Taraxacum

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Dandelion
Temporal range: Miocene–recent[1]
DandelionFlower.jpg
TaraxacumOfficinaleSeed.JPG
A dandelion flower head composed of numerous small florets (top). The seedhead is shown below it.
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Subfamily: Cichorioideae
Tribe: Cichorieae
Subtribe: Crepidinae
Genus: Taraxacum
F. H. Wigg.
Type species
Taraxacum officinale[2]

Taraxacum (/təˈræksəkʊm/) is a large genus of flowering plants in the family Asteraceae, which consists of species commonly known as dandelions. The genus is native to Eurasia and North America, but the two commonplace species worldwide, T. officinale and T. erythrospermum, were introduced from Europe and now propagate as wildflowers.[3] Both species are edible in their entirety.[4] The common name dandelion (/ˈdændɪl.ən/ DAN-di-ly-ən, from French dent-de-lion, meaning "lion's tooth") is given to members of the genus. Like other members of the family Asteraceae, they have very small flowers collected together into a composite flower head. Each single flower in a head is called a floret. In part due to their abundance along with being a generalist species, dandelions are one of the most vital early spring nectar sources for a wide host of pollinators.[5] Many Taraxacum species produce seeds asexually by apomixis, where the seeds are produced without pollination, resulting in offspring that are genetically identical to the parent plant.[6]

Description[edit]

These are individual pollen grains of the dandelion - Taraxacum officinale.
Segment of pappus fiber showing barbs

The species of Taraxacum are tap-rooted, perennial, herbaceous plants, native to temperate areas of the Northern Hemisphere. The genus contains many species, which usually (or in the case of triploids, obligately) reproduce by apomixis, resulting in many local populations and endemism. In the British Isles alone, 234 microspecies are recognised in nine loosely defined sections, of which 40 are "probably endemic".[7]

In general, the leaves are 5–25 cm long or longer, simple, lobed, and form a basal rosette above the central taproot. The flower heads are yellow to orange coloured, and are open in the daytime, but closed at night. The heads are borne singly on a hollow stem (scape) that is usually leafless and rises 1–10 cm or more[3] above the leaves. Stems and leaves exude a white, milky latex when broken. A rosette may produce several flowering stems at a time. The flower heads are 2–5 cm in diameter and consist entirely of ray florets. The flower heads mature into spherical seed heads sometimes called blowballs[8] or clocks (in both British and American English)[9][10][11][12] containing many single-seeded fruits called achenes. Each achene is attached to a pappus of fine hair-like material which enables wind-aided dispersal over long distances.

The flower head is surrounded by bracts (sometimes mistakenly called sepals) in two series. The inner bracts are erect until the seeds mature, then flex downward to allow the seeds to disperse. The outer bracts are often reflexed downward, but remain appressed in plants of the sections Palustria and Spectabilia. Some species drop the "parachute" from the achenes; the hair-like parachutes are called pappus, and they are modified sepals. Between the pappus and the achene is a stalk called a beak, which elongates as the fruit matures. The beak breaks off from the achene quite easily, separating the seed from the parachute.

Seedhead detail

Seed dispersal[edit]

A number of species of Taraxacum are seed-dispersed ruderals that rapidly colonize disturbed soil, especially the common dandelion (T. officinale), which has been introduced over much of the temperate world. After flowering is finished, the dandelion flower head dries out for a day or two. The dried petals and stamens drop off, the bracts reflex (curve backwards), and the parachute ball opens into a full sphere. When development is complete, the mature seeds are attached to white, fluffy "parachutes" which easily detach from the seedhead and glide by wind, dispersing.


The seeds are able to cover large distances when dispersed due to the unique morphology of the pappus which works to create a unique type of vortex ring[13][14] that stays attached to the seed rather than being sent downstream. In addition to the creation of this vortex ring, the pappus can adjust its morphology depending on the moisture in the air. This allows the plume of seeds to close up and reduce the chance to separate from the stem, waiting for optimal conditions that will maximize dispersal and germination.[15][16]

The pappus of a dandelion seed which aids in the wind-driven dispersal.
Field with flowering dandelions, Tatarstan, Russia

False dandelions[edit]

Hawksbeard flower heads and ripe seeds are sometimes confused with dandelions.
An officinale seedhead with only one seed still attached

Many similar plants in the family Asteraceae with yellow flowers are sometimes known as false dandelions. Dandelion flowers are very similar to those of cat's ears (Hypochaeris). Both plants carry similar flowers, which form into windborne seeds. However, dandelion flowers are borne singly on unbranched, hairless and leafless, hollow stems, while cat’s ear flowering stems are branched, solid, and carry bracts. Both plants have a basal rosette of leaves and a central taproot. However, the leaves of dandelions are smooth or glabrous, whereas those of catsears are coarsely hairy.

