Last Glacial Period
The Last Glacial Period (LGP) occurred from the end of the Eemian to the end of the Younger Dryas, encompassing the period c. 115,000 – c. 11,700 years ago. This most recent glacial period is part of a larger pattern of glacial and interglacial periods known as the Quaternary glaciation extending from c. 2,588,000 years ago to present. The definition of the Quaternary as beginning 2.58 Ma is based on the formation of the Arctic ice cap. The Antarctic ice sheet began to form earlier, at about 34 Ma, in the mid-Cenozoic (Eocene–Oligocene extinction event). The term Late Cenozoic Ice Age is used to include this early phase.
During this last glacial period there were alternating episodes of glacier advance and retreat. Within the last glacial period the Last Glacial Maximum was approximately 22,000 years ago. While the general pattern of global cooling and glacier advance was similar, local differences in the development of glacier advance and retreat make it difficult to compare the details from continent to continent (see picture of ice core data below for differences). Approximately 13,000 years ago, the Late Glacial Maximum began. The end of the Younger Dryas about 11,700 years ago marked the beginning of the Holocene geological epoch, which includes the Holocene glacial retreat.
From the point of view of human archaeology, the last glacial period falls in the Paleolithic and early Mesolithic periods. When the glaciation event started, Homo sapiens were confined to lower latitudes and used tools comparable to those used by Neanderthals in western and central Eurasia and by Homo erectus in Asia. Near the end of the event, Homo sapiens migrated into Eurasia and Australia. Archaeological and genetic data suggest that the source populations of Paleolithic humans survived the last glacial period in sparsely wooded areas and dispersed through areas of high primary productivity while avoiding dense forest cover.
- 1 Origin and definition
- 2 Overview
- 3 Deglaciation
- 4 Named local glaciations
- 4.1 Antarctica glaciation
- 4.2 Europe
- 4.3 North America
- 4.4 South America
- 5 See also
- 6 Notes
- 7 References
- 8 Further reading
- 9 External links
Origin and definition
The last glacial period is sometimes colloquially referred to as the "last ice age", though this use is incorrect because an ice age is a longer period of cold temperature in which year-round ice sheets are present near one or both poles. Glacials are colder phases within an ice age in which glaciers advance; glacials are separated by interglacials. Thus, the end of the last glacial period, which was about 11,700 years ago, is not the end of the last ice age since extensive year-round ice persists in Antarctica and Greenland. Over the past few million years the glacial-interglacial cycles have been "paced" by periodic variations in the Earth's orbit via Milankovitch cycles.
The last glacial period is the best-known part of the current ice age, and has been intensively studied in North America, northern Eurasia, the Himalaya and other formerly glaciated regions around the world. The glaciations that occurred during this glacial period covered many areas, mainly in the Northern Hemisphere and to a lesser extent in the Southern Hemisphere. They have different names, historically developed and depending on their geographic distributions: Fraser (in the Pacific Cordillera of North America), Pinedale (in the Central Rocky Mountains), Wisconsinan or Wisconsin (in central North America), Devensian (in the British Isles), Midlandian (in Ireland), Würm (in the Alps), Mérida (in Venezuela), Weichselian or Vistulian (in Northern Europe and northern Central Europe), Valdai in Russia and Zyryanka in Siberia, Llanquihue in Chile, and Otira in New Zealand. The geochronological Late Pleistocene includes the late glacial (Weichselian) and the immediately preceding penultimate interglacial (Eemian) period.
Canada was nearly completely covered by ice, as well as the northern part of the United States, both blanketed by the huge Laurentide Ice Sheet. Alaska remained mostly ice free due to arid climate conditions. Local glaciations existed in the Rocky Mountains and the Cordilleran Ice Sheet and as ice fields and ice caps in the Sierra Nevada in northern California. In Britain, mainland Europe, and northwestern Asia, the Scandinavian ice sheet once again reached the northern parts of the British Isles, Germany, Poland, and Russia, extending as far east as the Taymyr Peninsula in western Siberia. The maximum extent of western Siberian glaciation was reached by approximately 16,000–15,000 BC and thus later than in Europe (c. 20,000 – c. 16,000 BC). Northeastern Siberia was not covered by a continental-scale ice sheet. Instead, large, but restricted, icefield complexes covered mountain ranges within northeast Siberia, including the Kamchatka-Koryak Mountains.
