Timeline of Vietnamese history

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This is a timeline of Vietnamese history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Vietnam and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Vietnam.

Prehistory / Millennia: 3rd BC · 2nd BC–1st BC · 1st–2nd · 3rd

Prehistoric Vietnam[edit]

Year Date Event
25000 BC The Soi Nhụ culture appeared.
23000 BC The Ngườm culture appeared.
20000 BC The Sơn Vi culture appeared in modern Lâm Thao District.
12000 BC Hoabinhian artifacts began to be produced in Northern Vietnam.
10000 BC The Bắc Sơn culture appeared.
8000 BC The Quỳnh Văn culture appeared.
5000 BC The Cái Bèo culture appeared.[1]
4000 BC The first rice cultivation of which evidence survives in modern Vietnam took place.[2]
The Đa Bút culture appeared in what is now Vĩnh Lộc District.
3500 BC Wet rice cultivation was invented in the Red River Delta.[3]

Centuries: 30th BC · 29th BC · 28th BC · 27th BC · 26th BC · 25th BC · 24th BC · 23rd BC · 22nd BC · 21st BC

30th century BC[edit]

29th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
2879 BC Kinh Dương Vương unified all vassal states in his territory into the single state of Xích Quỷ, which he ruled as Hùng king from the capital at Phong Châu.[4]
Kinh Dương Vương sponsored the development of martial arts in Xích Quỷ.[5]

28th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
2793 BC Kinh Dương Vương was succeeded as Hùng king of Xích Quỷ, since renamed Văn Lang, by his son Lạc Long Quân.

27th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
2637 BC The lunar calendar came into use in Văn Lang.[6]

26th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
2524 BC The first Hùng king of the Cấn line came to power in Văn Lang.

25th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
2500 BC The Hùng king ordered an increase in rice cultivation.[7]

24th century BC[edit]

23rd century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
2253 BC The last Hùng king of the Cấn line ended his rule of Văn Lang.
2252 BC The first Hùng king of the Chấn line came to power in Văn Lang.

22nd century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
2200 BC The earliest surviving artifacts indicating use of the Vietnamese calendar appeared.[8]

21st century BC[edit]

Centuries: 20th BC · 19th BC · 18th BC · 17th BC · 16th BC · 15th BC · 14th BC · 13th BC · 12th BC · 11th BC · 10th BC · 9th BC · 8th BC · 7th BC · 6th BC · 5th BC · 4th BC · 3rd BC · 2nd BC · 1st BC

20th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
2000 BC The Phùng Nguyên culture appeared.
1913 BC The last Hùng king of the Chấn line ended his rule of Văn Lang.
1912 BC The first Hùng king of the Tốn line came to power in Văn Lang.

19th century BC[edit]

18th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
1713 BC The last Hùng king of the Tốn line ended his rule of Văn Lang.
1712 BC The first Hùng king of the Ly line came to power in Văn Lang.

17th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
1700 BC Burial rituals and tomb building came into practice.[9]
1631 BC The first Hùng king of the Khôn line came to power in Văn Lang.

16th century BC[edit]

15th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
1500 BC The Đồng Đậu culture appeared.[10]
A sophisticated agricultural society developed on the Vietnamese coast.[11]
1432 BC The last Hùng king of the Khôn line ended his rule of Văn Lang.
1431 BC The first Hùng king of the Đoài line came to power in Văn Lang.

14th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
1331 BC The first Hùng king of the Giáp line came to power in Văn Lang.

13th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
1251 BC The first Hùng king of the Ất line came to power in Văn Lang.

12th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
1200 BC The Lạc Việt discovered bronze casting.[12]
Irrigation[13] was first used in rice cultivation in the plains of the Ma and Red Rivers.[12]
1162 BC The last Hùng king of the Ất line ended his rule of Văn Lang.
1161 BC The first Hùng king of the Bính line came to power in Văn Lang.

11th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
1100 BC The Gò Mun culture appeared.[14]
1055 BC The last Hùng king of the Bính line ended his rule of Văn Lang.
1054 BC The first Hùng king of the Đinh line came to power in Văn Lang.

10th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
1000 BC The Đông Sơn culture appeared in the valley of the Red River.
Copper casting began to be used in Văn Lang in the manufacture of brass tools, weapons, and ornaments.
The population of Văn Lang reached one million.[7]
The Lạc Việt developed observational astronomy.[15]
969 BC The last Hùng king of the Đinh line ended his rule of Văn Lang.
968 BC The first Hùng king of the Mậu line came to power in Văn Lang.

