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Burakumin (部落民, 'hamlet/village people', 'those who live in hamlets/villages') is a term for ethnic Japanese people who are believed to be descended from members of the pre-Meiji castes which were associated with kegare (穢れ, 'defilement'), such as executioners, undertakers, slaughterhouse workers, butchers, and tanners. The term encompasses both the historical eta and hinin outcasts. During Japan's feudal era, these occupations acquired a hereditary status of untouchability, and became an unofficial caste of the Tokugawa class system during the Edo period. Due to severe discrimination and ostracism in Japanese society, these groups came to live as outcasts, in their own separate villages or ghettos. After the caste system was abolished, the term burakumin came into use to refer the former caste members and their descendants, who continued to experience stigmatization and discrimination.
The term burakumin is derived from buraku (部落), a Japanese term which refers literally to a small, generally rural, commune or hamlet. In the regions of Japan where the burakumin issue is much less publicly prominent, such as Hokkaido and Okinawa, buraku is still used in a non-pejorative sense to refer to any hamlet. Historically, the term buraku was used for an outcast community that was discriminated against officially and formally.
|Hisabetsu-buraku||被差別部落||'Discriminated community/hamlet'||Hisabetsu-buraku is a commonly used, polite term, with people from them called hisabetsu-burakumin (被差別部落民, 'discriminated community (hamlet) people') or hisabetsu buraku shusshin-sha (被差別部落出身者, 'person from a discriminated community/hamlet').|
|Burakumin||部落民||'Hamlet people'||Burakumin refers either to hamlet people per se or is used as an abbreviation of people from a discriminated community/hamlet. Very old people tend to use the word in the former meaning. Its use is sometimes frowned upon, though it is by far the most commonly used term in English.|
|Mikaihō-buraku||未解放部落||'Unliberated communities'||Mikaihō-buraku is a term sometimes used by human rights groups, and has a degree of political meaning to it.|
|Tokushu buraku||特殊部落||'Special hamlets'||Tokushu buraku was a term used during the early 20th century but is now considered pejorative.|
A term used much for buraku settlements is dōwa chiku (同和地区, 'assimilation districts'), an official term for districts designated for government and local authority assimilation projects from 1969 to 2002.
The social issue concerning "discriminated communities" is usually referred to as dōwa mondai (同和問題, 'assimilation issues') or, less commonly, buraku mondai (部落問題, 'hamlet issues').
During the feudal era, the outcastes were termed eta (穢多, lit. 'an abundance of defilement' or 'an abundance of filth'), a term now considered derogatory. Eta towns were termed etamura (穢多村).
Some burakumin refer to their own communities as mura (村, 'villages') and themselves as mura-no-mono (村の者, 'village people').
Other outcaste groups from whom buraku may have been descended included the hinin (非人, lit. 'non-human'). The definition of hinin, as well as their social status and typical occupations varied over time, but typically included ex-convicts and vagrants who worked as town guards, street cleaners or entertainers.
During the 19th century, the term burakumin was invented to name the eta and hinin because both classes were forced to live in separate village neighborhoods.
Defining the burakumin as a separate group is difficult. Burakumin parents sometimes do not tell their children about their ancestry in hopes of avoiding discrimination. Because of this, there is an increasingly large population that has no idea that others would consider them burakumin. Discrimination is primarily based on ancestry and location; someone with no burakumin ancestry may be viewed as one and discriminated against if they move to a former dōwa chiku.
The predecessors to burakumin, called kawata (かわた) or eta (穢多) formed as a distinct group some time during the Heian period, AD 794–1185. The permeation of Buddhism into Japan in the first millennium led to the castigation of meat eating and similar activities. The Shinto and Buddhist cultures, that centered around aiming for a certain purity of body and mind, considered working with dead animals, blood, or any sort of decaying object as polluting, and hence occupations like butchery and leather tanning were besmirched. The eta, people who held such occupations, dealt therefore with pollution and were hence considered to be inferior or sub-human. However, because of their ability to deal with pollution, several myths emerged from the Heian through medieval periods, eta where certain individuals from these outcastes were regarded as having the ability to cleanse ritual pollution, and in some portrayals even considered as having magical powers. Another outcaste, the kawata were associated with the tanning industry, and had the exclusive rights to tan hides. Prior the Edo period, these burakumin (peripatetic or settled) would live outside common population centers and maintained some socio-ethical significance, albeit negligible. They were also employed as mediators in disputes. Spatial and geographic markers played a significant role in the distinction between the burakumin and other members of society.