The Arctic Ocean between the huge ice sheets of America and Eurasia was not frozen throughout, but like today probably was only covered by relatively shallow ice, subject to seasonal changes and riddled with icebergs calving from the surrounding ice sheets. According to the sediment composition retrieved from deep-sea cores there must even have been times of seasonally open waters.
Outside the main ice sheets, widespread glaciation occurred on the highest mountains of the Alps−Himalaya mountain chain. In contrast to the earlier glacial stages, the Würm glaciation was composed of smaller ice caps and mostly confined to valley glaciers, sending glacial lobes into the Alpine foreland. The Pyrenees, the highest massifs of the Carpathian Mountains and the Balkanic peninsula mountains and to the east the Caucasus and the mountains of Turkey and Iran were capped by local ice fields or small ice sheets.
In the Himalaya and the Tibetan Plateau, glaciers advanced considerably, particularly between 45,000 and 25,000 BC, but these datings are controversial. The formation of a contiguous ice sheet on the Tibetan Plateau is controversial.
Other areas of the Northern Hemisphere did not bear extensive ice sheets, but local glaciers in high areas. Parts of Taiwan, for example, were repeatedly glaciated between 42,250 and 8,680 BCE as well as the Japanese Alps. In both areas maximum glacier advance occurred between 58,000 and 28,000 BCE. To a still lesser extent glaciers existed in Africa, for example in the High Atlas, the mountains of Morocco, the Mount Atakor massif in southern Algeria, and several mountains in Ethiopia. In the Southern Hemisphere, an ice cap of several hundred square kilometers was present on the east African mountains in the Kilimanjaro massif, Mount Kenya and the Rwenzori Mountains, still bearing remnants of glaciers today.
Glaciation of the Southern Hemisphere was less extensive because of current configuration of continents. Ice sheets existed in the Andes (Patagonian Ice Sheet), where six glacier advances between 31,500 and 11,900 BC in the Chilean Andes have been reported. Antarctica was entirely glaciated, much like today, but the ice sheet left no uncovered area. In mainland Australia only a very small area in the vicinity of Mount Kosciuszko was glaciated, whereas in Tasmania glaciation was more widespread. An ice sheet formed in New Zealand, covering all of the Southern Alps, where at least three glacial advances can be distinguished. Local ice caps existed in Irian Jaya, Indonesia, where in three ice areas remnants of the Pleistocene glaciers are still preserved today.
Small glaciers developed in a few favorable places in Southern Africa during the last glacial period.[A][B] These small glaciers would have developed in the Lesotho Highlands and parts of the Drakensberg. The development of glaciers was likely aided by localized cooling indebted to shading by adjacent cliffs. Various moraines and former glacier niches have been identified in the eastern Lesotho Highlands, above 3,000 m.a.s.l. and on south-facing slopes, a few kilometres west of the Great Escarpment. Studies suggest the mountains of Southern Africa were mostly subject to mild periglaciation during the last glacial cycle and the annual average temperatures were about 6 °C colder than at present. The estimated 6 °C temperature drop for Southern Africa is in line with temperature drops estimated for Tasmania and southern Patagonia during the same time. The environment of the Lesotho Highlands during the Last Glacial Maximum was one of a relatively arid periglaciation without permafrost but with deep seasonal freezing on south-facing slopes. Periglaciation in the Eastern Drakensberg and Lesotho Highlands produced solifluction deposits, blockfields and blockstreams, and stone garlands.
Scientists from the Center for Arctic Gas Hydrate, Environment (CAGE) and Climate at the Arctic University of Norway, published a study in June 2017 describing over a hundred ocean sediment craters, some 3,000 meters wide and up to 300 meters deep, formed by explosive eruptions of methane from destabilized methane hydrates, following ice-sheet retreat during the last glacial period, around 12,000 years ago. These areas around the Barents Sea still seep methane today. The study hypothesized that existing bulges containing methane reservoirs could eventually have the same fate.
