Drumlin

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Drumlins around Horicon Marsh, Wisconsin, in an area with one of the highest concentration of drumlins in the world. The curved path of the Laurentide Ice Sheet is evident in the orientation of the various mounds.
Elongate and forested drumlins south of Puerto Williams, Chile. Flow direction here was at time of formation from west to east (left to right on picture).
Drowned drumlin in Clew Bay, Ireland

A drumlin, from the Irish word droimnín ("littlest ridge"), first recorded in 1833, in the classical sense is an elongated hill in the shape of an inverted spoon or half-buried egg[1][2] formed by glacial ice acting on underlying unconsolidated till or ground moraine. Assemblages of drumlins are referred to as fields or swarms;[3][4] they can create a landscape which is often described as having a 'basket of eggs topography'.[5]

Morphology[edit]

Drumlins occur in various shapes and sizes,[6] including symmetrical (about the long axis), spindle, parabolic forms, and transverse asymmetrical forms. Generally, they are elongated, oval-shaped hills, with a long axis parallel to the orientation of ice flow and with an up-ice (stoss) face that is generally steeper than the down-ice (lee) face.[7]

Drumlins are typically 250 to 1,000 meters long and between 120 and 300 meters wide.[8] Drumlins generally have a length:width ratio of between 1.7 and 4.1[8] and it has been suggested that this ratio can indicate the velocity of the glacier. That is, since ice flows in laminar flow, the resistance to flow is frictional and depends on area of contact; thus, a more elongated drumlin would indicate a lower velocity and a shorter one would indicate a higher velocity.[9]

Occurrence[edit]

Drumlins and drumlin swarms are glacial landforms composed primarily of glacial till. They form near the margin of glacial systems, and within zones of fast flow deep within ice sheets, and are commonly found with other major glacially-formed features (including tunnel valleys, eskers, scours, and exposed bedrock erosion).[10]

Drumlins are often encountered in drumlin fields of similarly shaped, sized and oriented hills. Many Pleistocene drumlin fields are observed to occur in a fan-like distribution.[11] The long axis of each drumlin is parallel to the direction of movement of the glacier at the time of formation.[12] Inspection of aerial photos of these fields reveals glacier's progress through the landscape. The Múlajökull drumlins of Hofsjökull are also arrayed in a splayed fan distribution around an arc of 180°.[13] This field surrounds the current lobe of the glacier and provide a view into the past, showing the previous extent and motion of the ice.[citation needed]

Composition[edit]

Drumlins may comprise layers of clay, silt, sand, gravel and boulders in various proportions; perhaps indicating that material was repeatedly added to a core, which may be of rock or glacial till. Alternatively, drumlins may be residual, with the landforms resulting from erosion of material between the landforms. The dilatancy of glacial till was invoked as a major factor in drumlin formation.[14] In other cases, drumlin fields include drumlins made up entirely of hard bedrock (e.g. granite or well-lithified limestone).[15] These drumlins cannot be explained by the addition of soft sediment to a core. Thus, accretion and erosion of soft sediment by processes of subglacial deformation do not present unifying theories for all drumlins—some are composed of residual bedrock.[citation needed]

Formation[edit]

There are two main theories of drumlin formation.[16] The first, constructional, suggests that they form as sediment is deposited from subglacial waterways laden with till including gravel, clay, silt, and sand. As the drumlin forms, the scrape and flow of the glacier continues around it and the material deposited accumulates, the clasts align themselves with direction of flow.[17] It is because of this process that geologists are able to determine how the drumlin formed using till fabric analysis, the study of the orientation and dip of particles within a till matrix.[18] By examining the till particles and plotting their orientation and dip on a stereonet, scientists are able to see if there is a correlation between each clast and the overall orientation of the drumlin: the more similar in orientation and dip of the clasts throughout the drumlin, the more likely it is that they had been deposited during the formation process. If the opposite is true, and there doesn't seem to be a link between the drumlin and the till, it suggests that the other main theory of formation could be true.[citation needed]

The second theory proposes that drumlins form by erosion of material from an unconsolidated bed. Erosion under a glacier in the immediate vicinity of a drumlin can be on the order of a meter's depth of sediment per year, depending heavily on the shear stress acting on the ground below the glacier from the weight of the glacier itself, with the eroded sediment forming a drumlin as it is repositioned and deposited.[19]