Hinin, meaning 'non-human', was another pre-burakumin status, applying to certain criminals, beggars and camp followers of samurai. Their position was more mobile and they were usually thought to be less polluted. The Tokugawa shogunate regarded beggars as hinin and allowed them to beg in designated areas. They had to work as restroom attendants, prison officers, or executioners.
Within the hinin and eta communities there would usually be a centralized chiefain who was given the exclusive license of tanning, candle wicks and other similar occupations, employing their peers and concentrating great wealth and local power. This chieftain took on the name of Danzaemon (弾左衛門), and was given the authority to supervise the hisabetsumin living in the hamlets located in the eight provinces of the Kanto region, the Izu Province, as well as in parts of Kai, Suruga, Mutsu and Mikawa Provinces.
In 1603, Tokugawa Ieyasu established the Tokugawa Shogunate, systemically extirpating the previous disarray in Japan, wrought by rampant internecine strife and warring by daimyos (local feudal lords). He restored the power and influence of the hitherto vitiated shogun position, consolidated central authority, managed to exert control over strategically important daimyos and their fiefs, and became the de facto leader of Japan. His rule brought out about the Edo period, which scholars characterize as the unification of Japan. As a means to control opposition and preserve the rule of the Tokugawa clan, Iyeasu introduced a rigid social structure encompassing 4 classes based off neo-Confucian theory. The 4 classes, in order of descending prestige, were the samurai, peasants, artisans, and the merchants. The burakumin held occupations associated with religious impurity, and were subsequently relegated as outcastes and subject to ostracization in the mainstream Japanese society. Among the members of the outcastes were the eta (hereditary outcastes), landless peasants, and the hinin which comprised people guilty of certain crimes and their offspring. As japanese society stabilized, the demand for leather declined (as it was used largely for warrying purposes); and along with the Tokugawa caste policy, the eta were also relegated to the peripheries of villages or formed their own communities. The hinins were eventually forced to join in eta settlements (burakus). As the Edo period witnessed local prosperity, the Shogun governments augmented the differences between the 4 classes (even between the burakumin and the hinins), and often turned the 2 outcaste groups as scapegoats: various humiliating injunctions mandating certain dress codes or hairstyles for the burakumin were passed and by the 18th century, they were prohibited from entering temples, homes of common citizens and schools. At this point, the burakumin were generally economically subsistent on the government's purchase of the war equipment they produced, and they adopted occupations in the militia, as jailers, torturers, and executioners.
End of the feudal era
The feudal caste system in Japan ended formally in 1869 with the Meiji restoration. In 1871, the newly formed Meiji government issued the Senmin Haishirei (賤民廃止令, 'Edict Abolishing Ignoble Classes') decree, giving outcasts equal legal status. It is currently known better as the Kaihōrei (解放令, Emancipation Edict). However, burakumin were deprived of the exclusive rights of disposal of dead bodies of horses and cattle. The elimination of their monopolies of certain occupations actually resulted in a decrease of their general living standards, while social discrimination simply continued.
During the early Meiji era, many anti-Kaihōrei riots (Kaihōrei-hantai-ikki (解放令反対一揆)) happened around the country. For example, in a village in Okayama when "former eta" tried to buy alcohol, four men were killed, four men were injured and 25 houses were destroyed by commoners. In another village, as part of an anti-Government riot, 263 houses were destroyed and 18 former etas were killed.
The practice of eating meat existed even during the Edo period, but the official ban of the consumption of meat from livestock was ended in 1871 in order to "Westernise" the country. Many former eta began to work in abattoirs and as butchers, as they were thought to be experienced with the handling of dead bodies.