Named local glaciations
During the last glacial period Antarctica was blanketed by a massive ice sheet, much as it is today. The ice covered all land areas and extended into the ocean onto the middle and outer continental shelf. According to ice modelling, ice over central East Antarctica was generally thinner than today.
Devensian and Midlandian glaciation (Britain and Ireland)
British geologists refer to the last glacial period as the Devensian. Irish geologists, geographers, and archaeologists refer to the Midlandian glaciation as its effects in Ireland are largely visible in the Irish Midlands. The name Devensian is derived from the Latin Dēvenses, people living by the Dee (Dēva in Latin), a river on the Welsh border near which deposits from the period are particularly well represented.
The effects of this glaciation can be seen in many geological features of England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. Its deposits have been found overlying material from the preceding Ipswichian stage and lying beneath those from the following Holocene, which is the stage we are living in today. This is sometimes called the Flandrian interglacial in Britain.
Alternative names include: Weichsel glaciation or Vistulian glaciation (referring to the Polish river Vistula or its German name Weichsel). Evidence suggests that the ice sheets were at their maximum size for only a short period, between 25,000 and 13,000 BP. Eight interstadials have been recognized in the Weichselian, including: the Oerel, Glinde, Moershoofd, Hengelo and Denekamp; however correlation with isotope stages is still in process. During the glacial maximum in Scandinavia, only the western parts of Jutland were ice-free, and a large part of what is today the North Sea was dry land connecting Jutland with Britain (see Doggerland). It is also in Denmark that the only Scandinavian ice-age animals older than 13,000 BCE are found.
The Baltic Sea, with its unique brackish water, is a result of meltwater from the Weichsel glaciation combining with saltwater from the North Sea when the straits between Sweden and Denmark opened. Initially, when the ice began melting about 10,300 BP, seawater filled the isostatically depressed area, a temporary marine incursion that geologists dub the Yoldia Sea. Then, as post-glacial isostatic rebound lifted the region about 9500 BP, the deepest basin of the Baltic became a freshwater lake, in palaeological contexts referred to as Ancylus Lake, which is identifiable in the freshwater fauna found in sediment cores. The lake was filled by glacial runoff, but as worldwide sea level continued rising, saltwater again breached the sill about 8000 BP, forming a marine Littorina Sea which was followed by another freshwater phase before the present brackish marine system was established. "At its present state of development, the marine life of the Baltic Sea is less than about 4000 years old", Drs. Thulin and Andrushaitis remarked when reviewing these sequences in 2003.
Overlying ice had exerted pressure on the Earth's surface. As a result of melting ice, the land has continued to rise yearly in Scandinavia, mostly in northern Sweden and Finland where the land is rising at a rate of as much as 8–9 mm per year, or 1 meter in 100 years. This is important for archaeologists since a site that was coastal in the Nordic Stone Age now is inland and can be dated by its relative distance from the present shore.
Würm glaciation (Alps)
The term Würm is derived from a river in the Alpine foreland, approximately marking the maximum glacier advance of this particular glacial period. The Alps were where the first systematic scientific research on ice ages was conducted by Louis Agassiz at the beginning of the 19th century. Here the Würm glaciation of the last glacial period was intensively studied. Pollen analysis, the statistical analyses of microfossilized plant pollens found in geological deposits, chronicled the dramatic changes in the European environment during the Würm glaciation. During the height of Würm glaciation, c. 24,000 – c. 10,000 BP, most of western and central Europe and Eurasia was open steppe-tundra, while the Alps presented solid ice fields and montane glaciers. Scandinavia and much of Britain were under ice.
During the Würm, the Rhône Glacier covered the whole western Swiss plateau, reaching today's regions of Solothurn and Aarau. In the region of Bern it merged with the Aar glacier. The Rhine Glacier is currently the subject of the most detailed studies. Glaciers of the Reuss and the Limmat advanced sometimes as far as the Jura. Montane and piedmont glaciers formed the land by grinding away virtually all traces of the older Günz and Mindel glaciation, by depositing base moraines and terminal moraines of different retraction phases and loess deposits, and by the pro-glacial rivers' shifting and redepositing gravels. Beneath the surface, they had profound and lasting influence on geothermal heat and the patterns of deep groundwater flow.
