Divisions of the world in Islam
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The Arabic singular form dar (دار), translated literally, may mean "house", "abode", "structure", "place", "land", or "country". In Islamic jurisprudence it often refers to a part of the world.
The idea of geographical divisions along religious lines i.e. the dur is not mentioned in the Quran.
The notions of "houses" or "divisions" of the world in Islam such as Dar al-Islam and Dar al-Harb does not appear in the Quran or the Hadith, the only authoritative sources of Islam. According to Abou El Fadl, the only dar the Qur'an speaks of is "the abode of the Hereafter and the above of the earthly life, with the former described as clearly superior to the latter". Early Islamic jurists devised these terms to denote legal rulings for ongoing Muslim conquests almost a century after Muhammad. The first use of the terms was in Iraq by Abu Hanifa and his disciples Abu Yusuf and Al-Shaybani. Among those in the Levant, Al-Awza'i was leading in this discipline and later Shafi'i.
Major religious divisions
Dar al-Islam (Arabic: دار الإسلام literally house/abode of Islam; or Dar as-Salam, house/abode of Peace; or Dar al-Tawhid, house/abode of monotheism) is a term used by Muslim scholars to refer to those countries where Muslims can practice their religion as the ruling sect and where certain religions, (Judaism, Christianity, and Sabianism) are to be tolerated. It is the area of the world under the rule of Islam, literally, "the home of Islam." These are usually Islamic cultures wherein Muslims represent the majority of the population, and so the government promises them a privileged status. Most Dar al-Islam areas are surrounded by other Islamic societies to ensure public protection.
Some modern Muslim scholars believe that the labeling of a country or place as being a part of Dar al-Islam revolves around the question of religious security. This means that if a Muslim practices Islam freely in his place of abode, even though that place happens to be secular or un-Islamic, then he will be considered as living in the Dar al-Islam. Yet, the majority opinion, which relies on tradition, claims that only countries ruled by Sharia can be considered true "abodes of peace."
- Muslims must be able to enjoy peace and security with and within this country.
- The country should be ruled by a Muslim government
- It has common frontiers with some Muslim countries.
Dar al-Harb (Arabic: دار الحرب "house of war"; also referred to as Dar al-Gharb "house of the West" in later Ottoman sources), aka Dar al-Kufr ( دار الكفر ), literally "Realm of the Heathens" i.e. where the Islamic law isn't implemented; an individual from "Dar al-harab" is a "harabi" (Arabic: حربي). Dar al-Kharab is a term classically referring to those countries where the Muslim law is not in force, in the matter of worship and the protection of the faithful and dhimmis.
According to Majid Khadduri, the fundamental distinction between Dar al-Islam and Dar al-Kharab was introduced after the defeat of the Umayyad Caliphate at Battle of Tours in 732 which prevented the expansion of Islam to the north, while at the same time the expansion of the caliphate to the east had been halted.
Wahbah al-Zuhayli argues that the concept of Dar al-Harb in mostly historical: "The existence of Dār al-Islām and Dār al-Ḥarb in contemporary times is rare or extremely limited. This is because Islamic countries have joined the United Nations covenant that stipulates relationship between nations is peace and not war. Therefore non-Muslim countries are Dār al-‘Ahd …"
Other ideological perceptions and international relations
Dar al Hudna (Arabic: دار الهدنة "house of calm"): The land of non-believers currently under a truce, which is a respite between wars. A truce is bought by tribute or agreement. If either the harbis break the conditions for the truce, or after ten years (whichever comes first), hostilities are resumed. Furthermore, only treaties that conform to Islamic prescriptions are valid; if these conditions are not fulfilled, the treaty is worthless.
Dar al-'Ahd, Dar al-Sulh
Dar al-'Ahd (Arabic: دار العهد "house of truce") or Dar al-Sulh (Arabic: دار الصلح "house of conciliation/treaty") are terms used for territories that do have a treaty of non-aggression or peace with Muslims. These terms were coined to refer to the Ottoman Empire's relationship with its Christian tributary states.
Today, the term refers to those non-Muslim governments which have armistice or peace agreements with Muslim governments. The actual status of the non-Muslim country in question may vary from acknowledged equality to tributary states.
Dar al-Amn (Arabic: دار الأمن "house of safety") refers to the status of Muslims either in the West or other non-Muslim societies. The term dar al-Amn may be used in conjunction with, or in opposition to, the older terms dar al-Islam and dar al-Harb, from which it is derived (see also "Dar al-Dawa"). This region usually refers to countries where Muslims have the right to practice their religion. Many countries with Muslim minorities have been declared as Dar al-Amn at different points in time.
Dar al-Dawa (Arabic: دار الدعوة "house of invitation") refers to a region where the religion of Islam has recently been introduced. Since the population had not been exposed to Islam before, they may not fit into the traditional definition of dar al-Harb. On the other hand, as the region is not yet Muslim, it cannot be dar al-Islam either. The most frequent use of the term dar al-Dawa is in regard to Arabia before and during the life of Muhammad commonly referred as Jahiliyyah period, era of ignorance of divine guidance.
More recently, the term dar al-Dawa has been proposed by Western Muslim philosophers for the status of Muslims in the West – or, more likely and logically, for the Western countries where these are living.
The term dar al-Dawa may be used in conjunction with, or in opposition to, the older terms dar al-Islam and dar al-Harb, from which it is derived, or simply be seen as just another sub-category of dar al-harb (see also "Dar al-Amn").
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