Emasculation

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A painting of Cronus emasculating Uranus, c. 1501

Emasculation is the removal of both the penis and the testicles, the external male sex organs. It differs from castration, which is the removal of the testicles only, although the terms are sometimes used interchangeably.[1] The potential medical consequences of emasculation are more extensive than those associated with castration, as the removal of the penis gives rise to a unique series of complications. There are a range of religious, cultural, punitive, and personal reasons why someone may choose to emasculate themselves or another person. Consensual emasculation may be seen as a form of body modification which enhances a recipient's connection with the community or sense of self. By comparison, non-consensual emasculations, such as those performed punitively or accidentally, may constitute genital mutilation. The medical treatment for an emasculated person differs depending on whether the procedure was consensual or not.

Emasculation is also used metaphorically to refer to the loss of a man's masculinity. A man is said to be emasculated when he loses, or is deprived of, a characteristic traditionally associated with being a man, such as power or independence.

Method[edit]

There are several different methods of emasculation. Both the penis and testes may be removed simultaneously using a sharp instrument, such as a knife or razor. This method is often used by medical surgeons on transsexual women,[2] or elders performing cultural or religious emasculations.[3] Alternatively, the penis and testicles may be removed at different stages in time. Medical surgeons use this method when performing surgery on trans women who want their genitals removed over multiple sex reassignment surgeries (male-to-female), rather than in a single sitting.[4] In one reported case, a transsexual female used this method on herself, first removing her testicles and later her penis, as she was unable to obtain appropriate appropriate gender affirming surgery in a medical setting. [5] Finally, the penis and testicles may be removed incrementally over time, by progressively tightening a string around the genitals to cut off blood flow. This is a less common method of emasculation, but has been used by trans women who are unable to acquire gender affirming surgery in a medical setting.[6]

Medical consequences[edit]

Short term consequences of emasculation include bleeding,[7] and infection.[8] Historically, death was also a potential complication, although the prevalence is disputed.[9]

Long term complications include incontinence [10] urethral stricture,[11] urine retention, [12] urinary tract infection,[13] urine extravasation,[8] and bladder stones.[14] Some studies have found that Emasculation may cause a range physiological changes, such as a shortened torso,[15] widened stomach and hips,[16] increased height, bowed legs,[15] and an elongated skull.[15] Additionally, emasculates typically have less or no facial and body hair,[17] increased fatty tissue or gynecomastia,[17] and a feminine fat pattern distributions.[18] The physiological effects of emasculation are more severe for people who undergo the procedure before the onset of puberty.[19]

Reasons[edit]

An emasculated Chinese eunuch from the Qing Dynasty

Cultural[edit]

Imperial China[edit]

Emasculation was performed in China on men to create palace eunuchs for the Imperial court.[20] The practice dates back to the Shang dynasty (1600–1046 BC)[21] and continued up until 1924,[22] when the eunuch system was abolished by the last emperor of China, Puyi.[23] The last living palace eunuch, Sun Yaoting, died in 1996.[24]

Originally, palace eunuchs were prisoners who were involuntarily emasculated. In the Qing dynasty, men began volunteering to undergo the procedure in order to gain employment, although instances of forced emasculation still occurred.[25] One reason why recipients willingly underwent emasculation is that they saw employment as a palace eunuch as a way to acquire wealth and power. Alternatively, poverty was a reason why fathers forced their sons to undergo emasculation, and the desire for financial benefit motivated human traffickers to force emasculation on their victims.[26]

There were several reasons why the Imperial court required its civil servants to be emasculated. Emasculation was thought to ensure a recipient's undivided loyalty to the emperor, as it severs the recipient's existing familial or social bonds and destroys their ability to produce future heirs.[27] The choice to hire emasculated eunuchs also ensured the legitimacy of the emperor's lineage.[28] The choice to emasculate, rather than merely castrate, was motivated by a desire to protect the chastity of women in the court, as emasculation rendered a recipient physically incapable of having sex.[29] While emasculation was a pre-requisite for gaining employment as a palace eunuch, it did not guarantee employment.[30]

