|Some of this article's listed sources may not be reliable. (November 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
Gein, c. 1958
August 27, 1906|
La Crosse County, Wisconsin
|Died||July 26, 1984
|Cause of death||Respiratory and heart failure due to cancer|
|Other names||The Mad Butcher|
|Criminal penalty||Served life in the Mendota Mental Health Institute|
|Victims||Bernice Worden and Mary Hogan (officially confirmed)|
|November 16, 1957|
Edward Theodore Gein (//) (August 27, 1906 – July 26, 1984) was an American murderer and body snatcher. His crimes, committed around his hometown of Plainfield, Wisconsin, gathered widespread notoriety after authorities discovered Gein had exhumed corpses from local graveyards and fashioned trophies and keepsakes from their bones and skin. Gein confessed to killing two women – tavern owner Mary Hogan on December 8, 1954, and a Plainfield hardware store owner, Bernice Worden, on November 16, 1957. Initially found unfit for trial, after confinement in a mental health facility, in 1968 Gein was found guilty but legally insane of the murder of Worden and was confined in psychiatric institutions. He died at Mendota Mental Health Institute of cancer-induced liver and respiratory failure on July 26, 1984. He is buried in the Plainfield Cemetery, in a now-unmarked grave.
Edward Theodore Gein was born in La Crosse County, Wisconsin, USA, on August 27, 1906, the second of two boys of George Philip (August 4, 1873 – April 1, 1940) and Augusta Wilhelmine (née Lehrke) Gein (July 21, 1878 – December 29, 1945.) Gein had an older brother, Henry George Gein (January 17, 1901 – May 16, 1944). Augusta despised her husband, an alcoholic who was unable to keep a job; he had worked at various times as a carpenter, tanner, and insurance salesman. Augusta owned a local grocery shop and sold the location in 1914 for a farm to purposely live in isolation near Plainfield, Wisconsin, which became the Gein family's permanent residence.
Augusta took advantage of the farm's isolation by turning away outsiders from influencing her sons. Edward left the farm only to attend school. Outside of school, he spent most of his time doing chores on the farm. Augusta was a fervent Lutheran. She preached to her boys about the innate immorality of the world, the evil of drinking, and the belief that all women were naturally prostitutes and instruments of the devil. She reserved time every afternoon to read to them from the Bible, usually selecting graphic verses from the Old Testament concerning death, murder, and divine retribution.
Edward was shy, and classmates and teachers remembered him as having strange mannerisms, such as seemingly random laughter, as if he were laughing at his own personal jokes. To make matters worse, his mother punished him whenever he tried to make friends. Despite his poor social development, he did fairly well in school, particularly in reading.
Deaths in immediate family
George Philip Gein died of heart failure caused by his alcoholism on April 1, 1940, aged 66. Subsequently, Henry and Ed began doing odd jobs around town to help cover living expenses. The brothers were generally considered reliable and honest by residents of the community. While both worked as handymen, Ed also frequently babysat for neighbors. He enjoyed babysitting, seeming to relate more easily to children than adults. Henry began dating a divorced, single mother of two and planned on moving in with her; Henry worried about his brother's affection for their mother and often spoke ill of her around Ed, who responded with shock and hurt.
On May 16, 1944, Henry and Ed were burning away marsh vegetation on the property; the fire got out of control, drawing the attention of the local fire department. By the end of the day – the fire having been extinguished and the firefighters gone – Ed reported his brother missing. With lanterns and flashlights, a search party searched for Henry, whose dead body was found lying face down. Apparently he had been dead for some time, and it appeared that the cause of death was heart failure, since he had not been burned or injured otherwise. It was later reported, in Harold Schechter's biography of Gein, Deviant, that Henry had bruises on his head. The police dismissed the possibility of foul play and the county coroner later officially listed asphyxiation as the cause of death. The authorities accepted the accident theory but there was no official investigation and an autopsy was not performed. Some suspected that Ed Gein killed his brother. Questioning Gein about the death of Bernice Worden in 1957, state investigator Joe Wilimovsky brought up questions about Henry's death. Dr. George W. Arndt who studied the case wrote that, in retrospect, it was "possible and likely" that Henry's death was "the "Cain and Abel" aspect of this case".