A hypothesis that catastrophic sub-glacial floods form drumlins by deposition or erosion challenges conventional explanations for drumlins.[20] It includes deposition of glaciofluvial sediment in cavities scoured into a glacier bed by subglacial meltwater, and remnant ridges left behind by erosion of soft sediment or hard rock by turbulent meltwater. This hypothesis requires huge, subglacial meltwater floods, each of which would raise sea level by tens of centimetres in a few weeks. Studies of erosional forms in bedrock at French River, Ontario, Canada provide evidence for such floods.[citation needed]

The recent retreat of a marginal outlet glacier of Hofsjökull in Iceland[21] exposed a drumlin field with more than 50 drumlins ranging from 90 to 320 m (300–1,050 ft) in length, 30 to 105 m (100–340 ft) in width, and 5 to 10 m (16–33 ft) in height. These formed through a progression of subglacial depositional and erosional processes, with each horizontal till bed within the drumlin created by an individual surge of the glacier.[13] The above theory for the formation of these Icelandic drumlins best explains one type of drumlin. However, it does not provide a unifying explanation of all drumlins. For example, drumlin fields including drumlins composed entirely of hard bedrock cannot be explained by deposition and erosion of unconsolidated beds.[15] Furthermore, hairpin scours around many drumlins are best explained by the erosive action of horseshoe vortices around obstacles in a turbulent boundary layer.[22][23]

Soil development on drumlins[edit]

Recently formed drumlins often incorporate a thin "A" soil horizon (often referred to as "'topsoil'" which accumulated after formation) and a thin "Bw" horizon (commonly referred to as "'subsoil'"). The "C" horizon, which shows little evidence of being affected by soil forming processes (weathering), is close to the surface, and may be at the surface on an eroded drumlin. Below the C horizon the drumlin consists of multiple beds of till deposited by lodgment and bed deformation. On drumlins with longer exposure (e.g. in the Lake Ontario drumlin field in New York State) soil development is more advanced, for example with the formation of clay-enriched "Bt" horizons.[13]

Examples of drumlins[edit]

Drumlin field in Western New York state. The drumlins align with glacial flow.

Europe[edit]

Besides the Icelandic drumlins mentioned above, the literature also documents extensive drumlin fields in England, Scotland and Wales,[19] Switzerland,[24] Poland, Estonia (Vooremaa), Latvia, Sweden, around Lake Constance north of the Alps, County Leitrim, County Monaghan, County Mayo and County Cavan in the Republic of Ireland, County Fermanagh, County Armagh, and in particular County Down in Northern Ireland, Germany, Hindsholm in Denmark, Finland and Greenland.[25][19]

North America[edit]

The majority of drumlins observed in North America were formed during the Wisconsin glaciation.

The largest drumlin fields in the world formed beneath the Laurentide Ice Sheet and are found in Canada — Nunavut, the Northwest Territories, northern Saskatchewan, northern Manitoba, northern Ontario and northern Quebec.[26] Drumlins occur in every Canadian province and territory. Clusters of thousands of drumlins are found in:[27]

In the United States, drumlins are common in:

Asia[edit]

Drumlins are found at Tiksi, Sakha Republic, Russia.[19]

South America[edit]

Extensive drumlin fields are found in Patagonia,[19] for example near Punta Arenas Carlos Ibáñez del Campo Airport and on Navarino and Gable Island in the Beagle Channel.

Antarctica[edit]

In 2007, drumlins were observed to be forming beneath the ice of a West Antarctic ice stream.[35]

Africa[edit]