The emasculation procedure was typically performed by a trained 'knifer', or 'knife expert'.[31] To prepare for the operation, the recipient was bathed in cold water to numb their senses and, in some instances, their genitals were twisted to reduce blood flow.[32] The recipient was then asked if they consented to the procedure, and it they answered yes the knifer excised the genitals with a single cut.[33] Styptic powder was then applied to the wound to stop bleeding, and a pewter needle or spigot was inserted into the urethra to prevent stenosis (narrowing).[34]

Some notable Chinese emasculates include Zheng He, a Ming dynasty admiral of the imperial navy, and the surviving sons and grandson of rebel Yaqub Beg.[35]

Middle East[edit]

In the Arab slave trade, enslaved men and boys from East Africa were often "castrated" by removing both the penis and testicles.[36]

Emasculated Skoptsy male (left) and Skoptsy female with breasts cut off (right)

Religious[edit]

Skoptsy[edit]

Emasculation was one form of genital mutilation practiced by the Skoptsy, a Russian Christian sect. For males, the other form of mutilation available was castration, whereas females could remove their nipples, breasts, labia majora, labia minora or clitoris.[37] These practices may have begun sometime during the 1760s, after the sect was founded by Kondratii Selivanov, although they were only discovered by the broader community in 1772.[38] They continued up until the 1930s, when the sect was destroyed and its members sentenced.[39]

The Skoptsy practiced genital mutilation because they believed the genitals were the source of original sin, and that by removing them, they could attain salvation.[40] The aim of removing the offending genitalia was to purify to purify the body.[41] Their belief was based on a literal reading of the verse of Matthew 19:12, which states: “There are some eunuchs, which were so born from their mother’s womb: and there are some eunuchs, which were made eunuchs of men: and there be eunuchs, which have made themselves eunuchs for the kingdom of heaven’s sake.”[42] In addition, the verses of Matthew 18:8–0 and Luke 23:29 were also cited as support.[43] Of the two types of genital mutilation available to men, emasculation was called to Greater Seal. Castration, by comparison, was called the Lesser Seal.[44] Emasculation was preferable because it rendered a recipient physically incapable of engaging in sinful sexual conduct, allowing them to attain a higher level of purity.

Originally, the emasculation procedure was performed by burning the testicles off with an iron.[45] Later, the genitals were tied at the base and removed using a knife or razor blade. The wound was then cauterised, or a salve was applied, to prevent bleeding. Many of the Skoptsy were peasants and were familiar with animal husbandry, which meant their emasculation procedures were often performed with “surgical precision.”[46] In some instances, members of the Skoptsy would perform the emasculation on themselves, in an act of self-surgery, though it was more typical for the procedure to be performed by an elder during a ceremony.[37]

For the Skoptsy, emasculation did not affect a recipient’s gender identity.[46]

Hijra[edit]

Throughout the Indian subcontinent, including India, Bangladesh and Pakistan, some members of the Hijra community reportedly undergo emasculation, or nirvan.[47]

Traditionally, emasculation was a rite of passage into the Hijra community.[48] Today it remains an important ritual, though is not mandatory nor is it universally practiced.[49] When it is performed, it typically occurs several years after an individual has already participated within the Hijra community. While some Hijra are emasculated, others are intersex, undeveloped in puberty or impotent.[50]

Whether or not a Hijra undergoes emasculation is influenced by a range of considerations. Some people are not emasculated because they are fearful of surgical complications, are under financial constraints, or merely as a matter of personal choice.[51] For Muslim Hijra, emasculation may be avoided due to the belief that genital mutilation goes against Allah's will.[52] Others see emasculation is seen as necessary in order to be 'reborn' as a Hijra. On this view, emasculated Hijra as more 'real' than those who are not.[53] The decision to be emasculated may also be motivated by personal beliefs about whether or not a Hijra can have spiritual powers without undergoing the procedure. Amongst members of the Hijra community, this issue is subject to considerable debate.[52]

