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|Look up denominal verb in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
English examples are to school, from school, meaning to instruct; to shelve, from shelf, meaning to put on shelves; and to symbolize, from symbol, meaning to be a symbol for.
Some common denominalizing affixes in English are -ize/-ise (e.g., summarize), -ify (e.g., classify), -ate (e.g., granulate), en- (e.g., enslave), be- (e.g., behead), and zero or -∅ (e.g., school).
A variety of semantic relations are expressed between the base noun X and the derived verb; there is no simple relationship between the affix and the semantic relation:
- resultative: to make something into an X, e.g., victimize, cash
- locative: to put something in X, e.g., box, hospitalize
- instrumental: to use X, e.g., sponge, hammer
- ablative, privative: to remove X from something, e.g., shell (peas), behead, bone
- ornative: to add X to something or to cover something with X, e.g., rubberize, salt
- similative: to act like or resemble X, e.g., tyrannize, guard
- performative: to do or perform X, e.g., botanize, tango
Many Latin verbs are denominal. For example, the first declension verb coronare (to crown) is derived from corona (a crown), and the fourth declension verbs mollire (to soften) and servire (to serve) are derived from mollis (soft) and servus (a slave) respectively.
- Deverbal noun, where the noun is formed from the verb
- Carolyn A. Gottfurcht, Denominal Verb Formation in English, Ph.D. dissertation, Northwestern University, 2008 full text
- Moreland, Floyd L.; Fleischer, Rita M. (1990). Latin: An Intensive Course. London, England: University of California Press. p. 29. ISBN 0520031830.
- Fortson, Benjamin W. IV (2004). "13.13". Indo-European Languages and Culture. Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-4051-0315-2.
- Jacques, Guillaume (2012). "From Denominal Derivation to Incorporation". Lingua. 122 (11): 1027–1231. doi:10.1016/j.lingua.2012.05.010.
- Jacques, Guillaume (2014). "Denominal affixes as sources of antipassive markers in Japhug Rgyalrong". Lingua. 138: 1–22. doi:10.1016/j.lingua.2013.09.011.
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