Discovery of drumlins in Namibia was reported in 2019 though the features described do not appear to be drumlins.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Menzies(1979) quoted in Benn, D.I. & Evans, D.J.A. 2003 Glaciers & Glaciation, Arnold, London (p431) ISBN 0-340-58431-9
  2. ^ Bryce, James (1838). "On the evidences of diluvial action in the north of Ireland". Journal of the Geological Society of Dublin. 1: 34–44. Originally presented in 1833 by Irish geologist James Bryce (1806 – 1877). From p. 37: "This peculiar form is so striking that the peasantry have appropriated an expressive name to such ridges; while Knock, Sleive, Ben, have each their peculiar significations, the names Drum and Drumlin (Dorsum) have been applied to such hills as we have been describing."
  3. ^ Benn, Douglas I.; Evans, David J.A. (2003). Glaciers and Glaciation (First ed.). London: Arnold. p. 434. ISBN 0340584319.
  4. ^ "Glacial Landforms". Bitesize. BBC. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
  5. ^ http://geoschol.com/counties/CAVAN_GEOLOGY.pdf[bare URL]
  6. ^ Spagnolo, Matteo; Clark, Chris D.; Hughes, Anna L.C.; Dunlop, Paul; Stokes, Chris R. (2010). "The planar shape of drumlins". Sedimentary Geology. 232 (3–4): 119–129. Bibcode:2010SedG..232..119S. doi:10.1016/j.sedgeo.2010.01.008.
  7. ^ Menzies (1979). "A review of the literature on the formation and location of drumlins". Earth-Science Reviews. 14 (4): 315–359. Bibcode:1979ESRv...14..315M. doi:10.1016/0012-8252(79)90093-X.
  8. ^ a b Clark, Hughes, Greenwood, Spagnolo (2009). "Size and shape characteristics of drumlins, derived from a large sample, and associated scaling laws" (PDF). Quaternary Science Reviews. 28 (7): 677. Bibcode:2009QSRv...28..677C. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2008.08.035.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  9. ^ Nye, J (1952). "The Mechanics of Glacier Flow". Journal of Glaciology. 2 (12): 82. Bibcode:1952JGlac...2...82N. doi:10.1017/S0022143000033967.
  10. ^ Shaw, J.; Kvill, D. (1984). "A glaciofluvial origin for drumlins of the Livingstone Lake area, Saskatchewan". Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 21 (12): 1442–1459. Bibcode:1984CaJES..21.1442S. doi:10.1139/e84-150.
  11. ^ Patterson, C.J.; Hooke, R.L. (1995). "Physical environment of drumlin formation". Journal of Glaciology. 41 (137): 30–38. Bibcode:1995JGlac..41...30P. doi:10.1017/S0022143000017731.
  12. ^ Spagnolo, M.; Clark, C.D.; Hughes, A.L.C.; Dunlop, P.; Stokes, C.R. (2010). "The planar shape of drumlins". Sedimentary Geology. 232 (3–4): 119–129. Bibcode:2010SedG..232..119S. doi:10.1016/j.sedgeo.2010.01.008.
  13. ^ a b c Johnson, M. D.; Schomacker, A.; Benediktsson, I. O.; Geiger, A. J.; Ferguson, A.; Ingolfsson, O. (2010). "Active drumlin field revealed at the margin of Mulajokull, Iceland: A surge-type glacier". Geology. 38 (10): 943–946. Bibcode:2010Geo....38..943J. doi:10.1130/G31371.1.
  14. ^ Smalley, I.J., Unwin, D.J. 1968. The formation and shape of drumlins and their distribution and orientation in drumlin fields. Journal of Glaciology 7, 377-390
  15. ^ a b Lesemann, J., Brennand, T.A., 2009. Regional reconstruction of subglacial hydrology and glaciodynamic behaviour along the southern margin of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet in British Columbia, Canada and Northern Washington State, USA. Quaternary Science Reviews 28, 2420–2444.
  16. ^ Yu, Peter; Eyles, Nick; Sookhan, Shane (2015). "Automated drumlin shape and volume estimation using high resolution LiDAR imagery (Curvature Based Relief Separation): A test from the Wadena Drumlin Field, Minnesota". Geomorphology. 246: 589–601. Bibcode:2015Geomo.246..589Y. doi:10.1016/j.geomorph.2015.07.020.