Slow-changing social attitudes, especially in the countryside, meant that abattoirs and their workers were often met with hostility from local residents. Continued ostracism, the decrease of living standards and the development of modern construction and city sprawl resulted in former eta communities becoming slum areas. Prejudice against the consumption of meat continued throughout the Meiji period. In 1872, a group of Yamabushi, who objected to the Emperor's consumption of meat, tried to enter the Tokyo Imperial Palace and four of them were killed. They claimed that gods would leave Japan because the Japanese had eaten meat.
There were many terms used to indicate former outcastes, their communities or settlements at the time. Official documents referred to them as kyu-eta (旧穢多, 'former eta'), while the newly-liberated outcasts called themselves shin-heimin (新平民, 'new citizens'), among other terms.
Nakae Chōmin was a late 19th century statesmen who worked for the liberation of burakumin. He transferred his resident registration to buraku and denounced the discrimination against them when he campaigned during the election of 1890 from Osaka and won.
The term tokushu buraku (特殊部落, 'special hamlets'), now considered inappropriate, started being used by officials during the 1900s, and resulted in the meaning of the word buraku ('hamlet') coming to imply former eta villages in certain parts of Japan.
Attempts to resolve the problem during the early 20th century were of two types: the 'assimilation' (同和, dōwa) philosophy which encouraged improvements in living standards of buraku communities and integration with the mainstream Japanese society, and the 'levelers' (水平社, suiheisha) philosophy which concentrated on confronting and criticising alleged perpetrators of discrimination.
Although liberated legally during 1871 with the abolition of the feudal caste system, this did not end social discrimination against burakumin nor improve their living standards; until recently,[when?] Japanese family registration was fixed to an ancestral home address, which allowed people to deduce their burakumin ancestry.
The number of burakumin asserted to be living in modern Japan varies from source to source. Japanese government statistics show the number of residents of assimilation districts who claim buraku ancestry, whereas the Buraku Liberation League (BLL) figures are estimates of the total number of descendants of all former and current buraku residents, including current residents without any buraku ancestry.
A 1993 report by the Japanese government counted 4,533 dōwa chiku (同和地区, assimilation districts) throughout the country. Most were located in western Japan, while none were located in Hokkaido and Tōhoku. About three quarters of the districts are in rural areas. The size of each community ranged from less than five households to more than 1,000 households.
It is estimated that around 1,000 buraku communities chose not to register as dōwa chiku, wanting to avoid the negative attention that could come from explicitly declaring themselves burakumin. BLL has extrapolated Meiji-era figures to arrive at an estimate of nearly three million burakumin. In some areas, burakumin are in a majority; per a 1997 report, they accounted for more than 70 percent of all residents of Yoshikawa (now Kōnan) in Kōchi Prefecture. In Ōtō, Fukuoka Prefecture, they accounted for more than 60 percent.
According to a survey performed by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government during 2003, 76% of Tokyo residents would not change their opinion of a close neighbor whom they discovered to be a burakumin; 4.9% of respondents, on the other hand, would actively avoid a burakumin neighbor. There is still a social stigma for being a resident of certain areas associated traditionally with the burakumin, and some lingering discrimination in matters such as marriage and employment.
Discrimination in access to services
In many parts of the country, buraku settlements built on the site of former eta villages ceased to exist by the 1960s because of either urban development or integration into mainstream society. However, in other regions, many of their residents continued to suffer from slum-like housing and infrastructure, lower economic status, illiteracy, and lower general educational standards.
In 1969, the government passed the Special Measures Law for Assimilation Projects (同和対策事業特別措置法, dōwa taisaku jigyō tokubetsu sochihō) to provide funding to these communities. Communities deemed to be in need of funding were designated for various Assimilation Projects (同和対策事業, dōwa taisaku jigyō), such as construction of new housing and community facilities such as health centers, libraries and swimming pools. The projects were terminated in 2002 with a total funding of an estimated 12 trillion yen over 33 years.
Cases of social discrimination against residents of buraku areas are still an issue in certain regions. Outside of the Kansai region, people in general are often not aware of the issues experienced by those of buraku ancestry, and if they are, this awareness may only be awareness of the history of feudal Japan. Due to the sensitive nature of the topic and the campaigns by the Buraku Liberation League to remove any references in the media that may propagate discrimination against them, the issue is rarely discussed in the media.
