Crown Coach Corporation

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Crown Coach Corporation
Industry Transportation
Fate Defunct
Founded Los Angeles, California (1904 (1904))
Founder D. Brockway
Defunct March 1991 (March 1991)
Headquarters Los Angeles, California (1904-1985)
Chino, California (1985-1991)
Area served
West Coast, United States
Products School Buses
Fire Apparatus
Parent GE Railcar (1987-1991)

The Crown Coach Corporation (founded as the Crown Carriage Company) is a defunct American bus manufacturer. Established in 1904, Crown was headquartered in Los Angeles, California until the mid-1980s, moving to Chino, California until its closure. Best known for its Supercoach school buses, the company also produced motorcoaches and various fire apparatus.[1][2]

Crown closed in March 1991 due to declining demand for school buses at the time.[3][4] At the time of its closure, Crown Coach was a subsidiary of GE Railcar.

History[edit]

1904-1920: Wagons to school buses[edit]

At the beginning of the 20th century, Don M. Brockway found himself working at the first hardware store in Los Angeles, California.[2] To supplement its income, the hardware store sold parts for wagons and carriages.[1] In 1904, Brockway founded his own company, as Crown Carriage Company began life producing horse-drawn carriages. While the first vehicles were built in a wooden shed, the company moved to a brick factory in 1910.[2]

After 1910, as carriages gradually became "horseless", Crown experimented with building truck bodies. In 1916, the company built its first bus body for transit use; it was an open-air design heavily influenced by wagon design.[2] After World War I, Crown built its first body for school bus use.[1][2]

1921-1949: Metal bodies and Supercoaches[edit]

In 1921, a major shift in company production occurred as Murillo M. ("Brock") Brockway, the son of the company founder, was put in charge of school bus production.[2] Viewing school buses as a growth market in the suburbs of southern California, Brockway discontinued all wagon production in favor of bus and truck body production. To expand production and improve shipping of its vehicles, a much larger factory in Los Angeles was opened in 1923.[1]

In pursuit of developing heavier-duty and higher-capacity school buses, Crown introduced the first school bus with dual rear wheels in 1927 (on a Reo chassis).[1][2] In 1930, it produced its first all-metal school bus body (on a Mack chassis), with a 43-passenger capacity.[1][2]

1932 would mark several major changes for the company. As part of his taking over day-to-day operations of Crown from his father, MM Brockway introduced a ground-breaking school bus body; elements of its design would change school bus design forever. To improve forward visibility, the new bus was a cab-forward design, with the driver sitting next to the engine and radiator.[2] To improve safety, the bus was designed with an integral chassis; the windows were mesh-reinforced safety glass.[2] Alongside the standard braking system, the bus also was equipped with two backup braking systems.[1]

In 1935, the cab-forward school bus was updated and dubbed the Crown Supercoach.

For 1937, to increase seating capacity to 79 passengers, Crown produced its first mid-engine Supercoach; the bus came with a Hall-Scott gasoline engine.[2] In 1939, Crown acquired Moreland Motor Truck Company; as part of the acquisition, Crown moved to a larger factory in Los Angeles.[1] Additionally, the Supercoach was changed from a mid-engine to a rear-engine configuration for 1940.[2]

During World War II, the production of Crown Coach was diverted towards military use; most bodies produced by the company were fire engine bodies for four-wheel drive truck chassis.[5] Following the war, the company returned to bus production,.beginning design work on the 1948 Supercoach. As a side project, engineers at the company designed an all-new cabover fire engine, using the mid-engine chassis of the Supercoach bus.[2] The first Crown Firecoach prototype was completed in 1951, after two years of design work.[2] Alongside the initial pumper design, Crown developed several configurations of the Firecoach, including water tenders, tiller and ladder trucks, and quints (TeleSquirts).