In the past, the emasculation procedure was performed by barbers or by the individual themselves (i.e. self-emasculation).[54] Nowadays, the operation is performed by a Hijra elder, also called a dai ma (midwife).[55] They have no medical training, but believe they operate with the power of the patron goddess, Bahuchara Mata.[56] The operation takes place early in the morning, around 3 am or 4 am.[56] The recipient is not administered anaesthesia.[57] The penis and testes are tied together with a string, and the elder then makes two diagonal cuts with a sharp surgical knife to completely excise the organs.[58] The elder allows the blood to gush out from the wound as this is necessary to completely cleanse the recipient of their male parts. This is one reason why the procedure is performed by an elder rather than a trained medical surgeon, who may try to stop the haemorrhage and would therefore interfere with the ritual's cleansing effect.[59] Afterwards, no stitches are made and the wound is left exposed, although a small stick is inserted into the urethra to prevent urethral stricture.[60]

For the Hijra, emasculation does affect a recipient's gender identity, with some identifying as female, non-binary, or a third gender.[61] as a result of the procedure.

Punishment[edit]

Ancient China[edit]

Emasculation was one of the Five Punishments used in ancient China.[62] It was the prescribed punishment for people who engaged in licentious conduct, such as infidelity or rape.[63] The first evidence of its use dates to the Shang dynasty (1700-1100 BC), when the characters for a knife and male genitalia were carved into oracle bones. It continued up until the Sui dynasty (581-618 CE), when it was formally abolished.[64]

Gender reassignment[edit]

Transsexuality[edit]

Emasculation occurs within the transgender community as a form of gender reassignment surgery, allowing recipients to renounce their masculine characteristics and bring their body into closer alignment with their identified gender. It may be sought by transgender females (those assigned male at birth who identify as females), who wish to assume their femininity, or by non-binary transgender individuals (those assigned male at birth who identify as neither male nor female), who want to locate themselves outside of traditional gender categories.[65]

For transgender females, emasculation surgery may be performed with or without the creation of a vagina. When a vagina is created, the procedure is called a vaginoplasty,[66] and where it isn’t, the procedure is called a cosmesis or cosmetic vulvoplasty.[67]

For non-binary transgender persons, the purpose of emasculation is to make the body less congruent with one’s biological sex without the subsequent assumption of femininity. [68] These individuals may identify as non-binary, or as a third-sex or eunuch. Some adopt the term ‘nullo,’ meaning someone whose gender has been nullified.[69]

In some instances, transgender persons may seek emasculation outside of medical facilities (i.e. self-emasculation).

Self-inflicted[edit]

Transsexuality[edit]

Occasionally self-emasculation is practiced by transgender persons.[70] When compared with the general population, transgender persons are at a higher risk of engaging in acts of genital self-mutilation, including self-emasculation.[71] The inability to acquire gender-affirming surgery by a medical professional has prompted people to resort to self-emasculation.[72]

Mental disorder[edit]

There are reports of several self-emasculation cases resulting from mental disorder. Some academics claim that a majority of self-emasculations are a result of psychosis,[73] although this finding has been challenged.[74] Nonetheless, there are several reported cases of people with schizophrenia engaging in self-emasculation. [75]

Skoptic syndrome, or Klingsor syndrome, is a condition where people mutilate their genitals as a result of psychotic religious delusions. [76] For example, a person with Skoptic syndrome is reported to have mutilated his genitals after experiencing auditory hallucinations telling him he would only be allowed into the Kingdom of Heaven if he emasculated himself.[77]

Body integrity dysphoria, or xenomelia, is another mental disorder that may drive a person to seek emasculation.[78] People with this disorder are distressed by the presence of a limb which they don’t identify as part of their body, including the genitals. Emasculation in this context alleviates the sufferer from distress, enabling them to become ‘whole’.[79] However, the amputation of healthy limbs by medical professionals is highly controversial. The inability to acquire medically administered emasculation has driven some sufferers to self-emasculation.[80]

In some cases, a person suffering a mental illness has emasculated another people.[81]

Involuntary or accidental[edit]

In some circumstances, a person may be emasculated involuntarily. For instance, they may be emasculated as the result of an accident,[82] as part of a ritual attack,[83] or due to poor circumcision practice.[84]

In these cases, the objective of medical treatment is different to that for cases of voluntary emasculation. The goals of treatment are to either reattach the severed genitals or to reconstruct an artificial penis and testes.[85]