Prejudice against buraku most often manifests itself in the form of marriage discrimination and sometimes in employment. Traditionalist families have been known to check on the backgrounds of potential in-laws to identify people of buraku ancestry. These checks are now illegal, and marriage discrimination is diminishing; Nadamoto Masahisa of the Buraku History Institute estimates that between 60 and 80% of burakumin marry a non-burakumin, whereas for people born during the late 1930s and early 1940s, the rate was 10%. Over the past decades, the number of marriages between burakumin and non-burakumin have increased, and opinion polls have shown a decrease in the number of Japanese willing to state they would discriminate against burakumin.
Many companies were known to have used lists of buraku addresses that were developed first in 1975 to exclude the burakumin. The average income of a buraku family was significantly less than the national average (60% in 1992).
Cases of continuing social discrimination are known to occur mainly in western Japan, particularly in the Osaka, Kyoto, Hyogo, and Hiroshima regions, where many people, especially the older generation, stereotype buraku residents (whatever their ancestry) and associate them with squalor, unemployment and criminality.
No burakumin communities were identified in the following prefectures: Hokkaido, Aomori, Iwate, Miyagi, Akita, Yamagata, Fukushima, Tokyo, Toyama, Ishikawa, and Okinawa.
According to David E. Kaplan and Alec Dubro in Yakuza: The Explosive Account of Japan's Criminal Underworld (1986), burakumin account for about 70% of the members of Yamaguchi-gumi, the largest yakuza crime syndicate in Japan.[page needed]
Mitsuhiro Suganuma, an ex-member of the Public Security Intelligence Agency, testified in 2006 that burakumin account for about 60 percent of the members of the entire yakuza.
Tokushu Buraku Chimei Sōkan incident
In November 1975, the Osaka part of the Buraku Liberation League was alerted about the existence of a book named 'A Comprehensive List of Buraku Area Names' (特殊部落地名総鑑, Tokushu Buraku Chimei Sōkan). Investigations revealed that copies of the hand-written 330-page book were being sold secretly by an Osaka-based business to numerous businesses and individuals throughout Japan by a mail order service named Cablenet, at between ¥5,000 and ¥50,000 per copy.
The book contained a nationwide list of all the names and locations of buraku settlements, as well as the primary means of employment of their inhabitants, which could be compared against people's addresses to determine if they were buraku residents. The preface contained the following message: "At this time, we have decided to go against public opinion and create this book [for] personnel managers grappling with employment issues, and families pained by problems with their children's marriages".
More than 200 large Japanese companies, including, according to the Buraku Liberation and Human Rights Research Institute of Osaka, Toyota, Nissan, Honda and Daihatsu, along with thousands of individuals, purchased copies of the book. In 1985, partially in response to the popularity of this book, and an increase of mimoto chōsa (身元調査, 'private investigation into one's background') the Osaka prefectural government introduced "An Ordinance to Regulate Personal Background Investigation Conducive to Buraku Discrimination".
Although the production and sale of the book has been banned, numerous copies of it are still in existence, and in 1997, an Osaka private investigation company was the first to be charged with violation of the 1985 statute for using the text.
In 2001, future Prime Minister of Japan Tarō Asō, along with Hiromu Nonaka, was among the Liberal Democratic Party's (LDP) chief candidates to succeed Yoshirō Mori as premier of Japan. Nonaka, the former Chief Cabinet Secretary, is of burakumin descent. During a meeting of LDP officials at which Nonaka was not present, Asō reportedly told the assembled group, "We are not going to let someone from the buraku become the prime minister, are we?".
Nonaka subsequently withdrew as a candidate. Asō's comment about Nonaka's heritage was revealed in 2005. Asō denied that he had made the statement, but Hisaoki Kamei, who was present at the 2001 meeting, stated in January 2009 that he had heard Asō say something "to that effect".
In 2012, Tōru Hashimoto, a lawyer, former governor of Osaka Prefecture, mayor of Ōsaka City at the time and the founder of the political party Nippon Ishin no Kai, was the subject of an article published in the magazine Shukan Asahi, entitled "Hashishita, his true nature" (ハシシタ・奴の本性), which claimed his father to be burakumin and his relatives members of the yakuza. The article further elaborated that Hashimoto was eccentric and dangerous based on his "blood".
