aircraft either in or out again, during which evolution the port Seacat launcher was unusable. However it was determined that beam-restrictions would still limit the Counties' helicopter operation in RN service to the obsolescent Wessex, as they were too narrow to handle the far more capable Sea King HAS. The Chilean navy, however, did convert two of the four ships they purchased along these lines.[citation needed]

1982 Falklands War[edit]

Antrim and Glamorgan both served in the Falklands War; Antrim was the flagship of Operation Paraquet, the recovery of South Georgia in April 1982. Her helicopter, a Westland Wessex HAS Mk 3 (nicknamed "Humphrey") was responsible for the rescue of 16 Special Air Service operators from Fortuna Glacier and the subsequent detection and disabling of the Argentinian submarine Santa Fe. In San Carlos Water, Antrim was hit by a 1,000 lb (450 kg) bomb which failed to explode. Glamorgan, after many days on the "gun line" bombarding Port Stanley airfield, was hit by an Exocet launched from land at the end of the conflict. It destroyed her aircraft hangar and the port Seacat mounting. Her captain's prompt reaction to visual detection of the Exocet narrowly averted a hit on the fatally vulnerable Seaslug magazine, by turning the ship so as to give as small a target as possible (the stern) to the incoming weapon. The ship suffered fourteen deaths, injuries, and was lucky to survive with extensive damage and flooding. Had the missile hit a few inches higher, the above waterline magazine would have blown in an explosive fireball and many more of the crew[38] might have been lost.

Disposal[edit]

All eight of the class had short Royal Navy careers, serving on average less than 16 years. Only London of the first batch would serve further (transferred to Pakistan) while the other three Batch 1 ships were decommissioned by 1980 with Hampshire being immediately scrapped in 1977, and Devonshire sunk in weapons testing in 1984. Kent would serve as a floating (though immobile) accommodation and training ship in Portsmouth harbour until 1996. The four ships of Batch 2 however would be operated for 16 to 23 more years after sale to the Chilean Navy, in which they all received extensive upgrades and modernisation.

Construction programme[edit]

The ships were built at the major UK yards, with some of the machinery coming from Associated Electrical Industries of Manchester, Parsons Marine Steam Turbine Company of Wallsend-on-Tyne, John I. Thornycroft & Company of Southampton, Yarrows of Glasgow, and the Wallsend Slipway and Engineering Company, Wallsend-on-Tyne.

Pennant Name Built by Ordered Laid down Launched Accepted
into service
Commissioned Estimated
building cost[39]
D02 Devonshire Cammell Laird, Birkenhead[40] 24 January 1956[27] 9 March 1959[27] 10 June 1960[27] November 1962[40] 15 November 1962[27] £14,080,000[40]
D06 Hampshire John Brown & Company, Clydebank[40] 27 January 1956[27] 26 March 1959[27] 16 March 1961[27] March 1963[40] 15 March 1963[27] £12,625,000[40]
D12 Kent Harland & Wolff, Belfast[41] 6 February 1957[27] 1 March 1960[27] 27 September 1961[27] August 1963[41] 15 August 1963[27] £13,650,000[41]
D16 London Swan Hunter, Wallsend-on-Tyne[41] 6 February 1957[27] 26 February 1960[27] 7 December 1961[27] November 1963[41] 14 November 1963[27] £13,900,000[41]
D20 Fife Fairfields, Glasgow[42] 26 September 1961[27] 1 June 1962[27] 9 July 1964[27] June 1966[42] 21 June 1966[27] £15,250,000[42]
D19 Glamorgan Vickers Shipbuilding, Newcastle[42] 26 September 1961[27] 13 September 1962[27] 9 July 1964[27] October 1966[42] 11 October 1966[27] £14,100,000[42]
D21 Norfolk Swan Hunter[43] 5 January 1965[27] 15 March 1966[27] 16 November 1967[27] February 1970[43] 7 March 1970[27] £16,900,000[43]
D18 Antrim Upper Clyde Shipbuilders, Govan[44] 5 January 1965[27] 20 January 1966[27] 19 October 1967[27] November 1970[44] 14 July 1970[27] £16,350,000[44]