In the past, cases of involuntarily emasculated children were treated with gender reassignment surgery, similar to the treatment received by David Reimer after his penis was burnt off during a circumcision procedure. It is now known from cases such as Reimer's that gender reassignment surgery in infancy can inappropriately interfere with the process of gender identity formation later in life. As such, gender reassignment is no longer the standard practice for involuntarily emasculated infants [86]

Other meanings[edit]

By extension, the word emasculation has also come to mean rendering a male less masculine, including by humiliation. It can also mean to deprive anything of vigour or effectiveness. This figurative usage has become more common than the literal meaning. For example: "William Lewis Hughes voted for Folkestone’s amendment to Curwen’s emasculated reform bill, 12 June 1809..."[87]

In horticulture, the removal of male (pollen) parts of a plant, largely for controlled pollination and breeding purposes, is also called emasculation.[88]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Chiang 2012, p. 33; Hoeckelmann 2019, p. 4.
  2. ^ Chen et al. 2019, p. 191; Lipshultz 1980, pp. 169–170; van der Sluis, Steensmaa & Boumana 2020, p. 176.
  3. ^ Bellringer 2017a, p. 249; Chiang 2012, pp. 30–31, 46; Dale 2010, pp. 40–41; Engelstein 1997, p. 6; Hossain 2012, pp. 40–41.
  4. ^ Bellringer 2017a, p. 250; Bellringer 2017b, p. 210; van der Sluis, Steensmaa & Boumana 2020, p. 177.
  5. ^ Rana & Johnson 1993, p. 750.
  6. ^ Mellon et al. 1989, p. 127.
  7. ^ Dale 2010, p. 45; Wilson & Roehrborn 1999, p. 4326.
  8. ^ a b Wilson & Roehrborn 1999, p. 4326.
  9. ^ Dale 2010, p. 42.
  10. ^ Dale 2010, p. 46; Dale 2018, p. 39; Wilson & Roehrborn 1999, p. 4326.
  11. ^ Patwardhan et al. 2007, p. 1.
  12. ^ Dale 2010, p. 46; Patwardhan et al., p. 1; Wilson & Roehrborn 1999, p. 4326.
  13. ^ Ochoa 1998, p. 1117; Wilson & Roehrborn 1999, p. 4326.
  14. ^ Dale 2018, p. 196; Wilson & Roehrborn 1999, pp. 4328–4330.
  15. ^ a b c Wilson & Roehrborn 1999, pp. 4328–4330.
  16. ^ Dale 2010, p. 46; Wilson & Roehrborn 1999, p. 4326.
  17. ^ a b Dale 2010, p. 49; Dale 2018, p. 196.
  18. ^ Dale 1999, p. 49.
  19. ^ Dale 1999, pp. 48–49.
  20. ^ Bullough 2001, p. 248; Majno 1991, p. 254; Schiedel 2009, pp. 84–85.
  21. ^ Dale 2018, p. 1.
  22. ^ Emeliantseva 2009, p. 190; Bellringer 2017a, p. 248.
  23. ^ Chiang 2012.
  24. ^ Chatterton & Bultitude 2008; Chiang 2012, p. 26.
  25. ^ Dale 2018, pp. 2, 19–20, 195.
  26. ^ Dale 2018, pp. 19, 195.
  27. ^ Dale 2018, pp. 1–2, 15–16, 194.
  28. ^ Dale 2018, p. 15.
  29. ^ Dale 2018, pp. 1, 16,.
  30. ^ Dale 2010, p. 39; Dale 2018, p. 2.
  31. ^ Dale 2010, p. 39; Dale 2018, p. x; Chiang 2012, pp. 29–30; Wilson & Roehrborn 1999, p. 4326.
  32. ^ Dale 2010, pp. 40, 43.
  33. ^ Dale 2010, pp. 40–41.
  34. ^ Dale 2010, pp. 41, 43.