Hashimoto, in office, demanded an explanation from the publisher and excluded the newspaper The Asahi Shimbun, a wholly-owned subsidiary company of the magazine's publisher, from a press conference. Hashimoto later sued the publisher and the writer Shinichi Sano for defamation. The Buraku Liberation League, who did not endorse his policies, also remonstrated. The publisher had a third party examine the incident and apologized. The president of the publisher, Hideo Kotoku, resigned to take responsibility.
Burakumin rights movement
As early as 1922, officials of the hisabetsu buraku organized a campaign, the "Levelers Association of Japan" (Suiheisha), to advance their rights. The Declaration of the Suiheisha encouraged the burakumin to unite in resistance to discrimination, and sought to create a positive identity for the victims of discrimination, insisting that the time had come to be "proud of being eta". The declaration portrayed the burakumin ancestors as "manly martyrs of industry" and argued that to submit meekly to oppression would be to insult and profane these ancestors. Despite internal divisions among anarchist, Bolshevik, and social democratic factions, and despite the Japanese government's establishment of an alternate organization, the Yūma, designed to reduce the influence of the Suiheisha, the Levelers Association remained active until the late 1930s.
After World War II, the National Committee for Burakumin Liberation was initiated, changing its name to the Buraku Liberation League (Buraku Kaihō Dōmei) during the 1950s. The league, with the endorsement of the socialist and communist parties, influenced the government into making important concessions during the late 1960s and 1970s.
During the 1960s, the Sayama Incident publicised the problems of the group. The incident involved the murder conviction of a member of the discriminated communities based on circumstantial evidence, which is generally given little weight against physical evidence in Japanese courts.
One concession was the passing of the Special Measures Law for Assimilation Projects, which provided financial aid for the discriminated communities. In 1976, legislation was also approved banning third parties from investigating another person's family registry. This traditional system of registry, kept for all Japanese by the Ministry of Justice since the 19th century, would reveal an individual's buraku ancestry if consulted. By the new legislation, these records could now be consulted only for legal cases, making it more difficult to identify or discriminate against members of the group.
During the 1980s, some educators and local governments, particularly in areas with relatively large hisabetsu buraku populations, began special education programs which they hoped would encourage greater educational and economic success for young members of the group and decrease the discrimination they faced. Burakumin rights groups exist presently in all parts of Japan except for Hokkaidō and Okinawa.
"Human Rights Promotion Centers" (人権啓発センター) have been established across the country by prefectural governments and local authorities; these, in addition to promoting burakumin rights, campaign on behalf of a wide range of other groups such as women, the disabled, ethnic minorities, foreign residents and released prisoners. Even into the early 1990s, however, discussion of the 'liberation' of these discriminated communities, or even their existence, was rare in public discussion.
Buraku Liberation League and the Zenkairen
The Buraku Liberation League is considered one of the most militant among burakumin's rights groups. The BLL is known for its fierce "denunciation and explanation sessions", where alleged perpetrators of discriminatory actions or speech are summoned for a public hearing before a panel of activists.
Early sessions were marked by occasions of violence and kidnapping, and several BLL activists have been arrested for such acts. The legality of these sessions is still disputed, but to this date the authorities have mostly ignored them except in the more extreme cases.
In 1990, Karel van Wolferen's criticism of the BLL in his much-acclaimed book The Enigma of Japanese Power prompted the BLL to demand the publisher halt publication of the Japanese translation of the book. Van Wolferen condemned this as an international scandal.
The other major buraku activist group is the National Buraku Liberation Alliance (全国部落解放運動連合会, Zenkoku Buraku Kaihō Undō Rengōkai), or Zenkairen, affiliated to the Japanese Communist Party (JCP). It was formed in 1979 by BLL activists who were either purged from the organization or abandoned it during the late 1960s, due to, among other things, their opposition to the decision that subsidies to the burakumin should be limited to the BLL members only. Not all burakumin were BLL members, and not all residents of the areas targeted for subsidies were historically descended from the outcastes.
The Zenkairen often disputed the BLL, accusing them of chauvinism. The conflict between the two organizations increased during 1974 when a clash between teachers belonging to a JCP-affiliated union and BLL activists at a high school in Yoka, rural Hyōgo Prefecture, put 29 in hospital.
