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Head and neck of a dragon. She has spikes on her scaly curved neck and antler-like projections over her eyes.Also a light blue color.
Knopf edition cover by John Jude Palencar, featuring the blue dragon Saphira
AuthorChristopher Paolini
IllustratorJohn Jude Palencar
Cover artistJohn Jude Palencar
CountryUnited States
SeriesThe Inheritance Cycle
GenreYoung adult
PublisherPaolini LLC (first edition), Alfred A. Knopf
Publication date
2002 (first edition), August 26, 2003 (Knopf)
Media typePrint (hardback & paperback) and audio-CD
Pages509 (Knopf)
544 (Paolini LLC)
ISBN0-375-82668-8 (First Knopf edition) ISBN 0-9666213-3-6 (Paolini LLC)
[Fic] 21
LC ClassPZ7.P19535 Er 2003
Followed byEldest 
Copies sold: 24.55 million[citation needed]

Eragon is the first book in The Inheritance Cycle by American fantasy writer Christopher Paolini. Paolini, born in 1983, wrote the novel while still in his teens. After writing the first draft for a year, Paolini spent a second year rewriting and fleshing out the story and characters. His parents saw the final manuscript and in 2001 decided to self-publish Eragon;[1] Paolini spent a year traveling around the United States promoting the novel. The book was discovered by novelist Carl Hiaasen, who got it re-published by Alfred A. Knopf. The re-published version was released on August 26, 2003.

The book tells the story of a farm boy named Eragon, who finds a mysterious stone in the mountains. Not knowing the stone's origin or worth, he attempts to use it as payment to a butcher. A dragon he later names Saphira hatches from the stone, which was really an egg. When the evil King Galbatorix finds out the general location of the egg he sends the Ra'zac to acquire it. By that time Saphira had been growing for a while and takes Eragon to the Spine after Ra'zac appear in their village, Carvahall. Eragon and Saphira are forced to flee from their hometown with a storyteller named Brom, who Eragon learns to be an old member of an extinct group called the Riders. Brom was supposed to teach Eragon 'The Ways of the Rider.'

Eragon was the third-best-selling children's hardback book of 2003, and the second-best-selling paperback of 2005. It placed on the New York Times Children's Books Best Seller list for 121 weeks and was adapted as a feature film of the same name that was released on December 15, 2006.


Origins and publication[edit]

Christopher Paolini started reading fantasy books when he was 10 years old. At the age of 14, as a hobby, he started writing the first novel in a series of four books, but he could not get beyond a few pages because he had "no idea" where he was going. He began reading everything he could about the "art of writing", and then plotted the whole Inheritance Cycle book series. After a month of planning out the series, he started writing the draft of Eragon by hand. It was finished a year later, and Paolini began writing the "real" version of the book.[2] After another year of editing, Paolini's parents saw the final manuscript. They immediately saw its potential and decided to publish the book through their small, home-based publishing company, Paolini International.[3] Paolini created the cover art for this edition of Eragon, which featured Saphira's eye on the cover. He also drew the maps inside the book.[4]

Paolini and his family toured across the United States promoting the book. He gave over 135 talks at bookshops, libraries, and schools, many with Paolini dressed up in a medieval costume; but the book did not receive much attention. Paolini said he "would stand behind a table in my costume talking all day without a break – and would sell maybe forty books in eight hours if I did really well. [...] It was a very stressful experience. I couldn't have gone on for very much longer."[2] In the summer of 2002, American novelist Carl Hiaasen was on vacation in one of the cities that Paolini gave a talk in. While there, Hiaasen's stepson bought a copy of Eragon that he "immediately loved".[2] He showed it to Hiaasen, who brought the book to the attention of the publishing house Alfred A. Knopf. Michelle Frey, executive editor at Knopf, contacted Paolini and his family to ask if they were interested in having Knopf publish Eragon. The answer was yes, and after another round of editing, Knopf published Eragon in August 2003, with a new cover, drawn by John Jude Palencar.[5]

Inspiration and influences[edit]

An old warrior fights against a dragon spitting fire.
An illustration of Beowulf fighting the dragon (1908). Paolini received much inspiration from old epic poems.