9th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
853 BC The first Hùng king of the Kỷ line came to power in Văn Lang.

8th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
754 BC The first Hùng king of the Canh line came to power in Văn Lang.

7th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
700 BC Refugees from the increasingly fragile Zhou dynasty began to arrive in the Red River Delta.[16]
661 BC The last Hùng king of the Canh line ended his rule of Văn Lang.
660 BC The first Hùng king of the Tân line came to power in Văn Lang.

6th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
600 BC The metallurgical style unique to the Đông Sơn drums was invented.[17]
An elaborate system of canals and dikes was invented which made possible the tidal irrigation of rice fields.[12]
569 BC The last Hùng king of the Tân line ended his rule of Văn Lang.
568 BC The first Hùng king of the Nhâm line came to power in Văn Lang.

5th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
500 BC The earliest artifacts suggesting the celebration of Tết appeared.[18][19]
470 BC King Goujian of Yue sent messengers to Văn Lang demanding submission.[20]
The last Hùng king of the Nhâm line ended his rule of Văn Lang.
408 BC Hùng Duệ Vương became Hùng king of Văn Lang.

4th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
400 BC A mass migration of refugees to the Red River Delta took place due to the ongoing collapse of the Zhou dynasty.[16]

3rd century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
300 BC Buddhist missionaries from India arrived in Văn Lang.[21]
The Âu Việt settled across the northern border of Văn Lang and opened trade relations with the Lạc Việt.[22]
257 BC Thục Phán, ruler of the Âu Việt, invaded and conquered Văn Lang. He renamed the country Âu Lạc and took the regnal name An Dương Vương, ruling as king from Cổ Loa Citadel.
250 BC The Hùng Temple was built.[23]
210 BC The Battle of Tiên Du took place.[4]
207 BC The Qin general Zhao Tuo captured Cổ Loa Citadel. An Dương Vương fled and later committed suicide.
Zhao Tuo divided the territory under his control into the commanderies of Jiaozhi and Jiuzhen.[24]
206 BC The warlord Xiang Yu led an army into the Qin capital Xianyang, burned the Epang Palace and killed the Qin emperor Ziying and the royal family.
203 BC Zhao Tuo declared himself king of Nanyue, with his capital in modern Panyu District.
Nanyue conquered Guilin.

2nd century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
198 BC Two delegates were assigned to oversee the affairs of Jiaozhi and Jiuzhen.[24]
196 BC The Han official Lu Jia gave Zhao Tuo a seal recognizing him as king of Nanyue in exchange for his nominal submission to the Han emperor.[25]
183 BC Empress Lü Zhi, the Han empress dowager and regent for her grandson Emperor Houshao of Han, ordered a trade blockade of Nanyue.
Zhao Tuo sacked the Han capital Chang'an.[26]
The nearby polities of Minyue, Yelang and Tongshi declared their allegiance to Nanyue.
181 BC A punitive Han invasion of Nanyue stalled after much of the invading army fell to illness.[26]
180 BC Lü Zhi died. Nanyue conquered some Han territory near the border.
179 BC In exchange for the restoration of his family in modern Zhengding County and the withdrawal of Han forces from the Nanyue border, Zhao Tuo renounced the title emperor and pledged submission to the Han dynasty.
Luy Lẩu was founded.[27]
Zhao Tuo died. He was succeeded as king of Nanyue by his grandson Zhao Mo.
135 BC A border war took place between Nanyue and Minyue.[26]
122 BC Zhao Mo died. He was succeeded as king of Nanyue by his eldest son Zhao Yingqi.
118 BC Confucian ideas were introduced to Nanyue.[28]
115 BC Zhao Yingqi died. He was succeeded by his son Zhao Xing.
112 BC Lü Jia, the prime minister of Nanyue and a Lạc Việt chief, killed Zhao Xing and his Han Chinese mother Juishi after the latter agreed to full submission to the Han dynasty in order to preserve her authority in Nanyue. He declared Zhao Xing's elder brother Zhao Jiande king.
111 BC Han conquest of Nanyue: Han forces invaded Nanyue. Zhao Jiande was captured in flight and executed. The zhou of Jiaozhou was organized on the territory of the defunct Nanyue and divided into the commanderies of Nanhai, Cangwu, Yulin, Jiaozhi, Hepu, Zhuya, Taner , and Jiuzhen.[29] Shi Dai was appointed its governor.
Tây Vu Vương launched a revolt against Han forces.[30][31][32]
110 BC Tây Vu Vương was assassinated by his assistant Hoàng Đồng.[33]