In 1988, the BLL formed the International Movement Against All Forms of Discrimination and Racism (IMADR). The BLL sought for the IMADR to be recognized as a United Nations Non-Government Organization, but in 1991, the Zenkairen informed the United Nations about the alleged human rights violations committed by the BLL in the course of their "denunciation sessions" held with accused "discriminators".[better source needed]
According to a BLL-funded think tank, when cases of discrimination were alleged, the Zenkairen often conducted denunciation sessions as fierce as those of the BLL. Nonetheless, the IMADR was designated a UN human rights NGO in March 1993.
On March 3, 2004, the Zenkairen announced that "the buraku issue has basically been resolved" and formally disbanded. On March 4, 2004, they began a new organization known as the "National Confederation of Human Rights Movements in The Community" (全国地域人権運動総連合, Zenkoku Chiiki Jinken Undō Sōrengō') or Zenkoku Jinken Ren.
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Jōdo Shinshū Buddhism originally patronized the lower castes[opinion]. In 1922, when the National Levelers' Association (Zenkoku-suiheisha) was initiated in Kyoto, Mankichi Saiko, a founder of the society and Jodo Shinshu priest, said, critiquing aggressive postures on the denouncement of acts of discrimination:
We shouldn't disgrace our ancestors and violate humanity by our harsh words and terrible actions. We, who know how cold the human world is, and how to take care of humanity, can seek and rejoice from the bottom of our hearts in the warmth and light of human life.
After many petitions from the BLL, in 1969 the Honganji changed its opinion on the burakumin issue. Zenkairen, which disassociated from the BLL in 1968, regrets this decision.
Religious discrimination against the burakumin was not recognized until the BLL's criticism sessions became widespread. For example, in 1979 the Director-General of the Sōtō Sect of Buddhism made a speech at the "3rd World Conference on Religion and Peace" claiming that there was no discrimination against burakumin in Japan.
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- Tadashi Yanai, founder and president of Uniqlo
- Tōru Hashimoto, politician of the Nippon Ishin no Kai, lawyer, the 52nd governor of Osaka Prefecture, and former Mayor of Osaka city
- Jiichirō Matsumoto, politician and businessman who was called the "buraku liberation father"
- Ryu Matsumoto, politician of the Minshutō Party of Japan, a member of the House of Representatives in the Diet (national legislature)
- Toru Matsuoka, politician of the Minshutō Party of Japan, a member of the House of Councillors in the Diet (national legislature)
- Rentarō Mikuni, actor
- Manabu Miyazaki, writer, social critic and public figure known for his underworld ties
- Kenji Nakagami, writer, critic, and poet
- Hiromu Nonaka, chief cabinet secretary (1998–1999)
Discrimination in Japan
- Baekjeong, the former outcast community of Korean society
- Dalit, a collective term for the outcast endogamous communities of India and Nepal
- Cagot or Agotes, the former outcast community of France and Spain
- Tanka (danhu) ('boat people') in Guangdong, Fuzhou Tanka in Fujian, si-min ('small people') and mianhu in Jiangsu, Gaibu and Duomin (To min; 惰民; duò mín; idle/lazy/fallen/indolent people) in Zhejiang, jiuxing yumin (九姓魚民; jiǔxìng yúmín; nine name fishermen in the Yangtze River region, yoh-hu ('music people') in Shanxi
- Bụi đời, the outcast community of Vietnam after the Fall of Saigon
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- ^ Yamagishi, Atsushi; Sato, Yasuhiro (September 10, 2022). "Measuring Discrimination in Spatial Equilibrium: 100 Years of Japan's Invisible Race". CIRJE F-Series. Retrieved January 12, 2023.
- ^ Meerman 2009, p. 97.
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- ^ a b Orbaugh, Sharalyn (2007). Japanese Fiction of the Allied Occupation: Vision, Embodiment, Identity. BRILL. p. 393. ISBN 978-90-04-15546-6.
- ^ a b c Harada, Nobuo (1993). Rekishi no naka no Amerika to niku shokumotsu to ten'nō sabetsu 歴史のなかの米と肉 食物と天皇・差別 [Rice and Meat in History Food and the Emperor Discrimination] (in Japanese). Tokyo: 平凡社. ISBN 4-582-84147-3.