Cost of ownership[edit]

Running costs[edit]

Date Running cost What is included
1972–73 £500,000 Average annual maintenance cost per vessel for County-class destroyers[45]
1981–82 £7.0 million Average annual running cost of County-class destroyers at average 1981–82 prices and including associated aircraft costs but excluding the costs of major refits.[46]

Cost of major refits[edit]

Date Running cost What is included Citation
£5½ million – £8 million Cost of recently completed major refits for County-class destroyers. [47]

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ Brown & Moore (2003).
  2. ^ Purvis,M.K., 'Post War RN Frigate and Guided Missile Destroyer Design 1944-1969', Transactions, Royal Institution of Naval Architects (RINA), 1974
  3. ^ Marriott, Leo: Royal Navy Destroyers since 1945, ISBN 0-7110-1817-0, Ian Allan Ltd, 1989
  4. ^ Hall (May 2008), pp. 48-51.
  5. ^ DNC 7/1014 for Board of Admiralty
  6. ^ DNC 7/1014
  7. ^ Moore (2005), p. 127.
  8. ^ E. Grove. The RN Guided Missile in R. Harding. Royal Navy 1930-2000. Innovation & Defense . F. Case/ Routeledge. NY & London(2005)p 198
  9. ^ E. Grove. The RN Guided Missile in R. Harding RN 1930-2000. Innovation & Defense (2005), p 198 by TNA:PRO. ADM 205/172 1958, (26)p211
  10. ^ a b Wise (2007), pp. 19–21.
  11. ^ a b Jane's (1980).
  12. ^ E. Grove in Harding, RN 1930-2000, p198
  13. ^ Moore (2005), pp. 132-133, note 26, p. 135.
  14. ^ ADM 167 152 1958 and First Lords Record (Public Record Office)- the final, construction order, ship cover and legend no longer exist
  15. ^ Mounbatten (1989), p. 187.
  16. ^ Wilson (2013), pp. 624-625.
  17. ^ Hall (May 2008), p. 48.
  18. ^ Friedman (2006), pp. 181–190.
  19. ^ N. van der Bijl. Confrontation. The War with Indonesia 1962–66. Pen & Sword (2007) UK, pp 134–5, 139
  20. ^ Gunston, B. The Encyclopedia of Russian Aircraft, 1875–1975. Motorbooks International, (rep Osprey, Reed, ed), WI, USA (2005) p. 425.
  21. ^ Moore (2005), p. 129.
  22. ^ Mountbatten (1989).
  23. ^ E. Hampshire. British Guided missile Destroyers. County, T42, T82 and T45. (2016) Vanguard
  24. ^ R. Conyers Nesbit. RAF. A Illustrated History since 1918. Surrey, UK (1992) p 258-9,
  25. ^ Marland (2016), p. 77.
  26. ^ Brown & Moore (2003), pp. 39, 188.
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag Moore (2005), p. 133.
  28. ^ Cooper, Alastair; cited by Stevens, David, ed. (2001). The Royal Australian Navy. The Australian Centenary History of Defence (vol. III); South Melbourne, Oxford University Press, pp. 190–1
  29. ^ Friedman (2006), pp. 195.
  30. ^ Friedman (2006), p. 191.
  31. ^ Wilson (2013), pp. 627 & spec.
  32. ^ Hall (December 2008), p. 50.
  33. ^ Friedman (2006), p. 192.
  34. ^ Brown & Moore (2003), p. 39.
  35. ^ Friedman (2006), p. 189.
  36. ^ Marriott (1989), p. 106.
  37. ^ Hall (December 2008), pp. 51.
  38. ^ Hall (May 2008), p. 51.
  39. ^ "Unit cost, i.e. excluding cost of certain items (e.g. aircraft, first outfit)."
    Text from Defences Estimates
  40. ^ a b c d e f Navy Estimates, 1963–64, page 70, Table 3 (Programme): List and particulars of new ships which have been accepted or are expected to be accepted into HM service during the Financial Year ended 31 March 1963