1st century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
86 BC Shi Dai's rule of Jiaozhou ended.
48 BC The commandery of Rinan in Jiaozhou was organized south of the Hoành Sơn Range.[34][35]

Centuries: 1st · 2nd · 3rd · 4th · 5th · 6th · 7th · 8th · 9th · 10th · 11th · 12th · 13th · 14th · 15th · 16th · 17th · 18th · 19th · 20th

1st century[edit]

Year Date Event
2 Tích Quang became governor of Jiaozhou.
A census in Jiaozhou counted some hundred thousand households and nearly one million people.[36]
31 Tích Quang's rule of Jiaozhou ended.
34 Su Ding became governor of Jiaozhou.
39 Thi Sách was assassinated.
40 Trung sisters' rebellion: The Trưng Sisters launched a rebellion against Han authority in the Red River Delta.[37]
43 Trung sisters' rebellion: the Trưng Sisters committed suicide by drowning themselves before The Han general Ma Yuan could capture them.

2nd century[edit]

3rd century[edit]

4th century[edit]

5th century[edit]

6th century[edit]

Year Date Event
544 February Following his rebellion and expulsion of Liang forces from Jiaozhou, Lý Nam Đế was proclaimed emperor of Vạn Xuân.[38]
545 Winter The Liang general Emperor Wu of Chen launched a surprise attack on the Vạn Xuân capital Long Biên, forcing Lý Nam Đế and the imperial administration to flee to the Gia Ninh Citadel in modern Việt Trì.[39]
546 Lý Nam Đế was forced to retreat to Khuất Lạo Cave, where he reorganized his army under the command of Triệu Việt Vương.
547 Vạn Xuân forces defended Dạ Trạch in modern Khoái Châu District from Liang forces.[40]
548 February Lý Nam Đế ceded rule of Vạn Xuân to Triệu Việt Vương and his older brother Lý Thiên Bảo.
April Lý Nam Đế was assassinated in modern Laos.
550 Triệu Việt Vương expelled Liang forces from Vạn Xuân and reestablished the capital at Long Biên.
555 Lý Thiên Bảo died without heirs.
557 Hậu Lý Nam Đế, Lý Nam Đế's cousin and claimant to the throne of Vạn Xuân, signed a truce with Triệu Việt Vương establishing a boundary between their two territories.
571 Hậu Lý Nam Đế surprised and conquered Triệu Việt Vương and moved his capital to Phong Châu.

7th century[edit]

Year Date Event
602 Sui–Former Lý War: Sui conquered Vạn Xuân following a brief rebellion by Hậu Lý Nam Đế.

8th century[edit]

9th century[edit]

10th century[edit]

Year Date Event
979 Emperor Đinh Bộ Lĩnh of Đại Cồ Việt was assassinated along with his crown prince Đinh Liễn by a minor palace official. His surviving son, the young Đinh Phế Đế, succeeded him under the regency of the commander-in-chief Lê Hoàn.
Lê Hoàn declared himself viceroy of Đại Cồ Việt with the support of the empress dowager Dương Vân Nga.
The nobles Nguyễn Bặc and Đinh Điền attacked the Đại Cồ Việt capital Hoa Lư in response to Lê Hoàn's apparent usurpation.
Nguyễn Bặc and Đinh Điền were executed.
981 Lê Hoàn declared himself emperor at Hoa Lư.
Battle of Bạch Đằng (981): Đại Cồ Việt forces defeated a Song invasion near Lạng Sơn, forcing the Song fleet on the Bạch Đằng River to withdraw.[37]
Nam quốc sơn hà, a poem celebrating the sovereignty of Đại Cồ Việt over its territory, was written.
982 Đại Cồ Việt forces sacked the Champa capital Indrapura.[37]