Paolini cites old myths, folk tales, medieval stories, the epic poem Beowulf, and authors J. R. R. Tolkien and Eric Rücker Eddison as his biggest influences in writing. Other literary influences include David Eddings, Andre Norton, Brian Jacques, Anne McCaffrey, Raymond E. Feist, Mervyn Peake, Ursula K. Le Guin, Frank Herbert,[6] Philip Pullman, and Garth Nix.

The ancient language used by the elves in Eragon is based "almost entirely" on Old Norse, German, Anglo Saxon, and Russian myth.[7] Paolini commented: "[I] did a god-awful amount of research into the subject when I was composing it. I found that it gave the world a much richer feel, a much older feel, using these words that had been around for centuries and centuries. I had a lot of fun with that."[8] Picking the right names for the characters and places was a process that could take "days, weeks, or even years". Paolini said: "if I have difficulty choosing the correct moniker, I use a placeholder name until a replacement suggests itself."[3] He added that he was "really lucky" with the name Eragon, "because it's just dragon with one letter changed." Also, Paolini commented that he thought of both parts of the name "Eragon" - "era" and "gone" - as if the name itself changes the era in which the character lives. He thought the name fit the book perfectly, but some of the other names caused him "real headaches".[8]

A river flows through a flat valley with mountains in the background.
Paolini received inspiration from Paradise Valley, Montana (Emigrant Peak pictured, as viewed from west bank of Yellowstone River)

The landscape in Eragon is based on the "wild territory" of Paolini's home state, Montana.[2] He said in an interview: "I go hiking a lot, and oftentimes when I'm in the forest or in the mountains, sitting down and seeing some of those little details makes the difference between having an okay description and having a unique description."[8] Paolini also said that Paradise Valley, Montana is "one of the main sources" of his inspiration for the landscape in the book (Eragon takes place in the fictional continent Alagaësia). Paolini "roughed out" the main history of the land before he wrote the book, but he did not draw a map of it until it became important to see where Eragon was traveling. He then started to get history and plot ideas from seeing the landscape depicted.[8]

Paolini chose to have Eragon mature throughout the book because, "for one thing, it's one of the archetypal fantasy elements". He thought Eragon's growth and maturation throughout the book "sort of mirrored my own growing abilities as a writer and as a person, too. So it was a very personal choice for that book."[8] Eragon's dragon, Saphira, was imagined as "the perfect friend" by Paolini.[2] He decided to go in a more "human direction" with her because she is raised away from her own species, in "close mental contact" with a human. "I considered making the dragon more dragon-like, if you will, in its own society, but I haven't had a chance to explore that. I went with a more human element with Saphira while still trying to get a bit of the magic, the alien, of her race."[8] Paolini made Saphira the "best friend anyone could have: loyal, funny, brave, intelligent, and noble. She transcended that, however, and became her own person, fiercely independent and proud."[3] Saphira's blue tinted vision was in turn inspired by Paolini's own color-blindness.[9]

Paolini deliberately included archetypal elements of a fantasy novel like a quest, a journey of experience, revenge, romance, betrayal, and a "unique" sword.[2] The book is described as a fantasy, and Booklist observed: "Paolini knows the genre well—his lush tale is full of recognizable fantasy elements and conventions".[10] Kirkus Reviews called the book a "high fantasy";[10] other reviewers have compared it to other books of the fantasy genre, such as Star Wars and Lord of the Rings, and in some instances stated Eragon's plot is too similar to those other fantasy novels.[11]

Plot summary[edit]

A shade named Durza, along with a group of urgals, ambushes a party of three elves. After he and the urgals kill the other elves, Durza attempts to steal an egg carried by one of the female elves, but is foiled when she causes it to vanish. Infuriated, he renders her unconscious with a ball of fire and abducts her.

