Timeline of Vietnamese history

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This is a timeline of Vietnamese history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Vietnam and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Vietnam.

Prehistory / Millennia: 3rd BC · 2nd BC–1st BC · 1st–2nd · 3rd

Prehistoric Vietnam[edit]

Year Date Event
25000 BC The Soi Nhụ culture appeared.
23000 BC The Ngườm culture appeared.
20000 BC The Sơn Vi culture appeared in modern Lâm Thao District.
12000 BC Hoabinhian artifacts began to be produced in Northern Vietnam.
10000 BC The Bắc Sơn culture appeared.
8000 BC The Quỳnh Văn culture appeared.
5000 BC The Cái Bèo culture appeared.[1]
4000 BC The first rice cultivation of which evidence survives in modern Vietnam took place.[2]
The Đa Bút culture appeared in what is now Vĩnh Lộc District.
3500 BC Wet rice was cultivated in the Red River Delta.[3]

Centuries: 30th BC · 29th BC · 28th BC · 27th BC · 26th BC · 25th BC · 24th BC · 23rd BC · 22nd BC · 21st BC

30th century BC[edit]

29th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
2879 BC Kinh Dương Vương unified all vassal states in his territory into the single state of Xích Quỷ, which he ruled as Hùng king from the capital at Phong Châu.[4]
Kinh Dương Vương sponsored the development of martial arts in Xích Quỷ.[5]

28th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
2793 BC Kinh Dương Vương was succeeded as Hùng king of Xích Quỷ, since renamed Văn Lang, by his son Lạc Long Quân.

27th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
2637 BC The lunar calendar came into use in Văn Lang.[6]

26th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
2524 BC The first Hùng king of the Cấn line came to power in Văn Lang.

25th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
2500 BC The Hùng king ordered an increase in rice cultivation.[7]

24th century BC[edit]

23rd century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
2253 BC The last Hùng king of the Cấn line ended his rule of Văn Lang.
2252 BC The first Hùng king of the Chấn line came to power in Văn Lang.

22nd century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
2200 BC The earliest surviving artifacts indicating use of the Vietnamese calendar appeared.[8]

21st century BC[edit]

Centuries: 20th BC · 19th BC · 18th BC · 17th BC · 16th BC · 15th BC · 14th BC · 13th BC · 12th BC · 11th BC · 10th BC · 9th BC · 8th BC · 7th BC · 6th BC · 5th BC · 4th BC · 3rd BC · 2nd BC · 1st BC

20th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
2000 BC The Phùng Nguyên culture appeared.
1913 BC The last Hùng king of the Chấn line ended his rule of Văn Lang.
1912 BC The first Hùng king of the Tốn line came to power in Văn Lang.

19th century BC[edit]

17th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
1700 BC Burial rituals and tomb building came into practice.[9]
1631 BC The first Hùng king of the Khôn line came to power in Văn Lang.

16th century BC[edit]

15th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
1500 BC The Đồng Đậu culture appeared.[10]
A sophisticated agricultural society developed on the Vietnamese coast.[11]
1432 BC The last Hùng king of the Khôn line ended his rule of Văn Lang.
1431 BC The first Hùng king of the Đoài line came to power in Văn Lang.

14th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
1331 BC The first Hùng king of the Giáp line came to power in Văn Lang.

13th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
1251 BC The first Hùng king of the Ất line came to power in Văn Lang.

12th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
1200 BC The Lạc Việt discovered bronze casting.[12]
Irrigation[13] was first used in rice cultivation in the plains of the Ma and Red Rivers.[12]
1162 BC The last Hùng king of the Ất line ended his rule of Văn Lang.
1161 BC The first Hùng king of the Bính line came to power in Văn Lang.

11th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
1100 BC The Gò Mun culture appeared.[14]
1055 BC The last Hùng king of the Bính line ended his rule of Văn Lang.
1054 BC The first Hùng king of the Đinh line came to power in Văn Lang.

10th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
1000 BC The Đông Sơn culture appeared in the valley of the Red River.
Copper casting began to be used in Văn Lang in the manufacture of brass tools, weapons, and ornaments.
The population of Văn Lang reached one million.[7]
The Lạc Việt developed observational astronomy.[15]
969 BC The last Hùng king of the Đinh line ended his rule of Văn Lang.
968 BC The first Hùng king of the Mậu line came to power in Văn Lang.

9th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
853 BC The first Hùng king of the Kỷ line came to power in Văn Lang.

8th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
754 BC The first Hùng king of the Canh line came to power in Văn Lang.

7th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
700 BC Refugees from the increasingly fragile Zhou dynasty began to arrive in the Red River Delta.[16]
661 BC The last Hùng king of the Canh line ended his rule of Văn Lang.
660 BC The first Hùng king of the Tân line came to power in Văn Lang.

6th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
600 BC The metallurgical style unique to the Đông Sơn drums was invented.[17]
An elaborate system of canals and dikes was invented which made possible the tidal irrigation of rice fields.[12]
569 BC The last Hùng king of the Tân line ended his rule of Văn Lang.
568 BC The first Hùng king of the Nhâm line came to power in Văn Lang.

5th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
500 BC The earliest artifacts suggesting the celebration of Tết appeared.[18][19]
470 BC King Goujian of Yue sent messengers to Văn Lang demanding submission.[20]
The last Hùng king of the Nhâm line ended his rule of Văn Lang.
408 BC Hùng Duệ Vương became Hùng king of Văn Lang.