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- ^ OBA, Yoshirō (December 25, 2012). "On Business History of Hokkaido Coal Mining and Shipping Corporation(2)". 北海学園大学学園論集. 154. ISSN 0385-7271. Retrieved October 6, 2020.
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- ^ Meerman, Jacob (June 2, 2009). Socio-economic Mobility and Low-status Minorities: Slow Roads to Progress. Routledge. p. 98. ISBN 978-1-135-97281-3.
- ^ Buraku Mondai in Japan: Historical and Modern Perspectives and Directions for the Future - Emily A. Su-lan Reber
- ^ "Meijishonen ni okeru heigyūba shori-sei to to Chiku-Gyō - Hyōgo no jirei kara" 明治初年における斃牛馬処理制とと畜業 -兵庫の事例から [The Slaughtering System and the Slaughtering Industry in the First Year of the Meiji Era: A Case of Hyogo]. Buraku Liberation and Human Rights Research Institute (in Japanese). November 20, 2004. Retrieved October 6, 2020.
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Main text originally from Library of Congress, Country Studies. 'Religious Discrimination' and 'Jodo shinshu Honganji' sections adapted from Shindharmanet and BLHRRI.Org.
- Alldritt, Leslie D. The Burakumin: The Complicity of Japanese Buddhism in Oppression and an Opportunity for Liberation
- Amos, Timothy P. "Portrait of a Tokugawa Outcaste Community", East Asian History (2006) Issue 32/33, pp 83–108
- Amos, Timothy P. Embodying Difference: The Making of Burakumin in Modern Japan (2011)
- Amos, Timothy. "Fighting the Taboo Cycle: Google Map Protests and Buraku Human Rights Activism in Historical Perspective." Japanese Studies 35.3 (2015): 331–353.
- Amos, Timothy. "Binding Burakumin: Marxist historiography and the narration of difference in Japan." Japanese Studies 27.2 (2007): 155–171.
- Fowler, Edward. "The Buraku in Modern Japanese Literature: Texts and Contexts", Journal of Japanese Studies (2000) 26#1 pp 1–39
- Groemer, Gerald. "The Creation of the Edo Outcaste Order." Journal of Japanese Studies 2001 27#2 pp 263–293 in JSTOR
- Kasahara, Toshinori. Shin Buddhism and the Buraku-min (1996 Honolulu Higashi Honganji)
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- Neary. Ian. "Burakumin at the End of History", Social Research (2003) 70#1 pp 269–294, online.
- Shimazaki, Toson. The Broken Commandment
- Suzuki, D.T., Oiwa, K. The Japan We Never Knew: A Journey of Discovery (Stoddart Publishing, Toronto: 1996)
- The Buraku Liberation and Human Rights Research Institute, ed. (1986). 部落問題事典 [Burakumin Problems Dictionary]. 解放出版社(Kaihou).
- The Headquarters of Buraku Liberation League
- The Buraku Liberation and Human Rights Research Institute
- The Burakumin: The Complicity of Japanese Buddhism in Oppression and an Opportunity for Liberation
- Cooperativeness and Buraku Discrimination, discussion paper by Takuya Ito in the electronic journal of contemporary Japanese studies, October 31, 2005.
- Solving Anti-Burakujūmin Prejudice in the 21st Century: Suggestions from 21 Buraku Residents, discussion paper by Alastair McLauchlan in the electronic journal of contemporary Japanese studies, January 31, 2003.
- Buraku: in Community, Democracy, and Performance by Bruce Caron
- ひょうご部落解放・人権研究所(Burakumin research institute)
- 全国部落解放運動連合会(National Buraku Liberation Alliance)→全国地域人権運動総連合 (National Confederation of Human Rights Movements in the Community) → Zenkoku Jinken Ren Blog
- 部落問題研究所 (Burakumin research institute)
- 京都部落問題研究資料センター (Burakumin in Kyoto research data)
- 自由同和会(Burakumin rights group)
- 全日本同和会 (Burakumin rights group)
- 部落解放同盟全国連合会 (Burakumin rights group)
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