Early Lý dynasty

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Kingdom of Vạn Xuân

Vạn Xuân Quốc (萬春國)
544–602
Map of Vạn Xuân kingdom
Map of Vạn Xuân kingdom
StatusEmpire
CapitalLong Uyên
Common languagesOld Vietnamese
Religion
Buddhism
GovernmentMonarchy
King 
• 544–548
Lý Nam Đế (First)
• 571–602
Hậu Lý Nam Đế (Last)
History 
• Lý Bí revolt against Liang dynasty
543
• Lý Bí proclaimed himself king
544
• Political crisis in Lý dynasty
509
602
CurrencyCash coins
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Second Chinese domination of Vietnam
Third Chinese domination of Vietnam
Today part of Vietnam
 China

The Early, Former or Anterior Lý dynasty (Vietnamese: nhà Tiền Lý) was a dynasty which ruled Vietnam from AD 544 to 602. Its founder Lý Bí assumed the title of "Southern Emperor" (Lý Nam Đế). The realm of the Early Lý was known as Vạn Xuân ("Myriad Springs") and their capital was at Long Biên within modern Hanoi.

Lý Bí and the establishment of Kingdom of Vạn Xuân[edit]

History[edit]

Lý Bí (503–548) was born in Thái Bình,(Sơn Tây). In 543, he and his brother Lý Thiên Bảo started the revolution against the rule of Liang dynasty of China and make the new era of short independent period for Vietnam. Some historical record Lý Bí's ancestors are from China who refuge in Vietnam when the wars occurred in Western Han Dynasty. Some other sources said that he was born in the wealthy family and tried to be the mandarin of Liang dynasty, but he was denied. This reason makes him begin to form the army against the Liang.

Kingdom of Vạn Xuân[edit]

In 544, Lý Bí gained the victory and declared himself as the emperor (title:Lý Nam Đế) and named the land as Vạn Xuân. At this time, he built the Trấn Quốc Pagoda in Hanoi.

Political resistance[edit]

The sixth century was an important stage in the Vietnamese political evolution toward independence. During this period, the Vietnamese aristocracy became increasingly independent of Chinese authority, while retaining Chinese political and cultural forms. At the same time, indigenous leaders arose who claimed power based on Vietnamese traditions of kingship. A series of failed revolts in the late sixth and early seventh centuries increased the Vietnamese national consciousness. Lý Bí (Lý Nam Đế), the leader of a successful revolt in 543 against the Liang dynasty, was himself descended from a Chinese family that had fled to the Red River Delta during a period of dynastic turbulence in the first century A.D.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10] Lý Bí declared himself emperor of Nam Việt in the tradition of Triệu Đà and organized an imperial court at Long Biên.[11] Lý Bí was killed in 547, but his followers kept the revolt alive for another fifty years, establishing what is sometimes referred to in Vietnamese history as the Earlier Lý Dynasty.

While the Lý family retreated to the mountains and attempted to rule in the style of their Chinese overlords, a rebel leader who based his rule on an indigenous form of kingship arose in the Red River Delta. Triệu Quang Phục made his headquarters on an island in a vast swamp.[12] From this refuge, he could strike without warning, seizing supplies from the Liang army and then slipping back into the labyrinthine channels of the swamp. Despite the initial success of such guerrilla tactics, by which he gained control over the Red River Delta, Triệu Quang Phục was defeated by 570. According to a much later Vietnamese revolutionary, General Võ Nguyên Giáp, Vietnamese concepts of protracted warfare were born in the surprise offensives, night attacks, and hit-and-run tactics employed by Triệu Quang Phục.

Sui–Lý War[edit]

When the internal conflict of Lý dynasty became uncontrolled, Emperor Wen of Sui started the campaign of invading Vạn Xuân. The king of Vạn Xuân (Lý Phật Tử) failed to resist the forces of Sui, so he decided to surrender. The Kingdom was defeated and this marks the new domination of Chinese in Vietnam in 602.

Anterior Lý dynasty monarchs[edit]

Regal titles[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Taylor (1983), p. 135
  2. ^ Walker (2012), p. 134 East Asia: A New History, p. 134, at Google Books
  3. ^ Catino (2010), p. 142 The Aggressors: Ho Chi Minh, North Vietnam, and the Communist Bloc, p. 142, at Google Books
  4. ^ Kohn (2006), p. 308 Dictionary of Wars, p. 320, at Google Books
  5. ^ Coedès (1966), p. 45 The Making of South East Asia, p. 45, at Google Books
  6. ^ Coedès (1966), p. 46 The Making of South East Asia, p. 46, at Google Books
  7. ^ Lockhart (2010), p. 221 The A to Z of Vietnam, p. 221, at Google Books
  8. ^ Lockhart (2010), p. 221 The A to Z of Vietnam, p. 221, at Google Books
  9. ^ West (2009), p. 870 Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania, p. 870, at Google Books
  10. ^ Taylor (1991), p. 155 The Birth of Vietnam, p. 155, at Google Books
  11. ^ Tucker, p. 8
  12. ^ Tucker, p. 9
  13. ^ Spencer Tucker Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War: a political, social, and military History Volume 1 Oxford University Press. Page 393 – 1998 " Founder of the early Lý dynasty, Ly Bôn was born into a wealthy family in Long Hưng District, Thái Bình Province. Bon was an official for the Chinese colonial administration ruling Vietnam. A talented individual, he left government service to prepare for an uprising that forced the Chinese governor out of Vietnam. Bon took Thăng Long (Hà Nội) and built a new independent state named Vạn Xuân (Ten Thousand Years of Spring)."

References[edit]

  • Taylor, Keith Weller. (1983). The Birth of Vietnam (illustrated, reprint ed.). University of California Press. ISBN 0520074173. Retrieved 7 August 2013.
  • Tucker, Spencer C. Vietnam. University Press of Kentucky, Feb 25, 1999 – 256 pages
Preceded by
Second Chinese domination
Dynasty of Vietnam
544–602
Succeeded by
Third Chinese domination