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This article is about the dairy product. For the English rock band, see Cream (band). For other uses, see Cream (disambiguation).
A bottle of unhomogenised milk, with the cream clearly visible, resting on top of the milk.

Cream is a dairy product composed of the higher-butterfat layer skimmed from the top of milk before homogenization. In un-homogenized milk, the fat, which is less dense, will eventually rise to the top. In the industrial production of cream, this process is accelerated by using centrifuges called "separators". In many countries, cream is sold in several grades depending on the total butterfat content. Cream can be dried to a powder for shipment to distant markets. Cream has high levels of saturated fat.[1][2]

Cream skimmed from milk may be called "sweet cream" to distinguish it from whey cream skimmed from whey, a by-product of cheese-making. Whey cream has a lower fat content and tastes more salty, tangy and "cheesy".[3] In many countries, cream is usually sold partially fermented: sour cream, crème fraîche, and so on.

Cream has many culinary uses in sweet, bitter, salty and tangy dishes.

Cream produced by cattle (particularly Jersey cattle) grazing on natural pasture often contains some natural carotenoid pigments derived from the plants they eat; this gives the cream a slight yellow tone, hence the name of the yellowish-white color, cream. This is also the origin of butter's yellow color. Cream from goat's milk, or from cows fed indoors on grain or grain-based pellets, is white.


A slice of pumpkin pie topped with a whipped cream rose

Cream is used as an ingredient in many foods, including ice cream, many sauces, soups, stews, puddings, and some custard bases, and is also used for cakes. Whipped cream is served as a topping on ice cream sundaes, milkshakes, egg nog and sweet pies. Irish cream is an alcoholic liqueur which blends cream with whiskey, and often honey, wine, or coffee. Cream is also used in Indian curries such as masala dishes.

Cream (usually light/single cream or half and half) is often added to coffee in the US and Canada.

Both single and double cream can be used in cooking. Double cream or full-fat crème fraîche are often used when cream is added to a hot sauce, to prevent any problem with it separating or "splitting". Double cream can be thinned with milk to make an approximation of single cream.

The French word crème denotes not only dairy cream, but also other thick liquids such as sweet and savory custards, which are normally made with milk, not cream.[4]


Stewed nectarines and heavy cream

Different grades of cream are distinguished by their fat content, whether they have been heat-treated, whipped, and so on. In many jurisdictions, there are regulations for each type.

United States[edit]

In the United States, cream is usually sold as:

Name Fat Content Main Uses
Half and Half 10.5-18% Coffee and tea
Light Cream 18-30% Also called "table cream". In sauces and soups and as a garnish for desserts such as fresh fruit
Light Whipping Cream 30-36% In sauces and soups and as a garnish for desserts. It can be used to make
whipped cream, but heavy cream is better for making stiff peaks that hold their shape
Heavy Cream > 36% Better for stiff peaks for a whipped topping.

Not all grades are defined by all jurisdictions, and the exact fat content ranges vary. The above figures are based on the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21, Part 131[5][6]


The Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code - Standard 2.5.2 - Defines cream as milk product comparatively rich in fat, in the form of an emulsion of fat-in-skim milk, which can be obtained by separation from milk. Cream must contain no less than 350 g/kg of milk fat.[7]

Manufacturers labels may distinguish between different fat contents, a general guideline is as follows:

Name Fat Content Main Uses
Extra light (or 'lite') 12-12.5%
Light (or 'lite') 18-20%
Thickened Cream 35-36.5% with added gelatine and/or other thickeners to give the cream a creamier texture, also possibly with stabilizers to aid the consistency of whipped cream (this would be the cream to use for whipped cream, not necessarily for cooking)
Single Cream ~ 35% Recipes calling for 'single cream' are referring to pure or thickened cream with about 35% fat.
Double Cream 48-60% [8]


In the United Kingdom, the types of cream are legally defined[9] as followed:

Name Minimum
milk fat
Additional definition Main uses
Clotted cream 55% is heat-treated Served as it is. A traditional part of a cream tea.
Extra-thick double cream 48% is heat-treated then quickly cooled Thickest available fresh cream, spooned onto pies, puddings, and desserts (cannot be poured due to its consistency)
Double cream 48% Whips easily and thickest for puddings and desserts, can be piped once whipped
Whipping cream 35% Whips well but lighter, can be piped once whipped
Whipped cream 35% has been whipped Decorations on cakes, topping for ice cream, fruit and so on.
Sterilized cream 23% is sterilized
Cream or single cream 18% is not sterilized Poured over puddings, used in sauces
Sterilized half cream 12% is sterilized
Half cream Uncommon, some cocktails
Meiji whipping cream


Canadian cream definitions are similar to those used in the United States, except for that of "light cream". In Canada, "light cream" is low-fat cream, with 5% or 6% fat. Another form of cream available in Canada is "cereal cream", which is approximately midway between 5% cream and coffee cream in fat content.

Name Minimum
milk fat
Additional definition Main uses
Double cream 40%
Whipping cream 35% Whips well but lighter, can be piped
Table cream 18% Added to coffee, poured over puddings, used in sauces
Half and half 10-12% Added to coffee
Light cream 5-10% Also known as cereal cream Added to coffee


In Japan, cream sold in supermarkets is usually between 35% and 48% butterfat.