Pinedale or Fraser glaciation (Rocky Mountains)
The Pinedale (central Rocky Mountains) or Fraser (Cordilleran Ice Sheet) glaciation was the last of the major glaciations to appear in the Rocky Mountains in the United States. The Pinedale lasted from approximately 30,000 to 10,000 years ago and was at its greatest extent between 23,500 and 21,000 years ago. This glaciation was somewhat distinct from the main Wisconsin glaciation as it was only loosely related to the giant ice sheets and was instead composed of mountain glaciers, merging into the Cordilleran Ice Sheet. The Cordilleran Ice Sheet produced features such as glacial Lake Missoula, which would break free from its ice dam causing the massive Missoula Floods. USGS geologists estimate that the cycle of flooding and reformation of the lake lasted an average of 55 years and that the floods occurred approximately 40 times over the 2,000 year period between 15,000 and 13,000 years ago. Glacial lake outburst floods such as these are not uncommon today in Iceland and other places.
The Wisconsin Glacial Episode was the last major advance of continental glaciers in the North American Laurentide Ice Sheet. At the height of glaciation the Bering land bridge potentially permitted migration of mammals, including people, to North America from Siberia.
It radically altered the geography of North America north of the Ohio River. At the height of the Wisconsin Episode glaciation, ice covered most of Canada, the Upper Midwest, and New England, as well as parts of Montana and Washington. On Kelleys Island in Lake Erie or in New York's Central Park, the grooves left by these glaciers can be easily observed. In southwestern Saskatchewan and southeastern Alberta a suture zone between the Laurentide and Cordilleran ice sheets formed the Cypress Hills, which is the northernmost point in North America that remained south of the continental ice sheets.
The Great Lakes are the result of glacial scour and pooling of meltwater at the rim of the receding ice. When the enormous mass of the continental ice sheet retreated, the Great Lakes began gradually moving south due to isostatic rebound of the north shore. Niagara Falls is also a product of the glaciation, as is the course of the Ohio River, which largely supplanted the prior Teays River.
In its retreat, the Wisconsin Episode glaciation left terminal moraines that form Long Island, Block Island, Cape Cod, Nomans Land, Martha's Vineyard, Nantucket, Sable Island, and the Oak Ridges Moraine in south central Ontario, Canada. In Wisconsin itself, it left the Kettle Moraine. The drumlins and eskers formed at its melting edge are landmarks of the Lower Connecticut River Valley.
Tahoe, Tenaya, and Tioga, Sierra Nevada
In the Sierra Nevada, there are three named stages of glacial maxima (sometimes incorrectly called ice ages) separated by warmer periods. These glacial maxima are called, from oldest to youngest, Tahoe, Tenaya, and Tioga. The Tahoe reached its maximum extent perhaps about 70,000 years ago. Little is known about the Tenaya. The Tioga was the least severe and last of the Wisconsin Episode. It began about 30,000 years ago, reached its greatest advance 21,000 years ago, and ended about 10,000 years ago.
In Northwest Greenland, ice coverage attained a very early maximum in the last glacial period around 114,000. After this early maximum, the ice coverage was similar to today until the end of the last glacial period. Towards the end, glaciers readvanced once more before retreating to their present extent. According to ice core data, the Greenland climate was dry during the last glacial period, precipitation reaching perhaps only 20% of today's value.
Mérida glaciation (Venezuelan Andes)
The name Mérida Glaciation is proposed to designate the alpine glaciation which affected the central Venezuelan Andes during the Late Pleistocene. Two main moraine levels have been recognized: one with an elevation of 2,600–2,700 m (8,500–8,900 ft), and another with an elevation of 3,000–3,500 m (9,800–11,500 ft). The snow line during the last glacial advance was lowered approximately 1,200 m (3,900 ft) below the present snow line, which is 3,700 m (12,100 ft). The glaciated area in the Cordillera de Mérida was approximately 600 km2 (230 sq mi); this included the following high areas from southwest to northeast: Páramo de Tamá, Páramo Batallón, Páramo Los Conejos, Páramo Piedras Blancas, and Teta de Niquitao. Approximately 200 km2 (77 sq mi) of the total glaciated area was in the Sierra Nevada de Mérida, and of that amount, the largest concentration, 50 km2 (19 sq mi), was in the areas of Pico Bolívar, Pico Humboldt [4,942 m (16,214 ft)], and Pico Bonpland [4,983 m (16,348 ft)]. Radiocarbon dating indicates that the moraines are older than 10,000 BP, and probably older than 13,000 BP. The lower moraine level probably corresponds to the main Wisconsin glacial advance. The upper level probably represents the last glacial advance (Late Wisconsin).
