Some of this section's listed sources may not be reliable. (October 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
|Paradigms and models|
|Methodologies and frameworks|
|Standards and Bodies of Knowledge|
DevOps (a clipped compound of "development" and "operations") is a software development methodology that combines software development (Dev) with information technology operations (Ops). The goal of DevOps is to shorten the systems development life cycle while also delivering features, fixes, and updates frequently in close alignment with business objectives. The DevOps approach is to include automation and event monitoring at all steps of the software build.
- 1 Definition
- 2 History
- 3 Toolchain
- 4 Relationship to other approaches
- 5 Goals
- 6 Cultural change
- 7 Deployment
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
Academics and practitioners have not developed a unique definition for the term "DevOps".
From an academic perspective, Len Bass, Ingo Weber, and Liming Zhu—computer science researchers from the Software Engineering Institute—suggested to define DevOps as "a set of practices intended to reduce the time between committing a change to a system and the change being placed into normal production, while ensuring high quality".
The term DevOps, however, has been used in multiple contexts.
As DevOps is intended to be a cross-functional mode of working, rather than a single DevOps tool, there are sets (or "toolchains") of multiple tools. Such DevOps tools are expected to fit into one or more of these categories, reflective of key aspects of the development and delivery process:
- Code — code development and review, source code management tools, code merging
- Build — continuous integration tools, build status
- Test — continuous testing tools that provide feedback on business risks
- Package — artifact repository, application pre-deployment staging
- Release — change management, release approvals, release automation
- Configure — infrastructure configuration and management, Infrastructure as Code tools
- Monitor — applications performance monitoring, end–user experience
Note that there exist different interpretations of the DevOps toolchain (e.g. Plan, Create, Verify, Package, Release, Configure, and Monitor).
Relationship to other approaches
The need for DevOps arose from the increasing success of agile software development, as that led to organizations wanting to release their software faster and more frequently. As they sought to overcome the strain this put on their release management processes, they had to adopt patterns such as application release automation, continuous integration tools, and continuous delivery.
Another practice that rose from DevOps is BizDevOps which inserts business drivers as aspect equal to development and operations.
While continuous delivery is focused on automating the processes in software delivery, DevOps also focuses on the organization change to support great collaboration between the many functions involved.
DevOps and continuous delivery share a common background in agile methods and lean thinking: small and frequent changes with focused value to the end customer. They are well communicated and collaborated internally, thus helping achieve faster time to market, with reduced risks.
The application of continuous delivery and DevOps to data analytics has been termed DataOps. DataOps seeks to integrate data engineering, data integration, data quality, data security, and data privacy with operations. It applies principles from DevOps, Agile Development and the statistical process control, used in lean manufacturing, to improve the cycle time of extracting value from data analytics.
OpsDev emphasizes operations over development.
Site reliability engineering
In 2003, Google developed site reliability engineering, a new approach for releasing new features continuously into large-scale high-availability systems while maintaining high-quality end user experience. While SRE predates the development of DevOps, they are generally viewed as being related to each other. Some aspects of DevOps have taken a similar approach.
WinOps is the term used for DevOps practices for a Microsoft-centric view.
The goals of DevOps span the entire delivery pipeline. They include:
- Improved deployment frequency;
- Faster time to market;
- Lower failure rate of new releases;
- Shortened lead time between fixes;
- Faster mean time to recovery (in the event of a new release crashing or otherwise disabling the current system).
Simple processes become increasingly programmable and dynamic, using a DevOps approach. DevOps aims to maximize the predictability, efficiency, security, and maintainability of operational processes. Very often, automation supports this objective.
DevOps integration targets product delivery, continuous testing, quality testing, feature development, and maintenance releases in order to improve reliability and security and provide faster development and deployment cycles. Many of the ideas (and people) involved in DevOps came from the enterprise systems management and agile software development movements.
Views on the benefits claimed for DevOps
Companies that practice DevOps have reported significant benefits, including: significantly shorter time to market, improved customer satisfaction, better product quality, more reliable releases, improved productivity and efficiency, and the increased ability to build the right product by fast experimentation.
However, a study released in January 2017 by F5 of almost 2,200 IT executives and industry professionals found that only one in five surveyed think DevOps had a strategic impact on their organization despite rise in usage. The same study found that only 17% identified DevOps as key, well below software as a service (42%), big data (41%) and public cloud infrastructure as a service (39%).
DevOps initiatives can create cultural change in companies  by transforming the way operations, developers, and testers collaborate during the development and delivery processes. Getting these groups to work cohesively is a critical challenge in enterprise DevOps adoption.
DevOps as a job title
- Cattle not Pets: the paradigm of disposable server infrastructure.