4th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
400 BC A mass migration of refugees to the Red River Delta took place due to the ongoing collapse of the Zhou dynasty.[16]

3rd century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
300 BC Buddhist missionaries from India arrived in Văn Lang.[21]
The Âu Việt settled across the northern border of Văn Lang and opened trade relations with the Lạc Việt.[22]
257 BC Thục Phán, ruler of the Âu Việt, invaded and conquered Văn Lang. He renamed the country Âu Lạc and took the regnal name An Dương Vương, ruling as king from Cổ Loa Citadel.
250 BC The Hùng Temple was built.[23]
210 BC The Battle of Tiên Du took place.[4]
207 BC The Qin general Zhao Tuo captured Cổ Loa Citadel. An Dương Vương fled and later committed suicide.
Zhao Tuo divided the territory under his control into the commanderies of Jiaozhi and Jiuzhen.[24]
206 BC The warlord Xiang Yu led an army into the Qin capital Xianyang, burned the Epang Palace and killed the Qin emperor Ziying and the royal family.
203 BC Zhao Tuo declared himself king of Nanyue, with his capital in modern Panyu District.
Nanyue conquered Guilin.

2nd century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
198 BC Two delegates were assigned to oversee the affairs of Jiaozhi and Jiuzhen.[24]
196 BC The Han official Lu Jia gave Zhao Tuo a seal recognizing him as king of Nanyue in exchange for his nominal submission to the Han emperor.[25]
183 BC Empress Lü Zhi, the Han empress dowager and regent for her grandson Emperor Houshao of Han, ordered a trade blockade of Nanyue.
Zhao Tuo sacked the Han capital Chang'an.[26]
The nearby polities of Minyue, Yelang and Tongshi declared their allegiance to Nanyue.
181 BC A punitive Han invasion of Nanyue stalled after much of the invading army fell to illness.[26]
180 BC Lü Zhi died. Nanyue conquered some Han territory near the border.
179 BC In exchange for the restoration of his family in modern Zhengding County and the withdrawal of Han forces from the Nanyue border, Zhao Tuo renounced the title emperor and pledged submission to the Han dynasty.
Luy Lẩu was founded.[27]
Zhao Tuo died. He was succeeded as king of Nanyue by his grandson Zhao Mo.
135 BC A border war took place between Nanyue and Minyue.[26]
122 BC Zhao Mo died. He was succeeded as king of Nanyue by his eldest son Zhao Yingqi.
118 BC Confucian ideas were introduced to Nanyue.[28]
115 BC Zhao Yingqi died. He was succeeded by his son Zhao Xing.
112 BC Lü Jia, the prime minister of Nanyue and a Lạc Việt chief, killed Zhao Xing and his Han Chinese mother Juishi after the latter agreed to full submission to the Han dynasty in order to preserve her authority in Nanyue. He declared Zhao Xing's elder brother Zhao Jiande king.
111 BC Han conquest of Nanyue: Han forces invaded Nanyue. Zhao Jiande was captured in flight and executed. The zhou of Jiaozhou was organized on the territory of the defunct Nanyue and divided into the commanderies of Nanhai, Cangwu, Yulin, Jiaozhi, Hepu, Zhuya, Taner , and Jiuzhen.[29] Shi Dai was appointed its governor.
Tây Vu Vương launched a revolt against Han forces.[30][31][32]
110 BC Tây Vu Vương was assassinated by his assistant Hoàng Đồng.[33]

1st century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
86 BC Shi Dai's rule of Jiaozhou ended.
48 BC The commandery of Rinan in Jiaozhou was organized south of the Hoành Sơn Range.[34][35]

Centuries: 1st · 2nd · 3rd · 4th · 5th · 6th · 7th · 8th · 9th · 10th · 11th · 12th · 13th · 14th · 15th · 16th · 17th · 18th · 19th · 20th

1st century[edit]

Year Date Event
2 Tích Quang became governor of Jiaozhou.
A census in Jiaozhou counted some hundred thousand households and nearly one million people.[36]
31 Tích Quang's rule of Jiaozhou ended.
34 Su Ding became governor of Jiaozhou.
39 Thi Sách was assassinated.
40 Trung sisters' rebellion: The Trưng Sisters launched a rebellion against Han authority in the Red River Delta.[37]
43 Trung sisters' rebellion: the Trưng Sisters committed suicide by drowning themselves before The Han general Ma Yuan could capture them.

2nd century[edit]

3rd century[edit]

4th century[edit]

5th century[edit]

6th century[edit]

Year Date Event
544 February Following his rebellion and expulsion of Liang forces from Jiaozhou, Lý Nam Đế was proclaimed emperor of Vạn Xuân.[38]
545 Winter The Liang general Emperor Wu of Chen launched a surprise attack on the Vạn Xuân capital Long Biên, forcing Lý Nam Đế and the imperial administration to flee to the Gia Ninh Citadel in modern Việt Trì.[39]
546 Lý Nam Đế was forced to retreat to Khuất Lạo Cave, where he reorganized his army under the command of Triệu Việt Vương.
547 Vạn Xuân forces defended Dạ Trạch in modern Khoái Châu District from Liang forces.[40]
548 February Lý Nam Đế ceded rule of Vạn Xuân to Triệu Việt Vương and his older brother Lý Thiên Bảo.
April Lý Nam Đế was assassinated in modern Laos.
550 Triệu Việt Vương expelled Liang forces from Vạn Xuân and reestablished the capital at Long Biên.
555 Lý Thiên Bảo died without heirs.
557 Hậu Lý Nam Đế, Lý Nam Đế's cousin and claimant to the throne of Vạn Xuân, signed a truce with Triệu Việt Vương establishing a boundary between their two territories.
571 Hậu Lý Nam Đế surprised and conquered Triệu Việt Vương and moved his capital to Phong Châu.

7th century[edit]

Year Date Event
602 Sui–Former Lý War: Sui conquered Vạn Xuân following a brief rebellion by Hậu Lý Nam Đế.