11th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1005 Lê Hoàn died.
1009 The imperial court acclaimed Lý Thái Tổ emperor of Đại Cồ Việt.
1010 Autumn Lý Thái Tổ issued the chiếu dời đô, an edict ordering the transfer of the capital from Hoa Lư to Đại La.
1028 Lý Thái Tổ's son Lý Thái Tông became emperor of Đại Cồ Việt.
1038 The Nùng warlord Nùng Tồn Phúc launched a failed rebellion against Lý Thái Tông.
1054 Lý Thái Tông died. He was succeeded by his son Lý Thánh Tông.
1070 The Temple of Literature, Hanoi, a Confucian temple, was constructed.
1072 January Lý Thánh Tông died. He was succeeded as emperor by his young son Lý Nhân Tông, with the latter's mother Ỷ Lan and the chancellor Lý Đạo Thành acting as regents.
1075 Minor officials were chosen by examination for the first time.[37]
Autumn Lý–Song War: Đại Cồ Việt invaded Song in response to a trade blockade.

12th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1127 15 January Lý Nhân Tông died.
1176 The young Lý Cao Tông became emperor under the regency of Tô Hiến Thành.

13th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1209 The general Quách Bốc entered the capital, dethroned Lý Cao Tông and installed his young son Lý Thẩm as emperor.[41]
1226 11 January Trần Thái Tông was crowned emperor of Đại Việt.
1258 January Mongol invasions of Vietnam: The Mongol Empire invaded Đại Việt and conquered the capital at modern Hanoi. Trần Thái Tông fled to an island.
1278 November Trần Thánh Tông ceded the throne to his son Trần Nhân Tông.
1282 The Bình Than Conference took place.
1284 The Diên Hồng Conference took place.
1285 Mongol invasions of Vietnam: The Đại Việt commander-in-chief Trần Hưng Đạo drew out and harassed a Yuan invasion force, forcing their retreat.[37]
1287 Mongol invasions of Vietnam: The Mongol navy was destroyed, forcing the army, left without provisions, to begin its retreat from Đại Việt.[37]
1293 3 March Trần Nhân Tông ceded the throne to his son Trần Anh Tông.

14th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1306 Trần Anh Tông's sister Huyền Trân married the Champa king Chế Mân in Huế.[13]
1341 The young Trần Dụ Tông was crowned emperor of Đại Việt under the regency of his father, the retired emperor Trần Minh Tông.
1360 Champa launched several border attacks against Đại Việt.
1400 Hồ Quý Ly overthrew the Đại Việt emperor, enthroned himself, renamed the country Đại Ngu and moved the capital to the citadel of the Hồ Dynasty.
The Cham-Vietnamese War (1400–1407) began.

15th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1401 Hồ Quý Ly ceded the throne to his son Hồ Hán Thương.
1406 19 November Ming–Hồ War: Ming forces captured the Đại Ngu capitals.
1428 Lê Lợi was declared emperor of an independent Đại Việt.
The Bình Ngô đại cáo was published, affirming that Đại Việt was independent from and equal to China.
1460 Lê Thánh Tông was crowned emperor of Đại Việt.
1479 The Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư, an official history of Đại Việt, was completed.
1483 The Hồng Đức legal code was promulgated.[37]
1497 30 January Lê Thánh Tông died.

16th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1509 Lê Tương Dực assassinated his cousin, the tyrant Lê Uy Mục, and replaced him as emperor.
1511 The Trần Tuân Uprising took place.
1516 Trần Cao rebellion: Trần Cao, a mandarin of Đại Việt who identified himself as an incarnation of Śakra, launched a revolt against the government.
Portuguese seafarers arrived.[42]
Lê Tương Dực was murdered in the capital by a group of palace guards.

17th century[edit]