Llanquihue glaciation (Southern Andes)
The Llanquihue glaciation takes its name from Llanquihue Lake in southern Chile which is a fan-shaped piedmont glacial lake. On the lake's western shores there are large moraine systems of which the innermost belong to the last glacial period. Llanquihue Lake's varves are a node point in southern Chile's varve geochronology. During the last glacial maximum the Patagonian Ice Sheet extended over the Andes from about 35°S to Tierra del Fuego at 55°S. The western part appears to have been very active, with wet basal conditions, while the eastern part was cold based. Cryogenic features like ice wedges, patterned ground, pingos, rock glaciers, palsas, soil cryoturbation, solifluction deposits developed in unglaciated extra-Andean Patagonia during the Last Glaciation. However, not all these reported features have been verified. The area west of Llanquihue Lake was ice-free during the LGM, and had sparsely distributed vegetation dominated by Nothofagus. Valdivian temperate rain forest was reduced to scattered remnants in the western side of the Andes.
- Glacial history of Minnesota
- Glacial lake outburst flood
- Glacial period
- Ice age
- Last Glacial Maximum
- Penultimate glacial period
- Pleistocene megafauna
- Quaternary extinction event
- Quaternary glaciation
- Sea level rise
- Stone Age
- Timeline of glaciation
- Valparaiso Moraine
- Prior to the 2010s there was considerable debate on whether Southern Africa was glaciated during the last glacial cycle or not.
- The former existence of large glaciers or deep snow cover over much of the Lesotho Highlands has been judged unlikely considering the lack of glacial morphology (e.g. rôche moutonnées) and the existence of periglacial regolith that has not been reworked by glaciers. Estimates of the mean annual temperature in Southern Africa during the Last Glacial Maximum indicate the temperatures were not low enough to initiate or sustain a widespread glaciation. The former existence of rock glaciers or large glaciers is according to the same study ruled out, because of a lack of conclusive field evidence and the implausibility of the 10-17° C temperature drop, relative to the present, that such features would imply.
- Clayton, Lee; Attig, John W.; Mickelson, David M.; Johnson, Mark D.; Syverson, Kent M. "Glaciation of Wisconsin" (PDF). Dept. Geology, University of Wisconsin.
- University of Houston-Clear Lake - Disasters Class Notes - Chapter 12: Climate Change sce.uhcl.edu/Pitts/disastersclassnotes/chapter_12_Climate_Change.doc
- Gavashelishvili, A.; Tarkhnishvili, D. (2016). "Biomes and human distribution during the last ice age". Global Ecology and Biogeography. 25 (5): 563–574. doi:10.1111/geb.12437.
- Crowley, Thomas J. (1995). "Ice age terrestrial carbon changes revisited". Global Biogeochemical Cycles. 9 (3): 377–389. Bibcode:1995GBioC...9..377C. doi:10.1029/95GB01107.
- Catt, J. A.; et al. (2006). "Quaternary: Ice Sheets and their Legacy". In Brenchley, P. J.; Rawson, P. F. (eds.). The Geology of England and Wales (2nd ed.). London: The Geological Society. pp. 451–52. ISBN 978-1-86239-199-4.
- Clark, D.H. Extent, timing, and climatic significance of latest Pleistocene and Holocene glaciation in the Sierra Nevada, California (PDF 20 Mb) (Ph.D.). Seattle: Washington University.
- Möller, P.; et al. (2006). "Severnaya Zemlya, Arctic Russia: a nucleation area for Kara Sea ice sheets during the Middle to Late Quaternary" (PDF 11.5 Mb). Quaternary Science Reviews. 25 (21–22): 2894–2936. Bibcode:2006QSRv...25.2894M. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2006.02.016.