8th century[edit]

9th century[edit]

10th century[edit]

Year Date Event
938 Battle of Bạch Đằng River: Ngô Quyền defeated the Southern Han kingdom at the Battle of Bạch Đằng River north of modern Haiphong and ended 1,000 years of Chinese domination dating back to 111 BC under the Han dynasty, founding Ngô Dynasty.
979 Emperor Đinh Bộ Lĩnh of Đại Cồ Việt was assassinated along with his crown prince Đinh Liễn by a minor palace official. His surviving son, the young Đinh Phế Đế, succeeded him under the regency of the commander-in-chief Lê Hoàn.
Lê Hoàn declared himself viceroy of Đại Cồ Việt with the support of the empress dowager Dương Vân Nga.
The nobles Nguyễn Bặc and Đinh Điền attacked the Đại Cồ Việt capital Hoa Lư in response to Lê Hoàn's apparent usurpation.
Nguyễn Bặc and Đinh Điền were executed.
981 Lê Hoàn declared himself emperor at Hoa Lư.
Battle of Bạch Đằng (981): Đại Cồ Việt forces defeated a Song invasion near Lạng Sơn, forcing the Song fleet on the Bạch Đằng River to withdraw.[37]
Nam quốc sơn hà, a poem celebrating the sovereignty of Đại Cồ Việt over its territory, was written.
982 Đại Cồ Việt forces sacked the Champa capital Indrapura.[37]

11th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1005 Lê Hoàn died.
1009 The imperial court acclaimed Lý Thái Tổ emperor of Đại Cồ Việt.
1010 Autumn Lý Thái Tổ issued the chiếu dời đô, an edict ordering the transfer of the capital from Hoa Lư to Đại La.
1028 Lý Thái Tổ's son Lý Thái Tông became emperor of Đại Cồ Việt.
1038 The Nùng warlord Nùng Tồn Phúc launched a failed rebellion against Lý Thái Tông.
1054 Lý Thái Tông died. He was succeeded by his son Lý Thánh Tông.
1070 The Temple of Literature, Hanoi, a Confucian temple, was constructed.
1072 January Lý Thánh Tông died. He was succeeded as emperor by his young son Lý Nhân Tông, with the latter's mother Ỷ Lan and the chancellor Lý Đạo Thành acting as regents.
1075 Minor officials were chosen by examination for the first time.[37]
Autumn Lý–Song War: Đại Cồ Việt invaded Song in response to a trade blockade.

12th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1127 15 January Lý Nhân Tông died.
1176 The young Lý Cao Tông became emperor under the regency of Tô Hiến Thành.

13th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1209 The general Quách Bốc entered the capital, dethroned Lý Cao Tông and installed his young son Lý Thẩm as emperor.[41]
1226 11 January Trần Thái Tông was crowned emperor of Đại Việt.
1258 January Mongol invasions of Vietnam: The Mongol Empire invaded Đại Việt and conquered the capital at modern Hanoi. Trần Thái Tông fled to an island.
1278 November Trần Thánh Tông ceded the throne to his son Trần Nhân Tông.
1282 The Bình Than Conference took place.
1284 The Diên Hồng Conference took place.
1285 Mongol invasions of Vietnam: The Đại Việt commander-in-chief Trần Hưng Đạo drew out and harassed a Yuan invasion force, forcing their retreat.[37]
1287 Mongol invasions of Vietnam: The Mongol navy was destroyed, forcing the army, left without provisions, to begin its retreat from Đại Việt.[37]
1293 3 March Trần Nhân Tông ceded the throne to his son Trần Anh Tông.

14th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1306 Trần Anh Tông's sister Huyền Trân married the Champa king Chế Mân in Huế.[13]
1341 The young Trần Dụ Tông was crowned emperor of Đại Việt under the regency of his father, the retired emperor Trần Minh Tông.
1360 Champa launched several border attacks against Đại Việt.
1400 Hồ Quý Ly overthrew the Đại Việt emperor, enthroned himself, renamed the country Đại Ngu and moved the capital to the citadel of the Hồ Dynasty.
The Cham-Vietnamese War (1400–1407) began.

15th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1401 Hồ Quý Ly ceded the throne to his son Hồ Hán Thương.
1406 19 November Ming–Hồ War: Ming forces captured the Đại Ngu capitals.
1428 Lê Lợi was declared emperor of an independent Đại Việt.
The Bình Ngô đại cáo was published, affirming that Đại Việt was independent from and equal to China.
1460 Lê Thánh Tông was crowned emperor of Đại Việt.
1479 The Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư, an official history of Đại Việt, was completed.
1483 The Hồng Đức legal code was promulgated.[37]
1497 30 January Lê Thánh Tông died.

16th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1509 Lê Tương Dực assassinated his cousin, the tyrant Lê Uy Mục, and replaced him as emperor.
1511 The Trần Tuân Uprising took place.
1516 Trần Cao rebellion: Trần Cao, a mandarin of Đại Việt who identified himself as an incarnation of Śakra, launched a revolt against the government.
Portuguese seafarers arrived.[42]
Lê Tương Dực was murdered in the capital by a group of palace guards.

17th century[edit]

18th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1778 The forces of the Tây Sơn dynasty took Gia Định in modern Saigon and massacred the Nguyễn lords, the de facto rulers of southern Đại Việt, sparing only the young Nguyễn Thế Tổ.[37]
Nguyễn Văn Nhạc proclaimed himself emperor of Đại Việt with his capital at Quy Nhơn.
1783 Nguyễn Thế Tổ fled the country.
1785 20 January Battle of Rạch Gầm-Xoài Mút: Đại Việt forces under a banner of truce surprised and destroyed a Siamese force, then invading with the intention of installing Nguyễn Thế Tổ on the throne, on the Mekong River in modern Tiền Giang Province.
1786 The Phú Xuân Campaign (1786) took place.
The Thăng Long Campaign took place.
1787 The Nguyễn Nhạc-Nguyễn Huệ split occurred.
21 November The French priest Pierre Pigneau de Behaine signed the Treaty of Versailles on behalf of Nguyễn Thế Tổ. The French government agreed to support the latter in taking the throne of Đại Việt in exchange for Côn Sơn Island and exclusive trading rights.
1788 October Battle of Ngọc Hồi-Đống Đa: Qing forces invaded Đại Việt in support of the deposed emperor Lê Chiêu Thống.
Nguyễn Văn Nhạc's younger brother Nguyễn Văn Huệ proclaimed himself emperor of Đại Việt. Nguyễn Văn Nhạc relinquished the title, taking that of king instead.
Nguyễn Thế Tổ conquered Gia Định in modern Saigon.
1790 The Battle of Bình Thuận took place.
1792 Nguyễn Văn Huệ died, probably from a stroke. He was succeeded by his young son Nguyễn Quang Toản.
1800 The Siege of Quy Nhơn took place.