In the United States during the years immediately following World War II, population growth of suburbs expanded, fueled by the post-war baby boom. As that segment of the population entered school, demand for new schools (and school buses to transport their student) rapidly rose. In 1946, Crown began development on a new mid-engine Supercoach. Heavily influenced by motorcoach design, Crown intended it primarily for school bus use. Introduced in 1949, the all-new Supercoach used unit-body construction with high-strength steel in place of a separate chassis; to combat corrosion, all body panels were aluminum.

To prove the durability of the Supercoach to potential customers, Crown offered the Supercoach with a 20-year/100,000 mile warranty for the body.[1]

1950-1980: Mid-engine school buses[edit]

During the mid-1950s, several changes were made to the Supercoach. In 1954, the Cummins NHH diesel engine was added as an option, becoming the first diesel-powered Supercoach. A year later, the tandem-rear axle Supercoach made its debut; the largest school bus of its time, it seated as many as 91 passengers.[2]

From the 1950s to the 1970s, the Crown Supercoach and the similar Gillig Transit Coach became two of the most common school buses on the West Coast of the United States. Although conventional-type school buses remained in demand, the development costs did not justify starting an all-new model line. To supplement its income, Crown served as the West Coast distributor for other manufacturers, including Wayne, Blue Bird, and Thomas Built Buses;[1][2] Crown also marketed Prevost motorcoaches alongside its own coach buses.[1][2]

The Firecoach was produced through the 1960s and 1970s with relatively few changes. While sold primarily across the West Coast, the Crown Firecoach would become purchased by fire departments across the United States.[2] In 1965, a roof was made standard for all Firecoaches, in the interest of firefighter safety.

1980-1991: Decline[edit]

In 1979, the Brockway family sold Crown Coach Corporation to a local truck distributor; this began a sequence of ownership changes.[1] Due to slow sales, Crown ended production of the motorcoach version of the Supercoach in 1980, focusing entirely on school buses.[3] By 1982, sales of the aging Firecoach had largely collapsed, leading to a temporary hiatus of its production. After 34 years of production and slightly over 1800 examples produced, the final Firecoach was produced in 1985.[1][2]

During 1984, Crown moved its headquarters and production from Los Angeles to Chino, California in San Bernardino County. To diversify beyond the Supercoach-based product line, Crown entered into a joint venture with the Hungarian firm Ikarus to produce articulated mass-transit buses.[1] At 102 inches wide and 60 feet long, the Crown-Ikarus 286 was the longest and widest bus ever produced by Crown Coach. Bodied by Ikarus in Hungary, the transit bus was imported to Crown in California for final assembly, including its interior and American-sourced powertrain (shared with the Supercoach). In 1986, the partnership ended, with 243 examples produced.[1]

At the end of 1986, Crown Coach entered into receivership; in addition to the closure of production, the Los Angeles factory (owned since 1939) was sold.[3] In April 1987, the company was purchased at auction by GE Railcar.[1][3] After a reorganization as Crown Coach, Incorporated, production in Chino restarted in July 1987.[1][3]

As the 1980s ended, the Crown Supercoach had reached over 40 years of production with only minor evolutionary changes made through its production. In 1989, the California Energy Commission began a study to test low-emission school buses, using methanol-fueled vehicles as part of the test; Crown Coach was a manufacturer selected to take part of the study, using a methanol-fuel Detroit Diesel 6V92 engine. The fitment of the engine required an extensive update of the rear bodywork of the Supercoach, leading to a matching update of the front bodywork. Although not an all-new design, the Series II, as it was named, was the first major update to the Supercoach since 1948.

After its acquisition by GE Railcar, assembly operation ceased on March 31, 1991.[3] Crown's difficulty in competing with manufacturers of smaller, less durable but cheaper school buses was cited by company president Bruce Freeman in October 1990 as a primary factor in GE's decision to leave the school bus market.[4]

Products[edit]

1980s Crown Supercoach motorcoach
1977-1991 36' Crown Supercoach
1982 Crown-Ikarus 286 articulated bus
Retired Crown Firecoach
Crown Buses
Vehicle Production Dates Chassis Notes
Crown School Buses[1][2] c. 1919-1932 Various (including Mack, Reo, Ford) Crown built the first dual-rear wheel school bus (1927)

Crown built its first all-metal school bus body in 1930.