Eragon is a fifteen-year-old boy who has lived with his uncle Garrow and cousin Roran on a farm near the village of Carvahall, ever since his mother Selena, Garrow's sister, left him there right after his birth. While hunting in the Spine, Eragon is surprised to see a blue stone (which is actually a dragon egg) appear in front of him. A few months later, Eragon witnesses a baby dragon hatch from the egg. Eragon names the dragon Saphira, after a name the old village storyteller Brom mentions. He raises the dragon in secret until two of King Galbatorix's servants, the Ra'zac, come to Carvahall. Eragon and Saphira manage to escape by hiding in the Spine, but Garrow is fatally wounded and the house and farm are burned down by the Ra'zac. Once Garrow dies, Eragon is left with no reason to stay in Carvahall, so he goes after the Ra'zac with his newly hatched dragon, seeking vengeance for the destruction of his home and his uncle's untimely death. He is accompanied by Brom, who provides Eragon with the sword Zar'roc and insists on helping him and Saphira.

Eragon becomes a Dragon Rider, an ancient warrior charged with promoting peace in Alagaësia, through his bond with Saphira. He is the only known Rider in Alagaësia other than King Galbatorix, who, with the help of the now-dead Forsworn, a group of thirteen dragon riders loyal to Galbatorix, killed every other Rider a hundred years ago. On the journey, Brom teaches Eragon sword fighting, magic, the ancient elvish language, and the ways of the Dragon Riders. Their travels bring them to the city of Teirm, where they meet with Brom's friend Jeod. Eragon's fortune is told by the witch Angela, and her companion, the werecat Solembum, gives Eragon some mysterious advice. With Jeod's help, they are able to track the Ra'zac to the southern city of Dras-Leona. Although they manage to infiltrate the city, Eragon encounters the Ra'zac in a cathedral and he and Brom are forced to flee. Later that night, their camp is ambushed by the Ra'zac. A stranger named Murtagh rescues them, but Brom is mortally wounded. Saphira watches over Brom as the night progresses, yet when morning comes they realize there is nothing they can do to save him. Brom gives Eragon his blessing, reveals that he was also once a Dragon Rider and that his dragon's name was Saphira, and dies. Saphira then uses magic encases Brom in a tomb made of diamond.

Murtagh becomes Eragon's new companion and they travel to the city Gil'ead to find information on how to find the Varden, a group of rebels who want to see the downfall of Galbatorix. While stopping near Gil'ead, Eragon is captured and imprisoned in the same jail that holds a woman he has been having dreams about. As she is being dragged past she is revealed as an elf when her pointed ears are uncovered. Murtagh and Saphira stage a rescue, and Eragon escapes with the unconscious elf. During the escape, Eragon and Murtagh battle with Durza. Murtagh shoots Durza between the eyes with an arrow, and the Shade disappears in a cloud of mist. Having escaped, they run off. Eragon succeeds in communicating with the elf, whose name is revealed as Arya, and learns the location of the Varden. After some arguing, Murtagh decides to still travel with Eragon to the Varden but is still wary of them.

An army of Kull (Urgals who can grow up to 8 feet) reach Eragon right outside the Varden's entrance, but are driven off with the help of the Varden, who escort Eragon, Saphira, Murtagh, and Arya to Farthen Dûr, the mountain hideout of the Varden. When they arrive in Farthen Dûr, Eragon is led to the leader of the Varden, Ajihad. Ajihad imprisons Murtagh after he refuses to allow his mind to be read to determine if he is a friend or a foe to the Varden. Eragon is told by Ajihad that Durza was not destroyed by Murtagh's arrow, because the only way to kill a Shade is with a stab through the heart. Orik, nephew of the dwarf King Hrothgar, is appointed as Eragon and Saphira's guide. Orik shows them a place to stay and introduces them to Hrothgar. Eragon also meets Ajihad's daughter, Nasuada, and Ajihad's right-hand man, Jörmundur. He also runs into Angela and Solembum, who have arrived in Tronjheim, and visits Murtagh in his prison. He is tested by two magicians, The Twins, as well as Arya.

Eragon and the Varden are then attacked by the Kull, as well as the rest of the Urgal army. Eragon personally battles Durza again, and succeeds in stabbing him in the heart with Zar'roc, but Durza slashes a deep gash like Murtagh's on his back. During the fight, a priceless jewel shattered and the Dwarves got upset. He then passes out, and is visited telepathically by a stranger while he is unconscious, who tells Eragon to visit him in the Elven capital, Ellesméra.