- Matti Saarnisto: Climate variability during the last interglacial-glacial cycle in NW Eurasia. Abstracts of PAGES – PEPIII: Past Climate Variability Through Europe and Africa, 2001 Archived April 6, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
- Gualtieri, Lyn; et al. (May 2003). "Pleistocene raised marine deposits on Wrangel Island, northeast Siberia and implications for the presence of an East Siberian ice sheet". Quaternary Research. 59 (3): 399–410. Bibcode:2003QuRes..59..399G. doi:10.1016/S0033-5894(03)00057-7.
- Ehlers, Gibbard & 2004 III, pp. 321–323
- Barr, I.D; Clark, C.D. (2011). "Glaciers and Climate in Pacific Far NE Russia during the Last Glacial Maximum". Journal of Quaternary Science. 26 (2): 227. Bibcode:2011JQS....26..227B. doi:10.1002/jqs.1450.
- Spielhagen, Robert F.; et al. (2004). "Arctic Ocean deep-sea record of northern Eurasian ice sheet history". Quaternary Science Reviews. 23 (11–13): 1455–83. Bibcode:2004QSRv...23.1455S. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2003.12.015.
- Williams, Jr., Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G. (1991). "Glaciers of the Middle East and Africa – Glaciers of Turkey" (PDF 2.5 Mb). U.S.Geological Survey Professional Paper 1386-G-1.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
Ferrigno, Jane G. (1991). "Glaciers of the Middle East and Africa – Glaciers of Iran" (PDF 1.25 Mb). U.S.Geological Survey Professional Paper 1386-G-2.
- Owen, Lewis A.; et al. (2002). "A note on the extent of glaciation throughout the Himalaya during the global Last Glacial Maximum". Quaternary Science Reviews. 21 (1): 147–157. Bibcode:2002QSRv...21..147O. doi:10.1016/S0277-3791(01)00104-4.
- Kuhle, M., Kuhle, S. (2010): Review on Dating methods: Numerical Dating in the Quaternary of High Asia. In: Journal of Mountain Science (2010) 7: 105-122.
- Chevalier, Marie-Luce; et al. (2011). "Constraints on the late Quaternary glaciations in Tibet from cosmogenic exposure ages of moraine surfaces". Quaternary Science Reviews. 30 (5–6): 528–554. Bibcode:2011QSRv...30..528C. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2010.11.005.
- Kuhle, Matthias (2002). "A relief-specific model of the ice age on the basis of uplift-controlled glacier areas in Tibet and the corresponding albedo increase as well as their positive climatological feedback by means of the global radiation geometry". Climate Research. 20: 1–7. Bibcode:2002ClRes..20....1K. doi:10.3354/cr020001.
- Ehlers, Gibbard & 2004 III, Kuhle, M (August 31, 2011). "The High Glacial (Last Ice Age and LGM) ice cover in High and Central Asia". Quaternary Glaciations - Extent and Chronology. pp. 175–199. ISBN 9780444534477.
- Lehmkuhl, F. (2003). "Die eiszeitliche Vergletscherung Hochasiens – lokale Vergletscherungen oder übergeordneter Eisschild?". Geographische Rundschau. 55 (2): 28–33.
- Zhijiu Cui; et al. (2002). "The Quaternary glaciation of Shesan Mountain in Taiwan and glacial classification in monsoon areas". Quaternary International. 97–98: 147–153. Bibcode:2002QuInt..97..147C. doi:10.1016/S1040-6182(02)00060-5.
- Yugo Ono; et al. (September – October 2005). "Mountain glaciation in Japan and Taiwan at the global Last Glacial Maximum". Quaternary International. 138–139: 79–92. Bibcode:2005QuInt.138...79O. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2005.02.007.
- Young, James A.T.; Hastenrath, Stefan (1991). "Glaciers of the Middle East and Africa – Glaciers of Africa" (PDF 1.25 Mb). U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1386-G-3.
