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For other uses, see Enso (disambiguation).
Ensō (c. 2000) by Kanjuro Shibata XX. Some artists draw ensō with an opening in the circle, while others close the circle.

In Zen Buddhism, an ensō ( , "circle"?) is a circle that is hand-drawn in one or two uninhibited brushstrokes to express a moment when the mind is free to let the body create.

The ensō symbolizes absolute enlightenment, strength, elegance, the universe, and mu (the void). It is characterised by a minimalism born of Japanese aesthetics.

Drawing ensō is a disciplined-creative practice of Japanese ink painting—sumi-e (墨絵 "ink painting"?). The tools and mechanics of drawing the ensō are the same as those used in traditional Japanese calligraphy: One uses a brush ( fudé?) to apply ink to washi (a thin Japanese paper).

The circle may be open or closed. In the former case the circle is incomplete, allowing for movement and development as well as the perfection of all things. Zen practitioners relate the idea to (wabi sabi), the beauty of imperfection. When the circle is closed, it represents perfection, akin to Plato's perfect form (Plato), the reason why the circle was used for centuries in the construction of cosmological models, see Ptolemy.

Usually a person draws the ensō in one fluid, expressive stroke.[1] When drawn according to the sōsho (草書?) style of Japanese calligraphy, the brushstroke is especially swift. Once the ensō is drawn, one does not change it. It evidences the character of its creator and the context of its creation in a brief, contiguous period of time. Drawing ensō is a spiritual practice that one might perform as often as once per day.[2]

This spiritual practice of drawing ensō or writing Japanese calligraphy for self-realization is called hitsuzendō (筆禅道 "way of the brush"?). Ensō exemplifies the various dimensions of the Japanese wabi-sabi perspective and aesthetic: Fukinsei (asymmetry, irregularity), kanso (simplicity), koko (basic; weathered), shizen (without pretense; natural), yugen (subtly profound grace), datsuzoku (freedom), and seijaku (tranquility).

Use outside of Zen Buddhism[edit]

In 1995, Lucent Technologies hired the San Francisco office of Landor Associates, a transnational brand consultancy, to design their brand image.[3] In the design of the logo, Landor colored an image of an ensō red. The designer intended the brushstroke to imply human creativity, and the red to convey urgency.[4] They named it the "Innovation Ring". "Our name and symbol represent the new entrepreneurial spirit and vision of our company" reads a public relations statement from Lucent.[5] In North America, the logo was widely misunderstood.[3][4] After years of staying-power and familiarity, the logo became more accepted by industry people in the West (including Lucent's own employees), although it was still not well understood. Nonetheless, soon other logo designers began be influenced by the work.[4] Lucent ceased to use it after merging with Alcatel of France to form Alcatel-Lucent.

A variation of the symbol was also used as a logo by Obaku Ltd.. They continue to use an ensō shape as a wristwatch brand.

Thinking, an international design and consulting house centred in London, uses an ensō [6] meaning "Expression" as one of their four icons, along with icons for science, pattern and vision.

The design of Apple Campus 2, Apple Inc.'s ring-shaped corporate headquarters, might also have been inspired by the ensō.[7]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ 17th-century Rinzai master Bankei Yōtaku occasionally used two brushstrokes.[citation needed]
  2. ^ Seo, Audrey Yoshiko (2007). Ensō: Zen Circles of Enlightenment. Boston: Weatherhill. ISBN 9780834805750. OCLC 71329980. 
  3. ^ a b Bowie, James (9 May 2006). "The Lucent Logo Legacy: Long Live the Big Red Donut". American Institute of Graphic Arts. Archived from the original on 11 October 2007. Retrieved 25 November 2013. 
  4. ^ a b c McGowan, John (17 March 1997). "Elucidating Lucent's "Million-dollar Coffee Stain"". CNNMoney.com. Time Warner. Retrieved 27 November 2013. 
  5. ^ Magee, Mike (10 August 1999). "Lucent logo captures company in 'single masterful brush stroke'". The Register. Retrieved 27 November 2013. 
  6. ^ thinking.partners
  7. ^ Daly, Sean (29 December 2011). "Zen-otaph: Steve Jobs and the Meaning Behind Apple’s New Campus". A/N Blog. Retrieved 5 May 2014.