19th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1801 Battle of Thị Nại.
1802 Battle of Trấn Ninh
The Nguyễn defeat last of Tây Sơn forces.
Emperor Gia Long (1802–1820) became ruler of Vietnam.
Capital moved to Huế.[13]
Emperor Cảnh Thịnh (1792–1802) ended his rule of Vietnam.
1809 Nguyễn Du completes The Tale of Kiều.
1815 Hoàng Việt law enforced.
Emperor Gia Long (1802–1820) ended his rule of Vietnam.
1821 Emperor Minh Mạng (1820–1841) became ruler of Vietnam.
Phan Bá Vành Uprising.[43]
1833 Nông Văn Vân Uprising.
Lê Văn Khôi Revolt.
Emperor Minh Mạng (1820–1841) ended his rule of Vietnam.
1845 Emperor Thiệu Trị (1841–1847) became ruler of Vietnam.
USS Constitution lands in Da Nang as a company of US Marines moves overland to Huế and rescues a French Bishop who had been captured by the Vietnamese.[44]
1847 French bombardment of Da Nang in response to persecution of Catholic missionaries.[44]
Emperor Thiệu Trị (1841–1847) ended his rule of Vietnam.
1854 Emperor Tự Đức (1847–1883) became ruler of Vietnam.
Cao Bá Quát Uprising.
1858 Cochinchina Campaign.
1859 Thủ Khoa Huân Uprising.
1861 Sinking of L'Esperance
Trương Định Uprising.
1862 Treaty of Saigon.
1867 France establishes the colony of Cochinchina.
1883 Emperor Tự Đức (1847–1883) ended his rule of Vietnam.
1885 Ruler: Emperor Hàm Nghi (1884–1885)
Battle of the Huế Imperial City. Hàm Nghi leads resistance.[45]
Emperor Đồng Khánh (1885–1889) became ruler of Vietnam.
Cần Vương Movement.
1888 Hàm Nghi captured and exiled to Algeria.[45]
Emperor Đồng Khánh (1885–1889) ended his rule of Vietnam.