Early-flowering dandelions may be distinguished from coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara) by their basal rosette of leaves, their lack of disc florets, and the absence of scales on the flowering stem.[17]

Other plants with superficially similar flowers include hawkweeds (Hieracium) and hawksbeards (Crepis). These are readily distinguished by branched flowering stems, which are usually hairy and bear leaves.

Classification[edit]

The genus is taxonomically complex, with some botanists dividing the group into about 34 macrospecies, and about 2000 microspecies;[18] about 235 apomictic and polyploid microspecies have been recorded in Great Britain and Ireland.[19] Some botanists take a much narrower view and only accept a total of about 60 species.[18]

Selected species[edit]

T. albidum
T. albidum
T. californicum
T. californicum
T. japonicum
T. japonicum
T. laevigatum
T. laevigatum
T. officinale
T. officinale
T. platycarpum
T. platycarpum

Cultivars[edit]

  • 'Amélioré à Coeur Plein' yields an abundant crop without taking up much ground, and tends to blanch itself naturally, due to its clumping growth habit.
  • 'Broad-leaved' - The leaves are thick and tender and easily blanched. In rich soils, they can be up to 60 cm wide. Plants do not go to seed as quickly as French types.
  • 'Vert de Montmagny' is a large-leaved, vigorous grower, which matures early.[24]

History[edit]

Hand coloured print, plate 1 of Dens Leonis in A Curious Herbal, 1737 by Elizabeth Blackwell
1679 hand coloured print by Maria Sibylla Merian of a dandelion as plant host to the pale tussock moth

Dandelions are thought to have evolved about 30 million years ago in Eurasia.[25] Fossil seeds of Taraxacum tanaiticum have been recorded from the Pliocene of southern Russia.[26] Dandelions have been used by humans for food and as an herb for much of recorded history.[27] They were well known to ancient Egyptians, Greeks and Romans, and are recorded to have been used in Chinese traditional medicine for over a thousand years. The plant was used as food and medicine by Native Americans.[28] Dandelions probably arrived in North America on the Mayflower—not as stowaways, but brought on purpose for their medicinal benefits.[29]

Names[edit]

Leaf resemblance to lion teeth

The Latin name Taraxacum originates in medieval Persian writings on pharmacy. The Persian scientist Al-Razi around 900 CE wrote "the tarashaquq is like chicory". The Persian scientist and philosopher Ibn Sīnā around 1000 CE wrote a book chapter on Taraxacum. Gerard of Cremona, in translating Arabic to Latin around 1170, spelled it tarasacon.[30]

The English name, dandelion, is a corruption of the French dent de lion[31] meaning "lion's tooth", referring to the coarsely toothed leaves. The plant is also known as blowball, cankerwort, doon-head-clock, witch's gowan, milk witch, lion's-tooth, yellow-gowan, Irish daisy, monks-head, priest's-crown, and puff-ball;[32] other common names include faceclock, pee-a-bed, wet-a-bed,[33] swine's snout,[34] white endive, and wild endive.[35]

The English folk name "piss-a-bed" (and indeed the equivalent contemporary French pissenlit) refers to the strong diuretic effect of the plant's roots.[36] In various northeastern Italian dialects, the plant is known as pisacan ("dog pisses"), because they are found at the side of pavements.[37]

In Swedish, it is called maskros (worm rose) after the small insects (thrips) usually present in the flowers.[38] In Finnish and Estonian, the names (voikukka, võilill) translate as butter flower, due to the color of the flower. In Lithuanian, it is known as "Pienė", meaning "milky", because of the white latex that is produced when the stems are cut. The Welsh (dant-y-llew), German (Löwenzahn), Norwegian (løvetann), Portuguese (dente de leão) and Spanish (diente de león) names mean the same as the French and the English names. In Czech it is known as pampeliška where the "liška" part directly translates to a "fox", possibly due to the colour of the flower.