  41. ^ a b c d e f Defence Estimates, 1964–65, page 72, Table 3 (Programme): List and particulars of new ships which have been accepted or are expected to be accepted into HM service during the Financial Year ended 31 March 1964
  42. ^ a b c d e f Defence Estimates, 1967–68, page 75, Table 3 (Programme): List and particulars of new ships which have been accepted or are expected to be accepted into HM service during the Financial Year ended 31 March 1967
  43. ^ a b c Defence Estimates, 1970–71, page XII-81, Table V: List and particulars of new ships which have been accepted or are expected to be accepted into HM service during the Financial Year ended 31 March 1970
  44. ^ a b c Defence Estimates, 1971–72, page XII-81, Table V: List and particulars of new ships which have been accepted or are expected to be accepted into HM service during the Financial Year ended 31 March 1971
  45. ^ Hansard HC Deb 16 December 1974 vol 883 c316W Question to the Secretary of State for Defence about the approximate annual average refit cost per vessel for (a) a County-class destroyer and (b) a Leander-class frigate, 16 December 1974.
  46. ^ Hansard HC Deb 16 July 1982 vol 27 cc485-6W Question to the Secretary of State for Defence, 16 July 1982.
  47. ^ Hansard HC Deb 16 December 1974 vol 883 c316W Question to the Secretary of State for Defence about the approximate cost of a long refit of (a) a Leander-class frigate and (b) a County-class destroyer, 16 December 1974.
Sources
  • Brown, D. K.; Moore, G. (2003). Rebuilding the Royal Navy : Warship Design Since 1945. Chatham Publishing. ISBN 978-184832-150-2. 
  • Friedman, N. (2006). British Destroyers and Frigates: The Second World War and After. London: Chatham Publishing. ISBN 1861761376. 
  • Hall, N. (May 2008). "County Class Missile Destroyers". Ships Monthly. pp. 48–51. ISSN 0037-394X. 
  • Hall, N. (December 2008). "County Class Missile Destroyers, HMS London role in Confrontation and Aden crisis as HMS Eagle escort 65-7". Ships Monthly. pp. 50–51. ISSN 0037-394X. 
  • Marland, P. (2016). Jordan, John, ed. Postwar AIO & Command Systems in the Royal Navy. Warship 2016. Conway Maritime Press. p. 76–98. ISBN 1844863263. 
  • Marriott, Leo (1989). Royal Navy Destroyers Since 1945. Shepperton, UK: Ian Allan. ISBN 0-7110-1817-0. 
  • Moore, G. (2005). Jordan, John, ed. From Daring to Devonshire. Warship 2005. Conway Maritime Press. pp. 111–133, note 26, p. 135. ISBN 1844860035. 
  • Lord Earl Mountbatten (1989). Ziegler, Philip, ed. From Shore to Shore: The Final Years. The Tour Diaries of Earl Mountbatten of Burma, 1953–1979. London: Collins. ISBN 0002176068. 
  • Preston, A. (1980). Warships of the World. London: Jane's. p. 103. ISBN 0710600208. 
  • Purvis, M.K., 'Post War RN Frigate and Guided Missile Destroyer Design 1944-1969', Transactions, Royal Institution of Naval Architects (RINA), 1974
  • Wise, Jon (2007). Jordan, John, ed. Girdle Ness: Seaslug Missile Trials. Warship 2007. Conway Maritime Press. pp. 19–21. ISBN 978-1844860418. 
  • Wilson, Ben (2013). Empire of the Deep. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 624–627. ISBN 0297864084. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]