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Simulation of a Robotis DARwIn-OP in Webots

DARWIN-OP which stands for Dynamic Anthropomorphic Robot with Intelligence–Open Platform is a miniature-humanoid robot platform with advanced computational power, sophisticated sensors, high payload capacity, and dynamic motion ability developed and manufactured by Korean robot manufacturer Robotis[1] in collaboration with Virginia Tech, Purdue University,and University of Pennsylvania. DARWIN-OP has twenty degrees of freedom [20 DOF] each controlled by a DYNAMIXEL MX-28T[2] servo motor. The MX-28T has a stall torque of 24 kgf·cm (at 12 V, 1.5 A) and a 360 degree range of motion.

With the release of the ROBOTIS OP2, the name of DARwIn-OP has also changed. [1]

DARWIN-OP's main purpose is for research and programmers in the fields of humanoid, artificial intelligence, gait algorithm, vision,[3] inverse kinematics, linguistics, etc...[4] It is also supported by $1.2 million NSF grant [5][6] and has been distributed to over 14 institutions already.[5][6]

DARWIN-OP is also the winner of the Kid Size League in the RoboCup 2011[7][8][9][10] 2012 League,[11] and 2013 League.



  • Discontinued and replaced with ROBOTIS OP2 - new specs below
  • Height: 454.5 mm (17.89 in)
  • Weight: 2.9 kg (6.4 lb)
  • Default walking speed: 24.0 cm/s (9.5 in/s) 0.25 s/step – user modifiable gait
  • Default standing up time from ground : 2.8 s (facing down) and 3.9 s (facing up) – user modifiable speed
  • Built-in PC: 1.6 GHz Intel Atom Z530 (32 bit) on-board 4 GB flash SSD
  • Management controller (CM-730): ARM CortexM3 STM32F103RE 72 MHz
  • 20 MX-28T actuators (6 DOF leg × 2 + 3 DOF arm × 2 + 2 DOF neck) with metallic gears
  • 3 Mbit/s high-speed Dynamixel bus for joint control
  • 3-axis gyro, 3-axis accelerometer, button × 3, detection microphone × 2
  • Versatile functionality (can accept legacy, current, and future peripherals)
  • Price: $12,000


  • Height: 454.5 mm (17.89 in)
  • Weight: 2.9 kg (6.4 lb)
  • Default walking speed: 24.0 cm/s (9.5 in/s) 0.25 s/step – user modifiable gait
  • Default standing up time from ground : 2.8 s (facing down) and 3.9 s (facing up) – user modifiable speed
  • 20 MX-28T actuators (6 DOF leg × 2 + 3 DOF arm × 2 + 2 DOF neck) with metallic gears
  • CPU : Intel Atom Processor N2600 (dual core, 1.6 GHz)
  • RAM : 4GB (DDR3 204-pin SO-DIMM module), user-replaceable
  • SSD : SSD / mSATA module (unlimited space), user-replaceable
  • OS : Linux and Windows
  • User-accessible ports : 2 x USB2.0, mini HDMI, LAN (gigabit), mic/audio line in,out)
  • Price: $9,600

A 3D visualization of the robot (including all the DOFs and LEDs) is available here.

Different Applications[edit]

Country Application University Video
USA Theraptist for Cerebral Palsy GATECH [12]
USA DDR Motions Purdue University [13]
USA Roller Skating Virginia Tech [14]
USA Ladder Climbing UNLV-DASL [15]
Canada Skiing University of Manitoba [16]
USA Driving Drexel University [17]
USA Carrying water UNLV
USA 3D Printing Michael Overstreet [18]
USA Play Golf Purdue University [19]
Canada Ice Hockey University of Manitoba [20]
Canada Bicycle University of Manitoba [21]
Unknown Kinect Unknown [22]
Unknown Weight Lifting Unknown [23]

Many source codes are being shared and are open. * [2] (in English)


This platform is currently used in the ICRA, RoboCup, FIRA, and Humabot competition. Links below.

ICRA Humanoid Application Challenge[edit]

Beginning in 2012 ROBOTIS and IEEE ICRA has sponsored the DARWIN-OP Humanoid Application Challenge, held at the ICRA conference. The competition encourages participants to solve novel problems using DARWIN-OP and present their findings at the conference. Winners are selected by a panel of experts as well as popular vote amongst the participants. The winning team has been awarded the DARWIN-OP Deluxe Edition for two consecutive years along with software(s). All finalists are also rewarded. As of 2015, the challenge name has changed to Humanoid Application Challenge and is now open to all applications.

Year Winning Team Project Description Competition Location
2012 University of Manitoba Ice skating/Ice hockey[27] Minneapolis-St Paul
2013 Georgia Tech Case-based reasoning, learning from demonstration[28] Karlsruhe, Germany
2014 Cancelled Cancelled Hong Kong
2015 University of Manitoba Alpine and cross-country skiing[29] Seattle, WA - USA
2016 Cancelled Cancelled Stockholm, Sweden


The DARWIN-OP robot is currently used by several teams in the RoboCup kids-size competition (humanoid robots 40–60 cm tall) and have shown excellent performance by the teams using this platform.