- Lowell, T.V.; et al. (1995). "Interhemisperic correlation of late Pleistocene glacial events" (PDF 2.3 Mb). Science. 269 (5230): 1541–9. Bibcode:1995Sci...269.1541L. doi:10.1126/science.269.5230.1541. PMID 17789444.
- Ollier, C.D. "Australian Landforms and their History". National Mapping Fab. Geoscience Australia. Archived from the original on August 8, 2008.
- Burrows, C. J.; Moar, N. T. (1996). "A mid Otira Glaciation palaeosol and flora from the Castle Hill Basin, Canterbury, New Zealand" (PDF). New Zealand Journal of Botany. 34 (4): 539–545. doi:10.1080/0028825X.1996.10410134. Archived from the original (PDF 340 Kb) on February 27, 2008.
- Allison, Ian; Peterson, James A. (1988). Glaciers of Irian Jaya, Indonesia: Observation and Mapping of the Glaciers Shown on Landsat Images. ISBN 978-0-607-71457-9. U.S. Geological Survey professional paper 1386.
- Mills, S.C.; Barrows, T.T.; Telfer, M.W.; Fifield, L.K. (2017). "The cold climate geomorphology of the Eastern Cape Drakensberg: A reevaluation of past climatic conditions during the last glacial cycle in Southern Africa". Geomorphology. 278: 184–194. Bibcode:2017Geomo.278..184M. doi:10.1016/j.geomorph.2016.11.011.
- Sumner, P.D. (2004). "Geomorphic and climatic implications of relict openwork block accumulations near Thabana-Ntlenyana, Lesotho". Geografiska Annaler Series A: Physical Geography. 86 (3): 289–302. doi:10.1111/j.0435-3676.2004.00232.x.
- Mills, Stephanie C.; Grab, Stefan W.; Rea, Brice R.; Farrow, Aidan (2012). "Shifting westerlies and precipitation patterns during the Late Pleistocene in southern Africa determined using glacier reconstruction and mass balance modelling". Quaternary Science Reviews. 55: 145–159. Bibcode:2012QSRv...55..145M. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2012.08.012.
- Hall, Kevin (2010). "The shape of glacial valleys and implications for southern African glaciation". South African Geographical Journal. 92 (1): 35–44. doi:10.1080/03736245.2010.485360.
- "Like 'champagne bottles being opened': Scientists document an ancient Arctic methane explosion". The Washington Post. June 1, 2017.
- Anderson, J. B.; Shipp, S. S.; Lowe, A. L.; Wellner, J. S.; Mosola, A. B. (2002). "The Antarctic Ice Sheet during the Last Glacial Maximum and its subsequent retreat history: a review". Quaternary Science Reviews. 21 (1–3): 49–70. Bibcode:2002QSRv...21...49A. doi:10.1016/S0277-3791(01)00083-X.
- Ehlers, Gibbard & 2004 III, Ingolfsson, O. Quaternary glacial and climate history of Antarctica (PDF). pp. 3–43.
- Huybrechts, P. (2002). "Sea-level changes at the LGM from ice-dynamic reconstructions of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets during the glacial cycles". Quaternary Science Reviews. 21 (1–3): 203–231. Bibcode:2002QSRv...21..203H. doi:10.1016/S0277-3791(01)00082-8.
- Behre Karl-Ernst, van der Plicht Johannes (1992). "Towards an absolute chronology for the last glacial period in Europe: radiocarbon dates from Oerel, northern Germany". Vegetation History and Archaeobotany. 1 (2): 111–117. doi:10.1007/BF00206091.
- Davis, Owen K. (2003) "Non-Marine Records: Correlations with the Marine Sequence" Introduction to Quaternary Ecology University of Arizona web site, doi: 2003618-145735g
- "Brief geologic history". Rocky Mountain National Park. Archived from the original on May 15, 2006.
- "Ice Age Floods". U.S. National Park Service.
- Waitt, Jr., Richard B. (October 1985). "Case for periodic, colossal jökulhlaups from Pleistocene glacial Lake Missoula". Geological Society of America Bulletin. 96 (10): 1271–86. doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1985)96<1271:CFPCJF>2.0.CO;2.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
- Ehlers, Gibbard & 2004 II, p. 57
- Funder, Svend"Late Quaternary stratigraphy and glaciology in the Thule area, Northwest Greenland". MoG Geoscience. 22: 63. 1990. Archived from the original on June 6, 2007.