20th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1904 Ruler: Emperor Thành Thái (1889–1907)
Đông Du Movement.
1917 Ruler: Emperor Khải Định (1916–1925)
Thái Nguyên uprising.
1930 Emperor Bảo Đại (1925–1945) became ruler of Vietnam.
Nghệ Tĩnh Revolt.
3 February Communist Party of Vietnam (CPV) is the founding and ruling communist party of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
1945 August Revolution.
Emperor Bảo Đại (1925–1945) ended his rule of Vietnam.
1954 13 March Battle of Dien Bien Phu: French troops begin the battle against the Viet Minh in Dien Bien Phu.
23 March Battle of Dien Bien Phu: the Viet Minh capture the main airstrip of Dien Bien Phu. The remaining French Army units there are partially isolated.
26 April An international conference on Korea and Indo-China opens in Geneva.
7 May Battle of Dien Bien Phu ends in a French defeat.
21 July The Geneva Conference sends French forces to the south, and Vietnamese forces to the north, of a ceasefire line, and calls for elections to decide the government for all of Vietnam by July 1956. Failure to abide by the terms of the agreement leads to the establishment de facto of regimes of North Vietnam and South Vietnam, and the Vietnam War.
1 August The First Indochina War ends with the Vietnam People's Army in North Vietnam, the Vietnamese National Army in South Vietnam, the Kingdom of Cambodia in Cambodia, and the Kingdom of Laos in Laos, emerging victorious against the French Army.
1955 26 October Ngô Đình Diệm proclaims Vietnam to be a republic with himself as its President (following the State of Vietnam referendum on 23 October) and forms the Army of the Republic of Vietnam.
1 November The Vietnam War begins between the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and Republic of Vietnam; the north is allied with the Viet Cong.
1959 26 September First large unit action of the Vietnam War takes place, when two companies of the ARVN 23d Division are ambushed by a well-organized Viet Cong force of several hundred, identified as the "2d Liberation Battalion".
1960 6 March Vietnam War: The United States announces that 3,500 American soldiers will be sent to Vietnam.
1961 18 November Vietnam War: U.S. President John F. Kennedy sends 18,000 military advisors to South Vietnam.
11 December The American involvement in the Vietnam War officially begins, as the first American helicopters arrive in Saigon along with 400 U.S. personnel.
1963 2 January Vietnam War: The Viet Cong win their first major victory in the Battle of Ap Bac.
8 May Huế Phật Đản shootings: The Army of the Republic of Vietnam opens fire on Buddhists who defy a ban on the flying of the Buddhist flag on Vesak, the birthday of Gautama Buddha, killing 9. Earlier, President Ngô Đình Diệm allowed the flying of the Vatican flag in honour of his brother, Archbishop Ngô Đình Thục, triggering the Buddhist crisis in South Vietnam.
3 June Huế chemical attacks: The Army of the Republic of Vietnam rains liquid chemicals on the heads of Buddhist protestors, injuring 67 people. The United States threatens to cut off aid to the regime of Ngô Đình Diệm.
11 June Thích Quảng Đức, Vietnamese Buddhist monk (suicide).
7 July Double Seven Day scuffle: Secret police loyal to Ngô Đình Nhu, brother of President Ngô Đình Diệm, attack American journalists including Peter Arnett and David Halberstam at a demonstration during the Buddhist crisis in South Vietnam.
21 August Xá Lợi Pagoda raids: The Army of the Republic of Vietnam Special Forces loyal to Ngô Đình Nhu, brother of President Ngô Đình Diệm, vandalise Buddhist pagodas across South Vietnam, arresting thousands and leaving an estimated hundreds dead. In the wake of the raids, the Kennedy administration by Cable 243 orders the United States Embassy, Saigon to explore alternative leadership in the country, opening the way towards a coup against Diệm.
2 November 1963 South Vietnamese coup: Arrest and assassination of Ngo Dinh Diem, the South Vietnamese President.
6 November 1963 South Vietnamese coup: Coup leader General Dương Văn Minh takes over as leader of South Vietnam.
1964 30 January General Nguyễn Khánh leads a bloodless military coup d'état, replacing Dương Văn Minh as Prime Minister of South Vietnam.
2 May Vietnam War: Attack on USNS Card – An explosion caused by Viet Cong commandos causes carrier USNS Card to sink in the port of Saigon.
19 July Vietnam War: At a rally in Saigon, South Vietnamese Prime Minister Nguyễn Khánh calls for expanding the war into North Vietnam.
20 July Vietnam War: Viet Cong forces attack a provincial capital, killing 11 South Vietnamese military personnel and 40 civilians (30 of which are children).
27 July Vietnam War: The U.S. sends 5,000 more military advisers to South Vietnam, bringing the total number of United States forces in Vietnam to 21,000.
2 August Vietnam War: United States destroyer Maddox is attacked in the Gulf of Tonkin. Air support from the carrier USS Ticonderoga sinks one gunboat, while the other two leave the battle.
5 August Vietnam War: Operation Pierce Arrow – Aircraft from carriers USS Ticonderoga and USS Constellation bomb North Vietnam in retaliation for strikes against U.S. destroyers in the Gulf of Tonkin.
7 August Vietnam War: The United States Congress passes the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, giving U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson broad war powers to deal with North Vietnamese attacks on U.S. forces.
16 August Vietnam War: In a coup, General Nguyễn Khánh replaces Dương Văn Minh as South Vietnam's chief of state and establishes a new constitution, drafted partly by the U.S. Embassy.
1965 2 March Vietnam War: Operation Rolling Thunder – The United States Air Force 2nd Air Division, United States Navy and South Vietnamese air force begin a 3½-year aerial bombardment campaign against North Vietnam.
8 March Vietnam War: Some 3,500 United States Marines arrive in Da Nang, South Vietnam, becoming the first American ground combat troops in Vietnam.
29 April Australia announces that it is sending an infantry battalion to support the South Vietnam government.
10 June Vietnam War – Battle of Dong Xoai: About 1,500 Viet Cong mount a mortar attack on Đồng Xoài, overrunning its military headquarters and the adjoining militia compound.
24 July Vietnam War: Four F-4C Phantoms escorting a bombing raid at Kang Chi are targeted by antiaircraft missiles, in the first such attack against American planes in the war. One is shot down and the other 3 sustain damage.
28 July Vietnam War: U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson announces his order to increase the number of United States troops in South Vietnam from 75,000 to 125,000, and to more than double the number of men drafted per month - from 17,000 to 35,000.
18 August Vietnam War – Operation Starlite: 5,500 United States Marines destroy a Viet Cong stronghold on the Van Tuong peninsula in Quảng Ngãi Province, in the first major American ground battle of the war. The Marines were tipped-off by a Viet Cong deserter who said that there was an attack planned against the U.S. base at Chu Lai.
20 September Vietnam War: An USAF F-104 Starfighter piloted by Captain Philip Eldon Smith is shot down by a Chinese MiG-19 Farmer. The pilot is held until 15 March 1973.
9 October A brigade of South Korean soldiers arrive in South Vietnam.
30 October Vietnam War: Near Da Nang, United States Marines repel an intense attack by Viet Cong forces, killing 56 guerrillas. A sketch of Marine positions is found on the dead body of a 13-year-old Vietnamese boy who sold drinks to the Marines the day before.
8 November Vietnam War – Operation Hump: The United States Army 173rd Airborne is ambushed by over 1,200 Viet Cong.
14 November Vietnam War – Battle of Ia Drang: In the Ia Drang Valley of the Central Highlands in Vietnam, the first major engagement of the war between regular United States and North Vietnamese forces begins.
28 November Vietnam War: In response to U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson's call for "more flags" in Vietnam, Philippines President-elect Ferdinand Marcos announces he will send troops to help fight in South Vietnam.
21 December The Soviet Union announces that it has shipped rockets to North Vietnam.
1966 15 May The South Vietnamese army besieges Da Nang.
29 June Vietnam War: U.S. planes begin bombing Hanoi and Haiphong.
4 July North Vietnam declares general mobilization.
7 July A Warsaw Pact conference ends with a promise to support North Vietnam.
24 July A USAF F-4C Phantom #63-7599 was shot down by a North Vietnamese SAM-2 45 miles (72 km) northeast of Hanoi, in the first loss of a US aircraft to a Vietnamese SAM in the Vietnam War.
18 August Vietnam War – Battle of Long Tan: D Company, 6th Battalion of the Royal Australian Regiment, meets and defeats a Viet Cong force estimated to be four times larger, in Phuoc Tuy Province, Republic of Vietnam.
16 September In South Vietnam, Thích Trí Quang ends a 100-day hunger strike.
9 October Vietnam War: Binh Tai Massacre.
24 October Negotiations about the Vietnam War begin in Manila, Philippines.
6 December Bình Hòa massacre: Vietnam War.
1967 6 January Vietnam War: USMC and ARVN troops launch Operation Deckhouse Five in the Mekong Delta.
8 January Vietnam War: Operation Cedar Falls starts.
7 August Vietnam War: The People's Republic of China agrees to give North Vietnam an undisclosed amount of aid in the form of a grant.
9 August Vietnam War – Operation Cochise: United States Marines begin a new operation in the Que Son Valley.
21 August Two U.S. Navy jets stray into the airspace of the People's Republic of China following an attack on a target in North Vietnam and are shot down. Lt. Robert J. Flynn, the only survivor, is captured alive and will be held prisoner by China until 1973.
3 September Nguyễn Văn Thiệu is elected President of South Vietnam.
4 September Vietnam War – Operation Swift: The United States Marines launch a search and destroy mission in Quảng Nam and Quảng Tín provinces. The ensuing 4-day battle in Que Son Valley kills 114 Americans and 376 North Vietnamese.
17 October Vietnam War: The Battle of Ong Thanh takes place.