Kid-Size League Winners[30][31][32]
Year Rank Team Name Country University
2011 1st Place Team DARwIn USA Virginia Tech and UPenn
2012 1st Place Team DARwIn USA Virginia Tech and UPenn
2013 1st Place Team DARwIn USA Virginia Tech and UPenn


DARWIN-OP robots are used by some teams in the kids-size HuroCup competition at FIRA. A team from the University of Manitoba won best overall at the 2013 competition using a DARwIn-OP.[33]. By 2017, team ICHIRO from Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember won 10 medals and broke two world records in sprint and marathon using Darwin-Op.[34]


Since August 2017, the ROBOTIS OP2 is used in an online contest called Humanoid Marathon on robotbenchmark. In this contest it is possible to program a simulated robot in Python using a web interface.


Due to its openness and easy maintenance, many researchers favor and hope to create a clone version of their own.[clarification needed] DARWIN-OP is currently being used at the labs/universities below :

See also[edit]


  1. ^ ::: ROBOTIS :::
  2. ^ AX-12A, AX-18A, RX-24F, RX-28, RX-64, EX-106+, MX-28
  3. ^ Sandeep Rai / Jun 22 2011 (2011-06-22). "DARWiN robot to assist disabled by tracking their eye movement". Gizmowatch.com. Archived from the original on 2012-04-26. Retrieved 2011-12-27. 
  4. ^ "Darwin-OP Learns To Play Dance Dance Revolution - IEEE Spectrum". Spectrum.ieee.org. Retrieved 2011-12-27. 
  5. ^ a b "Me And My Robot Page 2 of 2". Forbes.com. 2011-05-23. Retrieved 2011-12-27. 
  6. ^ a b Author Name:  Dennis Hong (2011-05-12). "Robotis DARwIn-OP Raises The Bar | Robot Magazine - The latest hobby, science and consumer robotics, artificial intelligence". Find.botmag.com. Archived from the original on 2012-01-01. Retrieved 2011-12-27. 
  7. ^ "RoboCup 2011 Kid Size: USA / Japan (Final)". YouTube. 2011-07-10. Retrieved 2011-12-27. 
  8. ^ "Robot Soccer Stars Win World Cup Trophy for U.S. - Video". Bloomberg. 2011-09-09. Retrieved 2011-12-27. 
  9. ^ http://www.cs.columbia.edu/~allen/F11/NOTES/RoboCup.pdf
  10. ^ Hornyak, Tim (2011-07-12). "U.S. droids carry the day at 2011 RoboCup finals | Crave - CNET". News.cnet.com. Retrieved 2011-12-27. 
  11. ^ RoMeLa RoboCup 2012: Team DARwIn repeats win at RoboCup in Kid-Size division
  12. ^ https://www.technologyreview.com/s/603614/a-robot-physical-therapist-helps-kids-with-cerebral-palsy/
  13. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M4DvlAb4eA4
  14. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0k-PaTPVIAQ
  15. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F3sllTrCV4Q
  16. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3jesBT-xp1A
  17. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L-jm3Pn9GVg
  18. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7MM_pvcmK4M
  19. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Svq302_Vyjk
  20. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D4xaaJNBhlk
  21. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u7Tc3-4oZG0
  22. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZQIE2V47Pi8
  23. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NOywcPyozRs
  24. ^ "ICRA 2012 Home Page". Icra2012.org. Retrieved 2011-12-27. 
  25. ^ Guillermo Cornejo L. - Grupo Fidalex. "RoboCup Mexico 2012". Robocup2012.org. Retrieved 2011-12-27. 
  26. ^ FIRA (2011-11-22). "FIRA News - [NOTICE] Special offer for FIRA teams". Fira.net. Retrieved 2011-12-27. 
  27. ^ Robotis. "Winner 2012 DARwIn-OP Humanoid Application Challenge". 
  28. ^ http://robotics.gatech.edu/hg/item/215691
  29. ^ http://aalab.cs.umanitoba.ca/
  30. ^ http://www.seas.upenn.edu/media/feature-darwin.php
  31. ^ http://www.vtnews.vt.edu/articles/2012/06/062812-engineering-robocup.html
  32. ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=aJgrBAAAQBAJ&pg=PA49&lpg=PA49&dq=team+darwin+robocup+2013&source=bl&ots=lEYkpoWFv2&sig=fmlbwu6rbRxaV3mvH3v-ItCCc78&hl=ko&sa=X&ei=XNZeVY-VIYOB8gWBlYHQDA&ved=0CFYQ6AEwBw#v=onepage&q=team%20darwin%20robocup%202013&f=false
  33. ^ University of Manitoba. "SnoBots win at international robotics competition in Kuala Lumpur". 
  34. ^ Republika. "Robot ITS Raih Juara Umum di Beijing". 

External links[edit]