Gein and his mother were now alone. Augusta had a paralyzing stroke shortly after Henry's death, and Gein devoted himself to taking care of her. Sometime in 1945, Gein later recounted, he and his mother visited a man named Smith who lived nearby to purchase straw. According to Gein, Augusta witnessed Smith beating a dog. A woman inside the Smith home came outside and yelled to stop. Smith beat the dog to death. Augusta was extremely upset by this scene. What bothered her did not appear to be the brutality toward the dog but the presence of the woman. Augusta told Ed that the woman was not married to Smith and so had no business being there. "Smith's harlot," Augusta angrily called her. She had a second stroke soon after, and her health deteriorated rapidly. She died on December 29, 1945, at the age of 67. Ed was devastated by her death; in the words of author Harold Schechter, he had "lost his only friend and one true love. And he was absolutely alone in the world."
Gein held on to the farm and earned money from odd jobs. He boarded up rooms used by his mother, including the upstairs, downstairs parlor and living room, leaving them untouched; while the rest of the house became increasingly squalid, these rooms remained pristine. Gein lived thereafter in a small room next to the kitchen. It was around this time that he became interested in reading death-cult magazines and adventure stories, particularly those involving cannibals or Nazi atrocities.
Gein was a handyman and received a farm subsidy from the federal government starting in 1951. He occasionally worked for the local municipal road crew and crop threshing crews in the area. Sometime between 1946 and 1956, he also sold an 80-acre parcel of land that his brother Henry had owned.
On November 16, 1957, Plainfield hardware store owner Bernice Worden disappeared. When Worden's son told investigators that Gein had been in the store the evening before her disappearance, saying he would return the next morning for a gallon of anti-freeze, the police began to suspect Gein. A sales slip for a gallon of anti-freeze was the last receipt written by Worden on the morning she disappeared. Upon searching Gein's property, investigators discovered Worden's decapitated body in a shed, hung upside down by ropes at her wrists, with a crossbar at her ankles. The torso was "dressed out like a deer". She had been shot with a .22-caliber rifle, and the mutilations were made after her death.
Searching the house, authorities found:
- Whole human bones and fragments
- Wastebasket made of human skin
- Human skin covering several chair seats
- Skulls on his bedposts
- Female skulls, some with the tops sawn off
- Bowls made from human skulls
- A corset made from a female torso skinned from shoulders to waist
- Leggings made from human leg skin
- Masks made from the skin from female heads
- Mary Hogan's face mask in a paper bag
- Mary Hogan's skull in a box
- Bernice Worden's entire head in a burlap sack
- Bernice Worden's heart "in a plastic bag in front of Gein's potbellied stove"
- Nine vulvae in a shoe box
- A young girl's dress and "the vulvas of two females judged to have been about fifteen years old"
- A belt made from female human nipples
- Four noses
- A pair of lips on a window shade drawstring
- A lampshade made from the skin of a human face
- Fingernails from female fingers
These artifacts were photographed at the state crime laboratory and then destroyed.
When questioned, Gein told investigators that between 1947 and 1952, he made as many as 40 nocturnal visits to three local graveyards to exhume recently buried bodies while he was in a "daze-like" state. On about 30 of those visits, he said he came out of the daze while in the cemetery, left the grave in good order, and returned home empty handed. On the other occasions, he dug up the graves of recently buried middle-aged women he thought resembled his mother and took the bodies home, where he tanned their skins to make his paraphernalia.
Gein admitted robbing nine graves, leading investigators to their locations. Because authorities were uncertain as to whether the slight Gein was capable of single-handedly digging up a grave during a single evening, they exhumed two of the graves and found them empty (one had a crowbar in place of the body), thus apparently corroborating Gein's confession. Allan Wilimovsky of the state crime laboratory participated in opening three test graves identified by Gein. The caskets were inside wooden boxes; the top boards ran crossways (not lengthwise). The tops of the boxes were about two feet below the surface in sandy soil. Gein had robbed the graves soon after the funerals while the graves were not completed. They were found as Gein described: One casket was empty, one Gein had failed to open when he lost his pry bar, and most of the body was gone from the third but Gein had returned rings and some body parts.
Soon after his mother's death, Gein began to create a "woman suit" so that "...he could become his mother—to literally crawl into her skin". Gein's practice of donning the tanned skins of women was described as an "insane transvestite ritual." Gein denied having sex with the bodies he exhumed, explaining: "They smelled too bad." During state crime laboratory interrogation, Gein also admitted to the shooting death of Mary Hogan, a tavern owner missing since 1954 whose head was found in his house, but he later denied memory of details of her death.