26 October U.S. Navy pilot John McCain is shot down over North Vietnam and taken prisoner. His capture is confirmed two days later, and he remains a prisoner of war for more than five years.
3 November Vietnam War – Battle of Dak To: Around Đắk Tô (located about 280 miles north of Saigon near the Cambodian border), heavy casualties are suffered on both sides; U.S. troops narrowly win the battle on 22 November.
4 December Vietnam War: U.S. and South Vietnamese forces engage Viet Cong troops in the Mekong Delta (235 of the 300-strong Viet Cong battalion are killed).
1968 21 January Vietnam War – Battle of Khe Sanh: One of the most publicized and controversial battles of the war begins, ending on 8 April.
30 January Vietnam War: The Tet Offensive begins, as Viet Cong forces launch a series of surprise attacks across South Vietnam.
1 February Vietnam War: A Viet Cong officer named Nguyễn Văn Lém is executed by Nguyễn Ngọc Loan, a South Vietnamese National Police Chief. The event is photographed by Eddie Adams. The photo makes headlines around the world, eventually winning the 1969 Pulitzer Prize, and sways U.S. public opinion against the war.
12 February Vietnam War: Phong Nhị and Phong Nhất massacre.
24 February Vietnam War: The Tet Offensive is halted; South Vietnam recaptures Huế.
25 February Vietnam War: Hà My massacre.
7 March Vietnam War: The First Battle of Saigon ends.
10–11 March Vietnam War: Battle of Lima Site 85, the largest single ground combat loss of United States Air Force members (12) during the (at this time) secret war later known as the Laotian Civil War.
16 March Vietnam War – My Lai Massacre: American troops kill scores of civilians. The story will first become public in November 1969 and will help undermine public support for the U.S. efforts in Vietnam.
26 July Vietnam War: South Vietnamese opposition leader Trương Đình Dzu is sentenced to 5 years hard labor, for advocating the formation of a coalition government as a way to move toward an end to the war.
23 September Vietnam War: The Tet Offensive comes to an end in South Vietnam.
8 October Vietnam War – Operation Sealords: United States and South Vietnamese forces launch a new operation in the Mekong Delta.
31 October Vietnam War: Citing progress in the Paris peace talks, U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson announces to the nation that he has ordered a complete cessation of "all air, naval, and artillery bombardment of North Vietnam" effective 1 November.
15 November Vietnam War: Operation Commando Hunt is initiated to interdict men and supplies on the Ho Chi Minh trail, through Laos into South Vietnam. By the end of the operation, 3 million tons of bombs are dropped on Laos, slowing but not seriously disrupting trail operations.
1969 10 May The Battle of Dong Ap Bia, also known as Hamburger Hill, begins during the Vietnam War.
8 June U.S. President Richard Nixon and South Vietnamese President Nguyễn Văn Thiệu meet at Midway Island. Nixon announces that 25,000 U.S. troops will be withdrawn by September.
8 July Vietnam War: The very first U.S. troop withdrawals are made.
25 July Vietnam War: U.S. President Richard Nixon declares the Nixon Doctrine, stating that the United States now expects its Asian allies to take care of their own military defense. This starts the "Vietnamization" of the war.
2 September Ho Chi Minh, the president of the North Vietnam, dies at the age of 79.
1970 5 September Vietnam War – Operation Jefferson Glenn: The United States 101st Airborne Division and the South Vietnamese 1st Infantry Division initiate a new operation in Thua Thien Province (the operation ends in October 1971).
12 October Vietnam War: U.S. President Richard Nixon announces that the United States will withdraw 40,000 more troops before Christmas.
30 October In Vietnam, the worst monsoon to hit the area in six years causes large floods, kills 293, leaves 200,000 homeless and virtually halts the Vietnam War.
4 November Vietnam War – Vietnamization: The United States turns control of the air base in the Mekong Delta to South Vietnam.
21 November Vietnam War – Operation Ivory Coast: A joint Air Force and Army team raids the Sơn Tây prison camp in an attempt to free American POWs thought to be held there (no Americans are killed, but the prisoners have already moved to another camp; all U.S. POWs are moved to a handful of central prison complexes as a result of this raid).
1971 13 February Vietnam War: Backed by American air and artillery support, South Vietnamese troops invade Laos.
18 August Vietnam War: Australia and New Zealand decide to withdraw their troops from Vietnam.
29 October Vietnam WarVietnamization: The total number of American troops still in Vietnam drops to a record low of 196,700 (the lowest since January 1966).
12 November Vietnam War – Vietnamization: U.S. President Richard M. Nixon sets 1 February 1972, as the deadline for the removal of another 45,000 American troops from Vietnam.
1972 24 February North Vietnamese negotiators walk out of the Paris Peace Talks to protest U.S. air raids.
30 March Vietnam War: The Easter Offensive begins after North Vietnamese forces cross into the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) of South Vietnam
16 April Vietnam War – Nguyen Hue Offensive: Prompted by the North Vietnamese offensive, the United States resumes bombing of Hanoi and Haiphong.
8 May U.S. President Richard Nixon orders the mining of Haiphong Harbor in Vietnam.
10 May Operation Linebacker and Operation Custom Tailor begin with large-scale bombing operations against North Vietnam by tactical fighter aircraft.
8 June Vietnam War: Associated Press photographer Nick Ut takes his Pulitzer Prize-winning photograph of a naked nine-year-old Phan Thi Kim Phuc running down a road after being burned by napalm.
U.S. actress Jane Fonda tours North Vietnam, during which she is photographed sitting on a North Vietnamese anti-aircraft gun.
26 October Following a visit to South Vietnam, U.S. National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger suggests that "peace is at hand."
11 November Vietnam War – Vietnamization: The United States Army turns over the massive Long Binh military base to South Vietnam.
22 November Vietnam War: The United States loses its first B-52 Stratofortress of the war.
25 December The Christmas bombing of North Vietnam causes widespread criticism of the U.S. and President Richard Nixon.
1973 15 January Vietnam War: Citing progress in peace negotiations, U.S. President Richard Nixon announces the suspension of offensive action in North Vietnam.
27 January U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War ends with the signing of the Paris Peace Accords.
29 March The last United States soldier leaves Vietnam.
15 August The U.S. bombing of Cambodia ends, officially halting 12 years of combat activity in Southeast Asia according to the Case–Church Amendment-an act that prohibites military operations in Laos, Cambodia, and North and South Vietnam as a follow up of the Paris Peace Accords.
1975 20 January In Hanoi, North Vietnam, the Politburo approves the final military offensive against South Vietnam.
10 March Vietnam War: North Vietnamese troops attack Ban Mê Thuột, South Vietnam, on their way to capturing Saigon.
13 March Vietnam War: South Vietnam President Nguyễn Văn Thiệu orders the Central Highlands evacuated. This turns into a mass exodus involving troops and civilians (the Convoy of Tears).
4 April Vietnam War: The first military Operation Babylift flight, C5A 80218, crashes 27 minutes after takeoff, killing 138 on board; 176 survive the crash.
25 April Vietnam War: As North Vietnamese Army forces close in on the South Vietnamese capital Saigon, the Australian Embassy is closed and evacuated, almost 10 years to the day since the first Australian troop commitment to South Vietnam.
29 April Vietnam War:
* Operation Frequent Wind – Americans and their allies are evacuated from South Vietnam by helicopter.
* North Vietnam concludes its East Sea Campaign by capturing all of the Spratly Islands that were being held by South Vietnam.
25 April The Vietnam War ends with the Fall of Saigon: The Vietnam War concludes as Communist forces from North Vietnam take Saigon, resulting in mass evacuation of the remaining American troops and South Vietnam civilians. As the capital is taken, South Vietnam surrenders unconditionally and is replaced with the temporary Provisional Government.
1 May The Cold War between Cambodia and Vietnam begins, which eventually leads to the Cambodian–Vietnamese War.
1976 President Tôn Đức Thắng (1976–1980) became ruler of Vietnam.
The National Assembly proclaims unification of the country as the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.[37]
Fourth National Party Congress. The Vietnamese Workers Party renamed the Vietnam Communist Party.[37]
1977 Admittance to United Nations.[37]
1978 Admittance to the Comecon.[37]
25-year "Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation" with the Soviet Union.[37]
25 December Vietnam launches a major offensive against the Khmer Rouge of Cambodia.
1979 Border war with the PRC.
17 February The People's Republic of China invades northern Vietnam, launching the Sino-Vietnamese War.
16 March End of major hostilities in the Sino-Vietnamese War.
President Tôn Đức Thắng (1976–1980) ended his rule of Vietnam.
1980 Ruler: President Nguyễn Hữu Thọ (1980–1981)
1982 Trường Chinh, Chairman of the State Council (1981–1987) became ruler of Vietnam.
Fifth National Party Congress.[37]
1986 Sixth National Party Congress.[37]
Trường Chinh, Chairman of the State Council (1981–1987) ended his rule of Vietnam.
1988 Võ Chí Công, Chairman of the State Council (1987–1992) became ruler of Vietnam.
Johnson South Reef Skirmish.
1991 Seventh National Party Congress.
Võ Chí Công, Chairman of the State Council (1987–1992) ended his rule of Vietnam.
Dissolution of the Soviet Union ends the existence of the Soviet Union and aid throughout Vietnam.
1995 President Lê Đức Anh (1992–1997) became ruler of Vietnam.
Admittance to ASEAN.
1996 Eighth National Party Congress.
President Lê Đức Anh (1992–1997) ended his rule of Vietnam.