Crown Metro/Metropolitan[1] 1935-c.1937 Ford Ford conventional-chassis bus
Crown Super Coach[1] 1932-1947 (exc.WWII) Various First factory-produced forward control-school bus (1932)

Mid-engine version (1937)

Rear-engine version (1939)

Produced as school bus and motorcoach

Crown Supercoach

Crown Supercoach Series II

Motorcoach/Tourcoach

Highway/Intercity coaches

1948-1991 Crown Coach integral Aluminum-body integral chassis bus

Produced as both school bus and motorcoach

First diesel-powered school bus (1955)

First tandem-axle school bus (1956)

Midship and rear engine configurations

Ford Transit Bus

Ward/Ford Coachette

Crown-Ikarus 286

c.1945-1947 (Ford Transit Bus)

1961-1962 (Coachette)

1980-1986 (Crown-Ikarus)

Ford rear-engine (Ford Transit Bus)

Ford P-van (Coachette)

Ikarus 280 modified (Crown-Ikarus)

Crown sold the Ford Transit Bus after World War II.

The Coachette (bodied by Ward) was marketed by Crown from 1961-1962.

The Crown-Ikarus 286 articulated transit bus was a joint venture between Crown Coach and Hungarian bus manufacturer Ikarus.

Other 1960s-1970s Crown served as the first United States distributor of Prevost motorcoaches, from 1969 to 1983.[1] During the 1960s and 1970s, Crown served as the West Coast distributor of several school bus manufacturers, including: Wayne Works, Blue Bird Body Company, and Thomas Built Buses.[2]
Crown Fire Apparatus
Crown Firecoach 1951-1982

1984-1985

Crown Coach nt The mid-engine Crown Firecoach is derived from the underpinnings of the Crown Supercoach bus, using heavier-duty engines and powertrains.

First produced as a fire engine, the Firecoach was also produced as water tenders, tiller and ladder trucks, and quints (TeleSquirts).

Produced as open-air cabs, enclosed cabs (standard after 1965), and wide-cab (standard after 1979).

Various apparatus 1951-1985 Customer-provided chassis Alongside the purpose-built Firecoach, Crown Coach also produced bodies on customer chassis to request. us
Other Crown Coach vehicles
Security Coaches 1950s-? Crown Supercoach Prisoner transport vehicle based on Crown Supercoach school bus

35-foot and 40-foot chassis; 42-64 passengers

Mobile Command Unit

Crown Coach HPO

Bookmobile

1950s-c.1980 Crown Supercoach Crown Supercoach with enlarged body behind main entry area, including raised roof and vertical sides. ar
Crown truck cabs/bodies[1] 1916-1918 Federal
Crown B-3 1925-1933 N/A License-built version of Kinner Airster biplane[1][2]

External links[edit]

  • Crown Coach Historical Society - founded by Sandi Brockway
  • [1] Bruce Vanderhorst Crown Fire Engine Website
  • [2] Paul Krot's Crown Firecoach Photo Archive
  • [3] Chris Arnolds Crown Firecoach Website

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Mark Theobald (2004). "Crown Coach". Coachbuilt.com. Retrieved 2010-04-29
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Hass, Ed. "The Dentist Who Built Buses and Fire Engines by Ed Hass". Retrieved 27 October 2014. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f J. H. Velentine. "Crown Coach: California's Speciality Builder". Tripod. Retrieved 2010-04-27. 
  4. ^ a b Sandi Brockway (September 8, 2010) "School Bus Maker Crown Coach to Close Next March," George White. October 12, 1990. Crown Coach Historical Society. Retrieved 2014-03-20
  5. ^ "techtimeline". www.crownisking.org. Retrieved 2016-06-25.