A 16-year-old youth, whose parents were friends of Gein and who attended ball games and movies with him, reported that Gein kept shrunken heads in his house, which Gein had described as relics from the Philippines, sent by a cousin who had served on the islands during World War II. Upon investigation by the police, these were determined to be human facial skins, carefully peeled from corpses and used by Gein as masks.
Waushara County sheriff Art Schley reportedly assaulted Gein during questioning by banging Gein's head and face into a brick wall. As a result, Gein's initial confession was ruled inadmissible. Schley died of heart failure in 1968, at age 43, before Gein's trial. Many who knew Schley said he was traumatized by the horror of Gein's crimes and this, along with the fear of having to testify (especially about assaulting Gein), caused his death. One of his friends said: "He was a victim of Ed Gein as surely as if he had butchered him."
On November 21, 1957, Gein was arraigned on one count of first degree murder in Waushara County Court, where he pleaded not guilty by reason of insanity. Found mentally incompetent and thus unfit for trial, Gein was sent to the Central State Hospital for the Criminally Insane (now the Dodge Correctional Institution), a maximum-security facility in Waupun, Wisconsin, and later transferred to the Mendota State Hospital in Madison, Wisconsin. He was diagnosed with schizophrenia.
In 1968, doctors determined Gein was "mentally able to confer with counsel and participate in his defense." The trial began on November 7, 1968 and lasted one week. A psychiatrist testified that Gein had told him that he didn't know whether the killing of Bernice Worden was intentional or accidental. Gein had told him that while he examined a gun in Worden's store, the gun went off, killing Worden. Gein testified that after trying to load a bullet into the rifle, it discharged. He said he had not aimed the rifle at Worden, and did not remember anything else that happened that morning.
Gein was found guilty of first-degree murder by Judge Robert H. Gollmar on November 14. A second trial dealt with Gein's sanity; after testimony by doctors for the prosecution and defense, Gollmar ruled Gein "not guilty by reason of insanity" and ordered him committed to Central State Hospital for the Criminally Insane. Gein spent the rest of his life in a mental hospital. "Due to prohibitive costs," Judge Gollmar wrote, "Gein was tried for only one murder—that of Mrs. Worden. He also admitted to killing Mary Hogan."
Gein's house and property were scheduled to be auctioned March 30, 1958, amid rumors the house was to become a tourist attraction. On March 27, the house was destroyed by fire. Arson was suspected, but the cause of the blaze was never officially solved. When Gein learned of the incident while in detention, he shrugged and said, "Just as well." Gein's car, which he used to haul the bodies of his victims, was sold at public auction for $760 to carnival sideshow operator Bunny Gibbons. Gibbons later charged carnival goers 25¢ admission to see it.
On July 26, 1984, Gein died of respiratory failure due to lung cancer at the age of 77 in Stovall Hall at the Mendota Mental Health Institute. His grave site in the Plainfield Cemetery was frequently vandalized over the years; souvenir seekers chipped off pieces of his gravestone before the bulk of it was stolen in 2000. The gravestone was recovered in June 2001 near Seattle and is now in storage at the Waushara County Sheriff's Department.
In popular culture
The story of Ed Gein has had a lasting effect on American popular culture as evidenced by its numerous appearances in film, music and literature. The tale first came to widespread public attention in the fictionalized version presented by Robert Bloch in his 1959 suspense novel Psycho. In addition to Alfred Hitchcock's 1960 film of Bloch's novel, Gein's story was loosely adapted into a number of movies, including Deranged (1974), In the Light of the Moon (2000) (released in the U.S. as Ed Gein (2001)), Ed Gein: The Butcher of Plainfield (2007), Hitchcock (2012), and the Rob Zombie movies House of 1000 Corpses and its sequel, The Devil's Rejects. Gein served as a model for several book and film characters, most notably such fictional serial killers as Norman Bates (Psycho), Leatherface (The Texas Chain Saw Massacre), Buffalo Bill (The Silence of the Lambs) and Bloody Face from American Horror Story.
American filmmaker Errol Morris and German filmmaker Werner Herzog attempted unsuccessfully to collaborate on a film project about Gein in 1975–76. Morris interviewed Gein several times and ended up spending almost a year in Plainfield interviewing dozens of locals. The pair planned secretly to exhume Gein's mother from her grave to test a theory, but never followed through on the scheme and eventually ended their collaboration. The aborted project was described in a 1989 New Yorker profile of Morris.