- 10 deployments per day: the story of Flickr adopting DevOps.
Building a DevOps culture
DevOps principles demand strong interdepartmental communication—team-building and other employee engagement activities are often used—to create an environment that fosters this communication and cultural change, within an organization. Team–building activities can include board games, trust activities, and employee engagement seminars.
Companies with very frequent releases may require a DevOps awareness or orientation program. For example, the company that operates the image hosting website Flickr developed a DevOps approach, to support a business requirement of ten deployments per day; this daily deployment cycle would be much higher at organizations producing multi-focus or multi-function applications. This is referred to as continuous deployment or continuous delivery  and has been associated with the lean startup methodology. Working groups, professional associations and blogs have formed on the topic since 2009.
Architecturally significant requirements
To practice DevOps effectively, software applications have to meet a set of architecturally significant requirements (ASRs), such as: deployability, modifiability, testability, and monitorability. These ASRs require a high priority and cannot be traded off lightly.
Although in principle it is possible to practice DevOps with any architectural style, the microservices architectural style is becoming the standard for building continuously deployed systems. Because the size of each service is small, it allows the architecture of an individual service to emerge through continuous refactoring, hence reducing the need for a big upfront design and allows for releasing the software early and continuously.
Scope of adoption
Some articles in the DevOps literature assume, or recommend, significant participation in DevOps initiatives from outside an organization's IT department, e.g.: "DevOps is just the agile principle, taken to the full enterprise."
A survey published in January 2016 by the SaaS cloud-computing company RightScale, DevOps adoption increased from 66 percent in 2015 to 74 percent in 2016. And among larger enterprise organizations, DevOps adoption is even higher — 81 percent.
Adoption of DevOps is being driven by many factors — including:
- Use of agile and other development processes and methods;
- Demand for an increased rate of production releases — from application and business unit stakeholders;
- Wide availability of virtualized and cloud infrastructure — from internal and external providers;
- Increased usage of data center automation and configuration management tools;
- Increased focus on test automation and continuous integration methods;
- A critical mass of publicly–available best practices.
DevOps automation can be achieved by repackaging platforms, systems, and applications into reusable building blocks through the use of technologies such as virtual machines and containerization.  
DevOps transformation is the process of transforming and adapting a software development methodology in accordance with agile development methods and extending this across the full organisation value stream. DevOps transformation usually covers at least the following three dimensions: people, technology and process. The people dimension covers culture, technology includes automation and process includes governance.
- Loukides, Mike (7 June 2012). "What is DevOps?".
- Bass, Len; Weber, Ingo; Zhu, Liming. DevOps: A Software Architect's Perspective. ISBN 978-0134049847.
- "Surprise! Broad Agreement on the Definition of DevOps".
- Debois, Patrick. "Agile 2008 Toronto". Just Enough Documented Information. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
- Debois, Patrick. "DevOps Days". DevOps Days. Retrieved 31 March 2011.
- Gartner Market Trends: DevOps – Not a Market, but Tool-Centric Philosophy That supports a Continuous Delivery Value Chain (Report). Gartner. 18 February 2015.
- Edwards, Damon. "Integrating DevOps tools into a Service Delivery Platform". dev2ops.org.
- Seroter, Richard. "Exploring the ENTIRE DevOps Toolchain for (Cloud) Teams". infoq.com.
- Theakanath, Thomas. "DevOps Stack on a Shoestring Budget". devops.com.
- "Stronger DevOps Culture with Puppet and Vagrant". Puppet Labs. Retrieved 22 October 2015.
- Chen, Lianping (2015). "Continuous Delivery: Huge Benefits, but Challenges Too". IEEE Software. 32 (2): 50–54. doi:10.1109/MS.2015.27.
- Best Practices in Change, Configuration and Release Management (Report). Gartner. 14 July 2010.
- Shoeb, Javed (21 June 2017). "Introducing BizDevOps - Why DevOps Doesn't Work for Enterprise Applications". dzone.com. Retrieved 21 June 2017.
- Humble, Jez; Farley, David (2011). Continuous Delivery: reliable software releases through build, test, and deployment automation. Pearson Education Inc. ISBN 978-0-321-60191-9.
- Hammond, Jeffrey (9 September 2011). "The Relationship between DevOps and Continuous Delivery". Forrester Research. Forester.
- Ambler, Scott W. (12 February 2014). "We need more Agile IT Now!". Dr. Dobb’s The world of software Development. San Francisco: UBM.
- Chen, Lianping (2018). Microservices: Architecting for Continuous Delivery and DevOps. The IEEE International Conference on Software Architecture (ICSA 2018). IEEE.