  35. ^ Translations of the Peking Gazette. 1880. p. 83. Retrieved 12 May 2011 – via Google Books.The American annual cyclopedia and register of important events of the year ..., Volume 4. D. Appleton and Company. 1888. p. 145. Retrieved 12 May 2011 – via Google Books.
  36. ^ Murray 1989, p. 96.
  37. ^ a b Engelstein 1997, p. 6.
  38. ^ Engelstein 1997, p. 2.
  39. ^ Emeliantseva 2009, p. 190.
  40. ^ Engelstein 1999, p. 13.
  41. ^ Engelstein 1999, p. 12; Goldberg 1930, p. 346.
  42. ^ Wilson 2018, p. 565.
  43. ^ Engelstein 1999, p. 14.
  44. ^ Engelstein 1997, p. 5; Goldberg 1930, p. 348.
  45. ^ Engelstein 1997, p. 5; Goldberg 1930, p. 347.
  46. ^ a b Wilson 2018, p. 566.
  47. ^ Bellringer 2017a, p. 249; Stief 2017, p. 74.
  48. ^ Nanda 1984, p. 59, 73; Nanda 1999, pp. 26.
  49. ^ Khan 2017, p. 1284; Nanda 1984, p. 73; Singh & Kumar 2020, p. 84; Stief 2017, p. 75.
  50. ^ Khan 2016, p. 219; Khan et al. 2016, p. 2; Khan 2017, p. 1284.
  51. ^ Nanda 1984, p. 73; Singh & Kumar 2020, p. 84; Khan.
  52. ^ a b Hossain & 2017 1420.
  53. ^ Hossain 2017, p. 1420; Nanda 1984, p. 73; Nanda 1990, pp. 26, 37.
  54. ^ Nanda, 1984 & 64.
  55. ^ Nanda 1984, p. 84, 73; Nanda 1999, pp. 27.
  56. ^ a b Nanda, 1999 & 27.
  57. ^ Nanda, 1984 & 73.
  58. ^ Nanda 1984, p. 73, 73; Nanda 1999, pp. 28.
  59. ^ Nanda 1984, p. 84, 74; Nanda 1999, pp. 28.
  60. ^ Nanda, 1999 & 28.
  61. ^ Hossain 2012, p. 495; Khan et al., p. 442; Nanda 1999, p. 28; Stief 2016, p. 73.
  62. ^ Kim et al.
  63. ^ Hoeckelmann 2019, pp. 5, 11–12; Zhang 2001, p. 250.
  64. ^ Zhang 2001.
  65. ^ Apeiranthitou, Thomas & Louka 2019; DeMello 2007, p. 57; Jackowich et al., p. 122; Vale et al., p. 47.
  66. ^ Chen et al. 2019, p. 192; van der Sluis, Steensma & Bouman 2020, p. 177.
  67. ^ Bellringer & 2017a 249.
  68. ^ Vale et al. 2010.
  69. ^ DeMello, 2007 & 57.
  70. ^ Jackowich et al. 2014.
  71. ^ Mellon et al. 1989, p. 125.
  72. ^ Donnelly-Boylen 2016, pp. 376–377; Mellon et al. 1989, p. 127; Rana & Johnson 1993, p. 750.
  73. ^ Chauhan et al. 2016, p. 228; Kenyon 1953, p. 208; Schweitzer 1990, p. 566.
  74. ^ Johnson, Wassersug & 2010 598.
  75. ^ Evins, Whittle & Rous 1977, p. 775; Mora & Drach 1980, p. 209.
  76. ^ Coleman & Cesnik 1990, p. 204; Money 1988, p. 114; Schweitzer 1990, pp. 566, 568–569.
  77. ^ Evins et al. 775.
  78. ^ Jackowich et al., p. 122; Johnson et al., p. 854.
  79. ^ Johnson et al. 2010.
  80. ^ Jackowich et al., p. 122; Johnson et al., p. 854; Wibowo, Johnson & Wassersug 2016, p. 405.
  81. ^ Shaw et al. 321.
  82. ^ Kenyon 1953, p. 207; Ochoa 1998, p. 1116.
  83. ^ Kaggwa & Galukande 2014, p. 519; Orakwe & Undie 2012, pp. 75–77.
  84. ^ Gearheart, Rock & 1989 799.
  85. ^ Shaw et al. 387.
  86. ^ Gearheart & Rock}1y=1989, pp. 800–801; Ochoa 1998, p. 1119; Shaw, Sadove & Rink 2003, p. 323.
  87. ^ Thorne R. (1986) History of Parliament online. Accessed 12 April 2017
  88. ^ Hedhly, Hormaza & Herrero 2009.

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