18th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1778 The forces of the Tây Sơn dynasty took Gia Định in modern Saigon and massacred the Nguyễn lords, the de facto rulers of southern Đại Việt, sparing only the young Nguyễn Thế Tổ.[37]
Nguyễn Văn Nhạc proclaimed himself emperor of Đại Việt with his capital at Quy Nhơn.
1783 Nguyễn Thế Tổ fled the country.
1785 20 January Battle of Rạch Gầm-Xoài Mút: Đại Việt forces under a banner of truce surprised and destroyed a Siamese force, then invading with the intention of installing Nguyễn Thế Tổ on the throne, on the Mekong River in modern Tiền Giang Province.
1786 The Phú Xuân Campaign (1786) took place.
The Thăng Long Campaign took place.
1787 The Nguyễn Nhạc-Nguyễn Huệ split occurred.
21 November The French priest Pierre Pigneau de Behaine signed the Treaty of Versailles on behalf of Nguyễn Thế Tổ. The French government agreed to support the latter in taking the throne of Đại Việt in exchange for Côn Sơn Island and exclusive trading rights.
1788 October Battle of Ngọc Hồi-Đống Đa: Qing forces invaded Đại Việt in support of the deposed emperor Lê Chiêu Thống.
Nguyễn Văn Nhạc's younger brother Nguyễn Văn Huệ proclaimed himself emperor of Đại Việt. Nguyễn Văn Nhạc relinquished the title, taking that of king instead.
Nguyễn Thế Tổ conquered Gia Định in modern Saigon.
1790 The Battle of Bình Thuận took place.
1792 Nguyễn Văn Huệ died, probably from a stroke. He was succeeded by his young son Nguyễn Quang Toản.
1800 The Siege of Quy Nhơn took place.

19th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1801 Battle of Thị Nại.
1802 Battle of Trấn Ninh
The Nguyễn defeat last of Tây Sơn forces.
Emperor Gia Long (1802–1820) became ruler of Vietnam.
Capital moved to Huế.[13]
Emperor Cảnh Thịnh (1792–1802) ended his rule of Vietnam.
1809 Nguyễn Du completes The Tale of Kiều.
1815 Hoàng Việt law enforced.
Emperor Gia Long (1802–1820) ended his rule of Vietnam.
1821 Emperor Minh Mạng (1820–1841) became ruler of Vietnam.
Phan Bá Vành Uprising.[43]
1833 Nông Văn Vân Uprising.
Lê Văn Khôi Revolt.
Emperor Minh Mạng (1820–1841) ended his rule of Vietnam.
1845 Emperor Thiệu Trị (1841–1847) became ruler of Vietnam.
USS Constitution lands in Da Nang as a company of US Marines moves overland to Huế and rescues a French Bishop who had been captured by the Vietnamese.[44]
1847 French bombardment of Da Nang in response to persecution of Catholic missionaries.[44]
Emperor Thiệu Trị (1841–1847) ended his rule of Vietnam.
1854 Emperor Tự Đức (1847–1883) became ruler of Vietnam.
Cao Bá Quát Uprising.
1858 Cochinchina Campaign.
1859 Thủ Khoa Huân Uprising.
1861 Sinking of L'Esperance
Trương Định Uprising.
1862 Treaty of Saigon.
1867 France establishes the colony of Cochinchina.
1883 Emperor Tự Đức (1847–1883) ended his rule of Vietnam.
1885 Ruler: Emperor Hàm Nghi (1884–1885)
Battle of the Huế Imperial City. Hàm Nghi leads resistance.[45]
Emperor Đồng Khánh (1885–1889) became ruler of Vietnam.
Cần Vương Movement.
1888 Hàm Nghi captured and exiled to Algeria.[45]
Emperor Đồng Khánh (1885–1889) ended his rule of Vietnam.

20th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1904 Ruler: Emperor Thành Thái (1889–1907)
Đông Du Movement.
1917 Ruler: Emperor Khải Định (1916–1925)
Thái Nguyên uprising.
1930 Emperor Bảo Đại (1925–1945) became ruler of Vietnam.
Nghệ Tĩnh Revolt.
1945 August Revolution.
Emperor Bảo Đại (1925–1945) ended his rule of Vietnam.
1976 President Tôn Đức Thắng (1976–1980) became ruler of Vietnam.
The National Assembly proclaims unification of the country as the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.[37]
Fourth National Party Congress. The Vietnamese Workers Party renamed the Vietnam Communist Party.[37]
1977 Admittance to United Nations.[37]
1978 Admittance to the Comecon.[37]
25-year "Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation" with the Soviet Union.[37]
1979 Border war with the PRC.
President Tôn Đức Thắng (1976–1980) ended his rule of Vietnam.
1980 Ruler: President Nguyễn Hữu Thọ (1980–1981)
1982 Trường Chinh, Chairman of the State Council (1981–1987) became ruler of Vietnam.
Fifth National Party Congress.[37]
1986 Sixth National Party Congress.[37]
Trường Chinh, Chairman of the State Council (1981–1987) ended his rule of Vietnam.
1988 Võ Chí Công, Chairman of the State Council (1987–1992) became ruler of Vietnam.
Johnson South Reef Skirmish.
1991 Seventh National Party Congress.
Võ Chí Công, Chairman of the State Council (1987–1992) ended his rule of Vietnam.
Dissolution of the Soviet Union ends the existence of the Soviet Union and aid throughout Vietnam.
1995 President Lê Đức Anh (1992–1997) became ruler of Vietnam.
Admittance to ASEAN.
1996 Eighth National Party Congress.
President Lê Đức Anh (1992–1997) ended his rule of Vietnam.