At the time, the news reports of Gein's crimes spawned a subgenre of "black humor". Since the 1950s, Gein has frequently been exploited by transgressive art or "shock rock", often without association with his life or crimes beyond the shock value of his name. Examples of this include the song titled "Dead Skin Mask" (1990) from the Slayer album Seasons in the Abyss, "Nothing To Gein" (2001) from Mudvayne's album L.D. 50, and "Ed Gein" (1992) from The Ziggens' album Rusty Never Sleeps. Ed Gein's atrocities were also satirized in Blind Melon's "Skinned" off the 1995 album Soup which juxtaposed cheery instrumentation with semi-factual representations of Gein's crimes, arguably towards a comedic end.
- Vital Records, Pre-1907 Wisconsin. "Birth Index Record: Gien, Edward".
- "Ed Gein Found Guilty of 1957 Murder in Plainfield". The Capital Times (Madison, Wisconsin). November 14, 1958. p. 2, col. 4.
Ed Gein, the handyman whose home became known as a "house of horrors" 11 years ago, was found guilty today of first degree murder.
- Harold Schechter (2010). Deviant. Simon & Schuster. p. 50. ISBN 978-1-4391-0697-6.
- Schechter, p. 59.
- Schechter, p. 54.
- Flaster, Alex. (producer) Biography: Ed Gain. 2004. Biography. Los Angeles, California: A&E Television Networks.
- Williams, Anne. Fiendish Killers. London: Futura, 2007.[page needed]
- Robert H. Gollmar, Edward Gein, Pinnacle Books, 1981, p. 85.
- "Rites Today For Man Who Died in Roche-a-Cri Fire". Wisconsin Rapids Daily Tribune, Wisconsin Rapids, Wisconsin, May 19, 1944, p. 1, col. 1.
- Bell, Rachael; Marilyn Bardsley. "Henry". Crime Library. Retrieved 2008-11-23.[better source needed]
- Schechter, pp. 30–31.
- Gollmar, p. 86.
- Gollmar, pp. viii–ix.
- "Augusta Gein, the woman who drove a man Psycho | MND: Your Daily Dose of Counter-Theory". Mensnewsdaily.com. Retrieved 2013-09-25.
- "Signs of 10 Victims at Farm". Stevens Point Daily Journal. November 18, 1957. p. 1, cols. 7–8.
- Douglas, John E.; Olshaker, Mark (1998). Obsession: The FBI's Legendary Profiler Probes the Psyches of Killers, Rapists, and Stalkers and Their Victims and Tells How to Fight Back. Simon and Schuster. pp. 367–368. ISBN 0-671-01704-7.
- "Ed Gein case file".[better source needed]
- Ramsland, Katherine. "A True Necrophile." Crime Library.[better source needed]
- Gollmar, p. 192. Judge Gollmar relied on the detailed report of state crime lab investigator Allan Wilimovsky who searched the Gein house, inventoried the evidence and interviewed Edward Gein. Gollmar also quotes other contemporary investigators, including Captain Lloyd Schoesphoester (Green Lake Sheriff's Dept.) who assisted the investigation of the Worden murder and search of Gein's home.
- Gollmar, p. 44.
- Gollmar, p. 20.
- Gollmar, p. 22.
- Gollmar, pp. 18, 20, 44.
- Gollmar, pp. 18, 20, 22.
- Gollmar, p. 17.
- Gollmar, p. 25.
- Schechter, p. 92.
- Gollmar, p. 24.
- Gollmar, p. 87.
- Gollmar, p. 46.
- Gollmar, p. 48.
- Schechter 1989, p. 97.
- "Gein Also Admits He Killed Mary Hogan; Results of Lie Tests Announced". Stevens Point Daily Journal. November 20, 1957. p. 13, col. 6.
- "Case File – Ed Gein". Archived from the original on October 16, 2011. Retrieved 2014-04-11.[better source needed]
- "Empty Coffins Discovered in Graves at Plainfield; Appears To Back Up Gein's Story". Stevens Point Daily Journal. November 25, 1957. p. 1, cols. 7–8.
- "DA Convinced Gein Actually Raided Graves". Stevens Point Daily Journal. November 26, 1957. p. 1, col. 3.