21st century[edit]

Year Date Event
2001 President Trần Đức Lương (1997–2006) became ruler of Vietnam.
Ninth National Party Congress.
2006 Tenth National Party Congress.
President Trần Đức Lương (1997–2006) ended his rule of Vietnam.
2007 President Nguyễn Minh Triết (2006–2011) became ruler of Vietnam.
Admittance to WTO.
2011 Eleventh National Party Congress.
Mường Nhé Uprising.[46]
President Nguyễn Minh Triết (2006–2011) ended his rule of Vietnam.
2013 4 October Võ Nguyên Giáp, Vietnamese General, one of the greatest military strategists of the 20th century, had died, aged 102, at 18:09 hours, local time, at Central Military Hospital 108 in Hanoi.
2014 2 May 2014 China-Vietnam oil rig crisis. The tensions between China and Vietnam arising from the Chinese state-owned China National Offshore Oil Corporation moving its Hai Yang Shi You 981 (known in Vietnam as "Hải Dương - 981") oil platform to waters near the disputed Paracel Islands in South China Sea, and the resulting Vietnamese efforts to prevent the platform from establishing a fixed position.
2015 1 January Vietnam’s new marriage law goes into effect. Same-sex marriages are no longer prohibited, but are not recognized as being legally valid.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Importance of cultural history Archived 24 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 2014-04-23.
  2. ^ Dao 1985
  3. ^ "Vietnam Notebook: Early History, Nam Viet to Gia Long". Parallel Narratives. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  4. ^ a b Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư, Issue 1
  5. ^ Iwona Czerwinska Pawluk and Walery Zukow, p. 21
  6. ^ Culture and Customs of Vietnam. Archived from the original on 10 June 2013. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  7. ^ a b "LIÊN ĐOÀN LAO ĐỘNG BÌNH ĐỊNH". Archived from the original on 25 December 2012. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  8. ^ Ancient calendar unearthed Archived 3 January 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 2014-01-03.
  9. ^ Archaeologists unearth 3,200-year-old woman in Vietnam Archived 24 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 2013-12-22.
  10. ^ "Cồ Việt- Tri Thức Việt". Archived from the original on 14 December 2013. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  11. ^ Vietnam – History Archived 3 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 2013-12-14.
  12. ^ a b c "Vietnam – HISTORY". Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  13. ^ a b c "Vietnamese History: A Chronological Outline – Asia for Educators – Columbia University". Archived from the original on 10 May 2016. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  14. ^ "Gò Mun culture". Archived from the original on 19 June 2013. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
  15. ^ World Beat: Vietnam. Archived 2 January 2014 at the Wayback Machine Retrieve 2014-01-01.
  16. ^ a b Hauptly, 1985, 4
  17. ^ Tarling, p. 121
  18. ^ Going Dutch in Beijing. Archived from the original on 12 June 2013. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  19. ^ Celebrate Tet. Archived from the original on 12 June 2013. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  20. ^ "Âu Lạc under An Dương Vương". Archived from the original on 22 April 2013. Retrieved 10 December 2012.
  21. ^ Nguyễn Tài Thư (2008), p.13 Archived 22 December 2017 at the Wayback Machine.
  22. ^ Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania. Archived from the original on 7 January 2014. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  23. ^ Death Anniversary of the Hùng kings Archived 19 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 2013-11-30.
  24. ^ a b Vu Dinh Dinh. "Cochinchina: Reassessment of the Origin and Use of a Westernized Place Name Archived 25 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine". The Writers Post, vol. 9, Jan & Jul 2007.
  25. ^ Taylor, 1991, p. 24.
  26. ^ a b c "Triệu Dynasty (207 – 111 BC)". Archived from the original on 5 June 2013. Retrieved 13 April 2013.
  27. ^ Nguyễn Tài Thư (2008), p.20 Archived 10 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  28. ^ Doh Chull Shin, p. 34
  29. ^ Ban Biao; Ban Gu; Ban Zhao. "地理志" [Treatise on geography]. Book of Han (in Chinese). Volume 28. Archived from the original on 14 May 2011. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
  30. ^ "カードローンRoom". Archived from the original on 9 January 2011. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  31. ^ "Vương Hùng.docx". Archived from the original on 7 April 2016. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
  32. ^ "111 BC: Uprising shakes the rule of the Triệu Dynasty". Archived from the original on 14 June 2013. Retrieved 13 April 2013.
  33. ^ Taylor, 1991, p. 29.
  34. ^ "BẮC THUỘC VÀ CHỐNG BẮC THUỘC: NHỮNG DẤU TÍCH VĂN HÓA VẬT CHẤT (GS.TS NGUYỄN QUANG NGỌC)". Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  35. ^ Taylor, 1991, p. 30.
  36. ^ Taylor, 1991, p. 33.
  37. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "Vietnam – a country study" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 June 2013. Retrieved 19 December 2012.
  38. ^ Việt sử Thông giám cương mục.
  39. ^ "Cồ Việt- Tri Thức Việt". Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  40. ^ "547: Triệu Quan Phục stations troops at Dạ Trạch swamp". Archived from the original on 19 June 2013. Retrieved 6 April 2013.
  41. ^ Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư, Issue 4[permanent dead link]
  42. ^ "A Brief History of Vietnam". Archived from the original on 16 March 2015. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  43. ^ Lịch sử chế độ phong kiến, Vol. 3, pp. 505–506.
  44. ^ a b "Leadup to French Colonization". Archived from the original on 28 March 2015. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  45. ^ a b Vietnam’s Chronology Archived 12 April 2013 at Archive.today
  46. ^ Ruwitch, John. "Thousands of Hmong stage rare Vietnam protest". Reuters. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 26 June 2019.