- "From DevOps to DataOps, By Andy Palmer - Tamr Inc". Tamr Inc. 7 May 2015. Retrieved 23 August 2017.
- DataKitchen (15 March 2017). "How to Become a Rising Star with Data Analytics". data-ops. Retrieved 23 August 2017.
- Weinberger, Matt (25 November 2014), Microsoft study finds everybody wants DevOps but Culture is a Challenge, Computerworld
- Schitzer, Eran (Oct 2015). "DevOps Must Also Mean OpsDev". DevOps.com.
- Beyer, Betsy; Jones, Chris; Petoff, Jennifer; Murphy, Niall Richard (April 2016). Site Reliability Engineering. O'Reilly Media. ISBN 978-1-4919-2909-4.
- "SRE vs. DevOps — a False Distinction? - DevOps.com". 18 May 2017.
- Love DevOps? Wait until you meet SRE
- "How to stay relevant in the DevOps era: A SysAdmin's survival guide".
- "What is DevOps?". NewRelic.com. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
- Nasrat, Paul. "Agile Infrastructure". InfoQ. Retrieved 31 March 2011.
- Bourne, James (23 January 2017). "New research questions strategic importance of DevOps despite rise in usage". CloudTech.
- Emerging Technology Analysis: DevOps a Culture Shift, Not a Technology (Report). Gartner.
- Loukides, Mike (11 June 2012). What is Devops?. Oreilly Media.
- "Gartner IT Glossary – devops". Gartner. Retrieved 30 October 2015.
- Jones, Stephen; Noppen, Joost; Lettice, Fiona (21 July 2016). "Management challenges for DevOps adoption within UK SMEs".
- "Is DevOps a Title? - DevOps.com". DevOps.com. 20 March 2014. Retrieved 22 July 2017.
- "DevOps: A Job Title or a School of Thought?". Monster Career Advice. Retrieved 22 July 2017.
- "What are known useful and misleading memes in the DevOps culture?". devops.stackexchange.com. Retrieved 29 June 2017.
- Sharwood, Simon. "Are Your Servers Pets or Cattle?". The Register. Retrieved 2 July 2018.
- Walls, Mandi (15 April 2013). "Building a DevOps Culture". OReilly Media.
- Roach, Patrick. "Dice Breakers: Using DevOps principles and nerdery to reimagine Team building". DevOps.com.
- "10+ Deploys Per Day: Dev and Ops Cooperation at Flickr".
- "SAM SIG: Applied Lean Startup Ideas: Continuous Deployment at kaChing". SVForum.
- Humble, Jez. "Why Enterprises Must Adopt Devops to Enable Continuous Delivery". Cutter IT Journal.
- "Applied Lean Startup Ideas: Continuous Deployment at kaChing".
- "DevOps Days 2009 Conference".
- Edwards, Damon. "DevOps Meetup Recap".
- Chen, Lianping (2015). Towards Architecting for Continuous Delivery. The 12th Working IEEE/IFIP Conference on Software Architecture(WICSA 2015). Montréal, Canada: IEEE.
- Chen, Lianping; Ali Babar, Muhammad (2014). Towards an Evidence-Based Understanding of Emergence of Architecture through Continuous Refactoring in Agile Software Development. The 11th Working IEEE/IFIP Conference on Software Architecture(WICSA 2014). IEEE.
- "DevOps is Agile for the Rest of the Company". DevOps.com.
- Harvey, Cynthia (9 January 2017). "10 Ways DevOps is Changing the Enterprise". Datamation.
- "Virtual Infrastructure products: features comparison". Welcome to IT 2.0: Next Generation IT infrastructures.
- Ellard, Jennifer. "Bringing Order to Chaos through Data Center Automation". Information Management. SourceMedia. Archived from the original on 11 June 2010.
- "Impact of DevOps on Testing". DevOps.com.
- "Unleashing the Full Potential of Containerization for DevOps". Unleashing the Full Potential of Containerization for DevOps. 20 September 2017. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
- "Containers vs. virtual machines: A simplified answer to a complex question".
- "Is DevOps Transformation a Holy Grail? - DZone DevOps". dzone.com.
- "SMEs Can Benefit from DevOps, Too - DevOps.com". devops.com. 20 October 2017.
- Davis, Jennifer; Daniels, Ryn. Effective DevOps : building a culture of collaboration, affinity, and tooling at scale. Sebastopol, CA: O'Reilly. ISBN 9781491926437. OCLC 951434424.
- Gene, Kim; Debois, Patrick; Willis, John; Humble, Jez; Allspaw, John. The DevOps handbook : how to create world-class agility, reliability, and security in technology organizations (First ed.). Portland, OR. ISBN 9781942788003. OCLC 907166314.