21st century[edit]

Year Date Event
2001 President Trần Đức Lương (1997–2006) became ruler of Vietnam.
Ninth National Party Congress.
2006 Tenth National Party Congress.
President Trần Đức Lương (1997–2006) ended his rule of Vietnam.
2007 President Nguyễn Minh Triết (2006–2011) became ruler of Vietnam.
Admittance to WTO.
2011 Eleventh National Party Congress.
Mường Nhé Uprising.[46]
President Nguyễn Minh Triết (2006–2011) ended his rule of Vietnam.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Importance of cultural history. Retrieved 2014-04-23.
  2. ^ Dao 1985
  3. ^ "Vietnam Notebook: Early History, Nam Viet to Gia Long". Parallel Narratives. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  4. ^ a b Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư, Issue 1
  5. ^ Iwona Czerwinska Pawluk and Walery Zukow, p. 21
  6. ^ Culture and Customs of Vietnam. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  7. ^ a b "LIÊN ĐOÀN LAO ĐỘNG BÌNH ĐỊNH". Archived from the original on 25 December 2012. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  8. ^ Ancient calendar unearthed. Retrieved 2014-01-03.
  9. ^ Archaeologists unearth 3,200-year-old woman in Vietnam. Retrieved 2013-12-22.
  10. ^ "Cồ Việt- Tri Thức Việt". Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  11. ^ Vietnam – History Archived 3 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved 2013-12-14.
  12. ^ a b c "Vietnam – HISTORY". Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  13. ^ a b c "Vietnamese History: A Chronological Outline – Asia for Educators – Columbia University". Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  14. ^ Gò Mun culture
  15. ^ World Beat: Vietnam. Retrieve 2014-01-01.
  16. ^ a b Hauptly, 1985, 4
  17. ^ Tarling, p. 121
  18. ^ Going Dutch in Beijing. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  19. ^ Celebrate Tet. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  20. ^ Âu Lạc under An Dương Vương
  21. ^ Nguyễn Tài Thư (2008), p.13.
  22. ^ Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  23. ^ Death Anniversary of the Hùng kings. Retrieved 2013-11-30.
  24. ^ a b Vu Dinh Dinh. "Cochinchina: Reassessment of the Origin and Use of a Westernized Place Name". The Writers Post, vol. 9, Jan & Jul 2007.
  25. ^ Taylor, 1991, p. 24.
  26. ^ a b c Triệu Dynasty (207 – 111 BC)
  27. ^ Nguyễn Tài Thư (2008), p.20.
  28. ^ Doh Chull Shin, p. 34
  29. ^ Ban Biao; Ban Gu; Ban Zhao. "地理志" [Treatise on geography]. Book of Han (in Chinese). Volume 28. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
  30. ^ "カードローンRoom". Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  31. ^ Vương Hùng.docx
  32. ^ 111 BC: Uprising shakes the rule of the Triệu Dynasty
  33. ^ Taylor, 1991, p. 29.
  34. ^ "BẮC THUỘC VÀ CHỐNG BẮC THUỘC: NHỮNG DẤU TÍCH VĂN HÓA VẬT CHẤT (GS.TS NGUYỄN QUANG NGỌC)". Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  35. ^ Taylor, 1991, p. 30.
  36. ^ Taylor, 1991, p. 33.
  37. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Vietnam – a country study
  38. ^ Việt sử Thông giám cương mục.
  39. ^ "Cồ Việt- Tri Thức Việt". Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  40. ^ 547: Triệu Quan Phục stations troops at Dạ Trạch swamp
  41. ^ Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư, Issue 4[permanent dead link]
  42. ^ "A Brief History of Vietnam". Retrieved 14 March 2015.
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