  17. ^ Hermanowski, Piotrowski, Duda (2020). "Till kinematics in the Stargard drumlin field, NW Poland constrained by microstructural proxies". Journal of Quaternary Science. 35 (7): 920–934. Bibcode:2020JQS....35..920H. doi:10.1002/jqs.3233. S2CID 225275064.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  18. ^ Andrews, JT (1971). "Techniques of Till Fabric Analysis". Technical Bulleting, British Geomorphological Society.
  19. ^ a b c d e f Clark, C.D.; Anna L.C. Hughes; Sarah L. Greenwood; Matteo Spagnolo; Felix S.L. Ng (2009). "Size and shape characteristics of drumlins, derived from a large sample, and associated scaling laws" (PDF). Quaternary Science Reviews. Elsevier Ltd. 28 (7–8): 677–692. Bibcode:2009QSRv...28..677C. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2008.08.035.
  20. ^ Shaw, J., 2002. The meltwater hypothesis for subglacial bedforms. Quaternary International 90, 5-22.
  21. ^ A satellite image of the region of Hofsjökull where drumlin growth has been observed (see 64°39′25″N 18°41′41″W / 64.65694°N 18.69472°W / 64.65694; -18.69472). The drumlins can be observed between pools of water.
  22. ^ Paik, J., Escauriaza, C., Sotiropoulos, F., 2007. On the bimodal dynamics of the turbulent horseshoe vortex system in a wing-body junction. Physics of Fluids, 19, 045107 1-20.
  23. ^ Shaw, J., 1994. Hairpin erosional marks, horseshoe vortices and subglacial erosion. Sedimentary Geology 92, 169-283.
  24. ^ Fiore, J. (2007). "Quaternary subglacial processes in Switzerland: geomorphology of the plateau and seismic stratigraphy of western Lake Geneva". Terre & Environnement. University of Geneva. 69: 169. Archived from the original on 2013-12-02.
  25. ^ O'Dwyer, Barry; Crockford, Lucy; Jordan, Phil; Hislop, Lindsay; Taylor, David (2013). "A palaeolimnological investigation into nutrient impact and recovery in an agricultural catchment". Journal of Environmental Management. 124: 147–155. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2013.01.034. ISSN 0301-4797. PMID 23490624.
  26. ^ Shaw, J., Sharp, D., Harris, J., 2010. A flowline map of glaciated Canada based on remote sensing data. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 47, 89-101.
  27. ^ Gray, Charlotte; The Museum Called Canada: 25 Rooms of Wonder, Random House, 2004 ISBN 978-0-679-31220-8
  28. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2015-12-14.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  29. ^ a b Smith, D.G (1987). Landforms of Alberta interpreted from airphotos and satellite imagery. Edmonton, Alberta: Alberta Remote Sensing Center, Alberta Environment. pp. 41–43. ISBN 0-919975-10-0.
  30. ^ Kerr, Michael; Nick Eyles (2007). "Origin of drumlins on the floor of Lake Ontario and in upper New York State". Sedimentary Geology. Elsevier. 193 (1–4): 7–20. Bibcode:2007SedG..193....7K. doi:10.1016/j.sedgeo.2005.11.025.
  31. ^ "RootsWeb.com Home Page". freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com. Archived from the original on 27 November 2016. Retrieved 29 April 2018.
  32. ^ Kehew, Alan E.; Esch, John M.; Kozlowski, Andrew L.; Ewald, Stephanie K. (2012). "Glacial landsystems and dynamics of the Saginaw Lobe of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, Michigan, USA". Quaternary International. 260: 21–31. Bibcode:2012QuInt.260...21K. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2011.07.021.
  33. ^ Toimi Uplands Subsection Archived 2016-10-21 at the Wayback Machine of the Northern Superior Uplands, Ecological Classification System. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, 2016.
  34. ^ Goldstein, Barry (1994). "Drumlins of the Puget Lowland, Washington State, USA". Sedimentary Geology. Elsevier. 91 (1–4): 299–311. Bibcode:1994SedG...91..299G. doi:10.1016/0037-0738(94)90136-8.
  35. ^ Smith, A.M.; Murray, T.; Nicholls, K.W.; Makinson, K.; Aðalgeirsdóttir, G.; Behar, A.E.; Vaughan, D.G. (2007). "Rapid erosion, drumlin formation, and changing hydrology beneath an Antarctic ice stream". Geology. 35 (2): 127–130. Bibcode:2007Geo....35..127S. doi:10.1130/G23036A.1.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]