- Gollmar, pp. 48–50.
- Bell, Rachael and Marilyn Bardsley. "Seriously weird." CrimeLibrary.com.
- "Youth Tells of Seeing Gein's Heads". Stevens Point Daily Journal. November 20, 1957. p. 1, col. 6.
- Schechter, p. 128.
- Gollmar, pp. 31–34.
- Gollmar, p. 34.
- "Gein Pleads Innocent By Reason of Insanity". Stevens Point Daily Journal. November 21, 1957. p. 1, cols. 7–8.
- Cannibal Killers – Moira Martingale – Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2013-11-30.
- Gollmar, p.95.
- "Ed Gein Will Be in Court", Oshkosh Daily Northwestern, Wednesday, November 6, 1968, p. 4, col. 6. "Accused murderer Ed Gein is scheduled to make his first court appearance since last April in Wautoma Thursday, when he appears before Circuit Judge Robert Gollmar of Baraboo.
- "Gein Trial Under Way", Oshkosh Daily Northwestern, November 7, 1968, p. 1, col. 5. "Circuit Judge Robert Gollmar of Baraboo ruled today that the murder trial of Ed Gein of Plainfield will be heard without a jury. ... The first trial witness called by the prosecution this morning was Leon Murty of Wild Rose."
- "Ed Gein Trial Opens Thursday in Wautoma", The Daily Telegram, Eau Claire, Wisconsin, Tuesday November 5, 1968, p. 8B, col. 1. "Ed Gein, charged in the murder and robbery of a Plainfield widow nearly 11 years ago this November, goes to trial Thursday."
- "Gein Trial Set Nov. 7", Wisconsin State Journal, Madison, Wisconsin, October 20, 1968, sec. 1, p. 7, col. 2. "The murder trial of Edward Gein, 62, charged in the 1957 slaying of a Plainfield woman, will begin Nov. 7 before Judge Robert Gollmar."
- Schechter, p. 227. "The trial began on Thursday, November 7, 1968."
- "Psychiatrist Tells Gein Account of Worden Death", Oshkosh Daily Northwestern, November 12, 1968, p. 1, col. 1.
- "Gein Takes Stand, Remembers Little", The Daily Telegram, Eau Claire, Wisconsin, November 13, 1968, p. 1, col. 3.
- Gollmar, p.172
- "Wisconsin Killer Gein Ruled Guilty, Insane". Chicago Tribune. November 15, 1968.
Ed Gein, 62, the recluse who horrified the nation in 1957 when the remains of 11 bodies were found on his farm, was ruled today to have been insane when he killed a Plainfield, Wis., woman.
- Gollmar, p. 81.
- Gollmar, Edward Gein, Pinnacle Books, 3rd ed., 1989, p. 80.
- Bell, Rachael; Marilyn Bardsley. "Ed Gein: The Inspiration for Buffalo Bill and Psycho". Crime Library. Retrieved 2008-11-23.[better source needed]
- Hintz, Martin (2007). Got Murder?: Shocking True Stories of Wisconsins Notorious Killers. Big Earth Publishing. p. 62. ISBN 1-931599-96-3.
- Reavill, Gil Reavill (2007). Aftermath, Inc.: Cleaning Up After CSI Goes Home. Gotham. p. 228. ISBN 1-59240-296-8.
- Bie, Michael (2007). It Happened in Wisconsin. Guilford, Connecticut: TwoDot. p. 97. ISBN 0-7627-4153-8. OCLC 76820808.
- Singer, Mark (February 2, 1989). "Predilections". The New Yorker.
- George W. Arndt, "Appendix A: Gein Humor" in Robert H. Gollmar, Edward Gein (Pinnacle Books, Windsor Publishing, 3rd ed., 1989) excerpted from Arndt's original "Horror, Humor and Human Nature" also published abridged as "Community Reactions to a Horrifying event" by Menninger School of Psychiatry; both versions reprinted in several psychology textbooks.
- The Slayer song "Dead Skin Mask" features a young girl pleading with Gein to release her; Gein never held a live captive and his victims were middle-aged women.
- "Ed Gein: The Musical" premieres Saturday in Menasha
- Warren Gerds column: 'Ed Gein, The Musical' includes local actors
- Obsessive Love for His Mother Drove Gein to Slay, Rob Graves – Milwaukee Journal; November 21, 1957