References[edit]

  • Cao Xuân Đỉnh. Người anh hùng làng Dóng. NxbKHXH 1969.
  • Dao, T. T. 1985. Types of rice cultivation and its related civilization in Vietnam. East Asian Cultural Studies 24: 41—56.
  • Doh Chull Shin (2011). Confucianism and Democratization in East Asia. Cambridge University Press.
  • Hauptly, Denis J. (1985), In Vietnam, New York.
  • Iwona Czerwinska Pawluk and Walery Zukow (2011). Humanities dimension of physiotherapy, rehabilitation, nursing and public health. ISBN 978-83-61047-34-6.
  • Jeffrey, Laura S. (2007). Celebrate Tet. Enslow Publishers, Inc.
  • Lê Trung Vũ & Lê Hồng Lý. Lễ hội Việt Nam. Hương Trang Cultural Company Ltd. & NXB Văn hóa Thông tin, 2005.
  • Mark W. McLeod & Nguyen Thi Dieu (2001). Culture and Customs of Vietnam. Greenwood Publishing Group.
  • McCrum, Mark (2008). Going Dutch in Beijing: How to Behave Properly When Far Away from Home. Macmillan.
  • Nguyễn Tài Thư (2008), History of Buddhism in Vietnam, Cultural heritage and contemporary change: South East Asia, CRVP, ISBN 1565180984
  • Tarling, Nicholas. The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia. Cambridge University Press, 1999.
  • Taylor, Keith Weller, The Birth of Vietnam. University of California Press, 1991.