Environmental issues in Canada

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There are many different types of Environmental issues in Canada which include air and water pollution, climate change, mining and logging. These factors are not just found in Canada but are found across the world. Environmental issues based in Canada is further discussed in detail below.

Air pollution[edit]

As with all countries air pollution is a problem in metropolitan areas. The air pollutants are from cars and wood burning.[citation needed] The common measured air pollutants are carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide.[1]

Climate change[edit]

Canada has experienced a much higher rate of warming at a more faster rate than other regions in the world, which is in fact prominent in its far north and western areas.[2] The warming is most felt/effective during the seasons of winter and spring which give rise to several major issues and impacts across the country. This warming, in turn, leads to permafrost and causes ice to melt, making sea levels rise and bring along severe extreme weather conditions which welcome changes in precipitation and uncommon heat extremes.[3]

Melting of the Arctic and effects on the marine ecosystems[edit]

Scientists across the world have already started to notice massive reductions in Canada's Arctic sea ice cover, particularly during the summertime. The effects of the shrinking of this ice results in the disruption of the ocean circulation, changes in climate and weather around the world.[4]

Relating to the 2019's Canadas Changing Climate Report which was written by several scientists from different institutions around the globe, it states that the impacts of climate change on Atlantic Canada will be very diverse/unique. One of the impacts is that the sea ice will become thinner and will also form for much shorter periods throughout the year. And without the amount of sea ice that the region usually gets, wave seasons will result in becoming more intense. Another fact that is stated in the report is that Altalntic Canada will see a relative rise in sea levels out of the whole country - a rise which is estimated to be 75 to 100 cm by the year 2100. Scientists also predict that even if emissions decrease or increase, the 20-cm rise is expected to take place during the course of the next 20 to 30 years.[5] They also note that as the ocean warms and subtropical waters move north, the ocean will become saltier and warmer. Furthermore, since warmer water holds less oxygen than cooler water, the marine ecosystems in the area can suffer and become less sustainable because of this loss.[6] In the journal, Science, which was published in March 2019, it explains that warmer waters could actually increase fish stocks in certain regions, like the halibut found off the coast of Newfoundland and Greenland but other species such as the Atlantic Cod and albacore tuna might not cope with the conditions so well.[7]


The Rainforest Action Network and indigenous groups have campaigned to protect the Boreal forest of Canada from logging and mining. In July 2008 the Ontario government announced plans to protect some of the area from all industrial activity.[8][9]


Logging of old growth forest is continuing in Canada. The Ancient Forest Alliance is an environmental group in British Columbia, Canada, that is dedicated to stopping logging in endangered old growth forests, and ensuring the sustainable logging of second growth forests.[citation needed]

The forests of Clayoquot Sound are still being logged. There are ongoing protests over the logging and in 1993 it was the site of the largest act of peaceful civil disobedience in Canada.[citation needed]

Chemical pollution[edit]

The Aamjiwnaang First Nation community has expressed concern regarding its proximity to chemical plants in the area, as birth rates of their people have been documented by the American journal Environmental Health Perspectives as deviating from the normal ratio of close to 50% boys, 50% girls.[10] The ratio as found between 1999 and 2003 by the journal was roughly 33% boys, and 67% girls.[11] The First Nation is concerned that this abnormal trend is due to adverse effects of maternal and fetal exposure to the effluent and emissions of the nearby chemical plants. This is the first community in the world to have a birth rate of two girls to every boy.[12]

Specific issues[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Canada, Environment and Climate Change. "Common air contaminants - Canada.ca". www.canada.ca. Retrieved 2018-11-11.
  2. ^ https://www.changingclimate.ca/CCCR2019
  3. ^ https://www.climaterealityproject.org/blog/how-climate-change-affecting-canada
  4. ^ http://www.climaterealityproject.org
  5. ^ https://globalnews-ca.cdn.ampproject.org/v/s/globalnews.ca/news/5918981/climate-change-impact-across-canada/amp/?amp_js_v=a2&amp_gsa=1&usqp=mq331AQCKAE%3D#aoh=15766842433418&csi=1&referrer=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.google.com&amp_tf=From%20%251%24s&ampshare=https%3A%2F%2Fglobalnews.ca%2Fnews%2F5918981%2Fclimate-change-impact-across-canada%2F
  6. ^ https://globalnews.ca/news/4657721/canada-fish-stock-decline-ottawa-report/?utm_expid=.kz0UD5JkQOCo6yMqxGqECg.0&utm_referrer=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.google.com%2F
  7. ^ https://www.globalnews-ca.cdn.ampproject.org
  8. ^ Zabarenko, Deborah (2008-11-09). "Politicians persuaded to save Canada boreal forest". Reuters. Archived from the original on 2018-11-11. Retrieved 2018-11-11.
  9. ^ "Huge News for Ontario's Boreal Forest and its peoples. - The Understory - Rainforest Action Network". Rainforest Action Network. Archived from the original on 2018-11-11. Retrieved 2018-11-11.
  10. ^ C. A. Mackenzie; A. Lockridge; M. Keith (2005). "Declining Sex Ratio in a First Nation Community". Environmental Health Perspectives. 113 (10): 1295–1298. doi:10.1289/ehp.8479. PMC 1281269. PMID 16203237.
  11. ^ "Aamjiwnaang First Nations concerned about chemical exposure". CBC News. 2005-09-02. Retrieved 2008-10-21.
  12. ^ Mittelstaedt, Martin (2004-07-31). "Where the boys aren't". The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on 2018-11-11. Retrieved 2018-11-11.

External links[edit]