Nutrition[edit]

Plate of sauteed dandelion greens, with Wehani rice

Raw dandelion greens contain high amounts of vitamins A, C, and K, and are moderate sources of calcium, potassium, iron, and manganese.[39] Raw dandelion greens are 86% water, 9% carbohydrates, 3% protein, and 1% fat.[39] A 100 gram reference amount supplies 45 calories.[39]

Phytochemicals[edit]

The raw flowers contain diverse phytochemicals, including polyphenols, such as flavonoids apigenin, isoquercitrin (a quercetin-like compound), and caffeic acid, as well as terpenoids, triterpenes, and sesquiterpenes.[40] The roots contain a substantial amount of the prebiotic fiber inulin. Dandelion greens contain lutein.[41]

Taraxalisin, a serine proteinase, is found in the latex of dandelion roots.[42][43] Maximal activity of the proteinase in the roots is attained in April, at the beginning of plant development after the winter period.[43]

Properties[edit]

Edibility[edit]

Bunches of organic dandelion greens for sale at Whole Foods

The entire plant, including the leaves, stems, flowers, and roots, is edible and nutritious. Dandelions are found on 6 continents and have been gathered for food since prehistory, but the varieties commercially cultivated for consumption are mainly native to Eurasia and North America. A perennial plant, its leaves grow back if the taproot is left intact. To make leaves more palatable, they are often blanched to remove bitterness,[27] or sauteed in the same way as spinach.[44] Dandelion leaves and buds have been a part of traditional Kashmiri cuisine, Albanian cuisine, Slovenian, Sephardic Jewish, Chinese, Greek cuisine (χόρτα) and Korean cuisines. In Crete, the leaves of a variety called 'Mari' (Μαρί), 'Mariaki' (Μαριάκι), or 'Koproradiko' (Κοπροράδικο) are eaten by locals, either raw or boiled, in salads. T. megalorhizon, a species endemic to Crete, is eaten in the same way; it is found only at high altitudes (1000 to 1600 m) and in fallow sites, and is called pentaramia (πενταράμια) or agrioradiko (αγριοράδικο).[45]

The flower petals, along with other ingredients, usually including citrus, are used to make dandelion wine. Its ground, roasted roots can be used as a caffeine-free coffee alternative.[46] Dandelion was also traditionally used to make the traditional British soft drink dandelion and burdock, and is one of the ingredients of root beer. Dandelions were once considered delicacies by the Victorian gentry, who used them mostly in salads and sandwiches.

The flowers of dandelions are typically eaten before they start to become seed heads, as although the fluffy "parachutes" are edible they are tasteless and their texture is considered unpleasant.

Dye[edit]

The yellow flowers can be dried and ground into a yellow-pigmented powder which is used as a dye.[47]

Allergies[edit]

Dandelion pollen may cause allergic reactions when eaten, or adverse skin reactions in sensitive individuals. Contact dermatitis after handling has also been reported, probably from the latex in the stems and leaves.[48][medical citation needed]

Herbalism[edit]

Dandelion has been used in traditional medicine in Europe, North America, and China.[40]

Food for wildlife[edit]

Dandelion specimen 85 cm (33 in) in height

Taraxacum seeds are an important food source for certain birds.[49] Dandelions are also important plants for Northern Hemisphere bees, providing an important source of nectar and pollen early in the season.[50] Dandelions are used as food plants by the larvae of some species of Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths). They are also used as a source of nectar by the pearl-bordered fritillary (Boloria euphrosyne), one of the earliest emerging butterflies in the spring.

Benefits to gardeners[edit]

With a wide range of uses, the dandelion is cultivated in small gardens to massive farms. It is kept as a companion plant; its taproot brings up nutrients for shallow-rooting plants. It is also known to attract pollinating insects and release ethylene gas, which helps fruit to ripen.[51]

Cultural importance[edit]

It has been a Western tradition for someone to blow out a dandelion seedhead and think of a wish wanted to come true.

Five dandelion flowers are the emblem of White Sulphur Springs, West Virginia.[52] The citizens celebrate spring with an annual Dandelion Festival.

The dandelion is the official flower of the University of Rochester and "Dandelion Yellow" is one of the school's official colors. "The Dandelion Yellow" is an official University of Rochester song.[53]

As an invasive plant[edit]

Dandelions can cause significant economic damage as an invasive species and infestation of other crops worldwide;[54] in some jurisdictions, the species T. officinale is listed as a noxious weed.[54][55] Dandelions have also genetically modified to become shorter-stemmed to avoid dangers of lawn-mowers.[citation needed]

As a source of natural rubber[edit]

Dandelions secrete latex when the tissues are cut or broken, yet in the wild type, the latex content is low and varies greatly. Using modern cultivation methods and optimization techniques, scientists in the Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology (IME) in Germany developed a cultivar that is suitable for commercial production of natural rubber. The latex produced exhibits the same quality as the natural rubber from rubber trees.[56] In collaboration with Continental AG, IME is building a pilot facility. As of May 2014, the first prototype test tires made with blends from dandelion-rubber are scheduled for testing on public roads over the next few years.[57] In December 2017, Linglong Group Co. Ltd., a Chinese company, invested $450 million into making commercially viable rubber from dandelions.[58]

References[edit]

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External links[edit]

  • Media related to Taraxacum at Wikimedia Commons