- Johnsen, Sigfus J.; et al. (1992). "A "deep" ice core from East Greenland". MoG Geoscience. 29: 22. Archived from the original on June 6, 2007.
- Schubert, Carlos (1998). "Glaciers of Venezuela". US Geological Survey (USGS P 1386-I).
- Schubert, C.; Valastro, S. (1974). "Late Pleistocene glaciation of Páramo de La Culata, north-central Venezuelan Andes" (PDF). Geologische Rundschau. 63 (2): 516–538. Bibcode:1974GeoRu..63..516S. doi:10.1007/BF01820827.
- Mahaney, William C.; Milner, M.W., Kalm, Volli; Dirsowzky, Randy W.; Hancock, R.G.V.; Beukens, Roelf P. (April 1, 2008). "Evidence for a Younger Dryas glacial advance in the Andes of northwestern Venezuela". Geomorphology. 96 (1–2): 199–211. Bibcode:2008Geomo..96..199M. doi:10.1016/j.geomorph.2007.08.002.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
- Maximiliano, B.; Orlando, G.; Juan, C.; Ciro, S. "Glacial Quaternary geology of las Gonzales basin, páramo los conejos, Venezuelan andes".
- Sanchez Davila, Gabriel. "Sierra de Santo Domingo: Biogeographic reconstructions for the Quaternary of a former snowy mountain range". Academia (in Spanish). p. 51. Retrieved July 5, 2019.
- Trombotto Liaudat, Darío (2008). "Geocryology of Southern South America". In Rabassa, J. (ed.). The Late Cenozoic of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego. pp. 255–268. ISBN 978-0-444-52954-1.
- Adams, Jonathan. "South America during the last 150,000 years". Archived from the original on January 30, 2010.
- Bowen, D.Q. (1978). Quaternary geology: a stratigraphic framework for multidisciplinary work. Oxford UK: Pergamon Press. ISBN 978-0-08-020409-3.
- Ehlers, J.; Gibbard, P. L., eds. (2004). Quaternary Glaciations: Extent and Chronology 2: Part II North America. Amsterdam: Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-444-51462-2.
- Ehlers, J.; Gibbard, P. L., eds. (2004). Quaternary Glaciations: Extent and Chronology 3: Part III: South America, Asia, Africa, Australia, Antarctica. Amsterdam: Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-444-51593-3.
- Gillespie, A. R., Porter, S. C.; Atwater, B. F. (2004). The Quaternary Period in the United States [of America]. Developments in Quaternary Science. 1. Amsterdam: Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-444-51471-4.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
- Harris, A. G.; Tuttle, E.; Tuttle, S. D. (1997). Geology of National Parks (5th ed.). Iowa: Kendall/Hunt. ISBN 978-0-7872-5353-0.
- Kuhle, M. (1988). "The Pleistocene Glaciation of Tibet and the Onset of Ice Ages — An Autocycle HypothesisGeoJournal". GeoJournal. 17 (4): 581–596. doi:10.1007/BF00209444.
- Mangerud, J.; Ehlers, J.; Gibbard, P., eds. (2004). Quaternary Glaciations : Extent and Chronology 1: Part I Europe. Amsterdam: Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-444-51462-2.
- Sibrava, V.; Bowen, D.Q; Richmond, G. M. (1986). "Quaternary Glaciations in the Northern Hemisphere". Quaternary Science Reviews. 5: 1–514. doi:10.1016/S0277-3791(86)80002-6.
- Pielou, E. C. (1991). After the Ice Age : The Return of Life to Glaciated North America. Chicago IL: University Of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-66812-3.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ice age.|
- Pielou, E. C. After the Ice Age: The Return of Life to Glaciated North America (University of Chicago Press: 1992)
- National Atlas of the USA: Wisconsin Glaciation in North America: Present state of knowledge
- Ray, N.; Adams, J.M. (2001). "A GIS-based Vegetation Map of the World at the Last Glacial Maximum (25,000–15,000 BP)" (PDF). Internet Archaeology. 11.