Russia, as well as other EAC countries, legally separates cream into two classes: normal (10-34% butterfat) and heavy (35-58%),[10] but the industry has pretty much standardized around the following types:

English Russian Transliteration Milk fat (wt%)
Low-fat or drinking[10][11] cream Нежирные (питьевые) сливки Nezhirnÿe[12] (pityevÿe) slivki 10%
(Normal) Cream Сливки Slivki 15% or 20%
Whipping cream Сливки для взбивания Slivki dlya vzbivaniya 33% or 35%
Double cream Двойные (жирные) сливки Dvoinÿe (Zhirnÿe) slivki 48%


In Switzerland, the types of cream are legally defined[13] as follows:

English[14] German French Italian Typical
milk fat
milk fat
Double cream Doppelrahm double-crème doppia panna 45% 45%
Full cream
Whipping cream
crème entière
crème à fouetter
panna intera
panna da montare
35% 35%
Half cream Halbrahm demi-crème mezza panna 25% 15%
Coffee cream Kaffeerahm crème à café panna da caffè 15% 15%

Sour cream and crème fraîche (German: Sauerrahm, Crème fraîche; French: crème acidulée, crème fraîche; Italian: panna acidula, crème fraîche) are defined as cream soured by bacterial cultures.

Thick cream (German: verdickter Rahm; French: crème épaissie; Italian: panna addensata) is defined as cream thickened using thickening agents.


In Sweden, cream is usually sold as:

  • Matlagningsgrädde ("cooking cream"), 10-15 %
  • Kaffegrädde ("Coffee cream"), 10%
  • Vispgrädde (whipping cream), 36 - 40%

Mellangrädde (27%) is, nowadays, a less common variant. Gräddfil and Creme Fraiche are two common sour cream products.

Processing and additives[edit]

Cream may have thickening agents and stabilizers added. Thickeners include sodium alginate, carrageenan, gelatine, sodium bicarbonate, tetrasodium pyrophosphate, and alginic acid.[15]:296[16]

Other processing may be carried out. For example, cream has a tendency to produce oily globules (called "feathering") when added to coffee. The stability of the cream may be increased by increasing the non-fat solids content, which can be done by partial demineralisation and addition of sodium caseinate, although this is expensive.[15]:297

Other cream products[edit]

Chart of 50 types of milk products and relationships, including cream (click on image to enlarge).

Butter is made by churning cream to separate the butterfat and buttermilk. This can be done by hand or by machine.

Whipped cream is made by whisking or mixing air into cream with more than 30% fat, to turn the liquid cream into a soft solid. Nitrous oxide may also be used to make whipped cream.

Sour cream, common in many countries including the U.S., Canada and Australia, is cream (12 to 16% or more milk fat) that has been subjected to a bacterial culture that produces lactic acid (0.5%+), which sours and thickens it.

Crème fraîche (28% milk fat) is slightly soured with bacterial culture, but not as sour or as thick as sour cream. Mexican crema (or cream espesa) is similar to crème fraîche.

Smetana is a heavy cream product (15-40% milk fat) Central and Eastern European sweet or sour cream.

Rjome or rømme is Norwegian sour cream containing 35% milk fat, similar to Icelandic sýrður rjómi.

Clotted cream, common in the United Kingdom, is made through a process that starts by slowly heating whole milk to produce a very high-fat (55%) product. This is similar to Indian malai.

Other items called "cream"[edit]

Some non-edible substances are called creams due to their consistency: shoe cream is runny, unlike regular waxy shoe polish; hand/body 'creme' or "skin cream" is meant for moisturizing the skin.

Regulations in many jurisdictions restrict the use of the word cream for foods. Words such as creme, kreme, creame, or whipped topping (e.g., Cool Whip) are often used for products which cannot legally be called cream. Oreo cookies are a type of sandwich cookie in which two biscuits have a soft, sweet filling between them which is called "crème filling". In some cases foods can be described as cream although they do not contain predominantly milk fats; for example in Britain "ice cream" does not have to be a dairy product (although it must be labelled "contains non-milk fat"), and salad cream is the customary name for a condiment that has been produced since the 1920s[17]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Saturated Fat
  2. ^ Eat less saturated fat
  3. ^ Article on sweet cream, whey cream, and the butters they produce
  4. ^ Larousse Gastronomique, 1938, translated 1961, p. 337
  5. ^ FDA > CDRH > CFR Title 21 Database Search
  6. ^ 2005 CFR Title 21, Volume 2
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. ^ Food Labelling Regulations 1998
  10. ^ a b Eurasian Customs Union Technical Requirements "On milk and dairy products safety"
  11. ^ Legally, the "drinking cream" term denotes pasteurized and individually packed cream, and has nothing to do with its fat content.
  12. ^ "Ÿ" denotes Cyrillic letter Yery, which is here a separate vowel and shouldn't be read as a part of a diphthong.
  13. ^ Verordnung des EDI über Lebensmittel tierischer Herkunft / Ordonnance du DFI sur les denrées alimentaires d'origine animale / Ordinanza del DFI sulle derrate alimentari di origine animale of 2010-11-23, SR/RS 817.022.108 (D·F·I), art. 48 (D·F·I)
  14. ^ The English terms are not legally regulated
  15. ^ a b Dairy Fats and Related Products, edited by Adnan Tamime. This book has a great deal of technical information on cream and other dairy fat products. Extracts available on Google books [1]
  16. ^ Carrageenan
  17. ^ UK Ministry of food orders, 1945

External links[edit]