Eragon received generally mixed reviews and was criticized for its derivative nature. Liz Rosenberg of The New York Times Book Review criticized Eragon for having "clichéd descriptions", "B-movie dialogue", "awkward and gangly prose." However, she concluded the review by noting that "for all its flaws, it is an authentic work of great talent".[12] School Library Journal wrote that in Eragon "sometimes the magic solutions are just too convenient for getting out of difficult situations".[13] Common Sense Media called Eragon's dialogue "long-winded" and "clichéd", with a plot "straight out of Star Wars by way of The Lord of the Rings, with bits of other great fantasies thrown in here and there." The website did concede that the book is a notable achievement for such a young author, and that it would be "appreciated" by younger fans.[11]

Favorable reviews of Eragon often focused on the book's characters and plot. IGN's Matt Casamassina called the book "entertaining", and added that "Paolini demonstrates that he understands how to hold the reader's eyes and this is what ultimately separates Eragon from countless other me-too fantasy novels."[14] Chris Lawrence of thought the book had all the "traditional ingredients" that make a fantasy novel "enjoyable". The book was a "fun read" for him because it is "quick and exciting" and "packed" with action and magic. Lawrence concluded his review by giving the book a rating of 3.8/5, commenting that "the characters are interesting, the plot is engrossing, and you know the good guy will win in the end."[15]

Eragon was the third best-selling children's hardback book of 2003,[16] and the second best-selling children's paperback of 2005.[17] It placed on the New York Times Children's Books Best Seller list for 121 weeks.[18] In 2006, the novel was awarded with a Nene Award by the children of Hawaii.[19] It won the Rebecca Caudill Young Reader's Book Award[20] and the Young Reader's Choice Award the same year.[21]



View of a mountainside with steep cliffs and domed structures built on the ledges.
Aerial photography of the Ság Mountain, which served as the backdrop for Farthen Dûr in the film adaptation of the book.

A film adaptation of Eragon was released in the United States on December 15, 2006. Plans to create the film were first announced in February 2004, when 20th Century Fox purchased the rights to Eragon. The film was directed by first-timer Stefen Fangmeier, and written by Peter Buchman.[22] Edward Speleers was selected for the role of Eragon.[23] Over the following months, Jeremy Irons, John Malkovich, Chris Egan and Djimon Hounsou were all confirmed as joining the cast.[24] Principal photography for the film took place in Hungary and Slovakia.[25]

The film received mostly negative reviews, garnering a 16% approval rating at Rotten Tomatoes;[26] the tenth worst of 2006.[27] The Seattle Times described it as "technically accomplished, but fairly lifeless and at times a bit silly".[28] The Hollywood Reporter said the world of Eragon was "without much texture or depth".[29] The story was labelled "derivative" by The Washington Post,[30] and "generic" by the Las Vegas Weekly.[31] Newsday stressed this point further, asserting that only "nine-year-olds with no knowledge whatsoever of any of the six Star Wars movies" would find the film original.[32] The acting was called "lame" by the Washington Post,[30] as well as "stilted" and "lifeless" by the Orlando Weekly.[33] The dialogue was also criticized: MSNBC labelled it "silly";[34] the Las Vegas Weekly called it "wooden".[31] Positive reviews described the film as "fun"[35] and "the stuff boys' fantasies are made of".[36] The CGI work was called "imaginative" and Saphira was called a "magnificent creation".[37] Paolini stated he enjoyed the film, particularly praising the performances of Jeremy Irons and Ed Speleers.[38]

Eragon grossed approximately $75 million in the United States and $173.9 million elsewhere, totaling $249 million worldwide.[39] It is the fifth highest-grossing film with a dragon at its focal point,[40] and the sixth highest-grossing film of the sword and sorcery subgenre.[41] Eragon was in release for seventeen weeks in the United States, opening on December 15, 2006 and closing on April 9, 2007.[42] It opened in 3,020 theaters, earning $8.7 million on opening day and $23.2 million across opening weekend, ranking second behind The Pursuit of Happyness.[43] Eragon's $75 million total United States gross was the thirty-first highest for 2006.[44] The film earned $150 million in its opening weekend across 76 overseas markets, making it the #1 film worldwide.[45] The film's $249 million total worldwide gross was the sixteenth highest for 2006.[46]

Video game[edit]

A video game adaptation of Eragon based primarily on the film, released in North America on November 14, 2006. The game is a third-person video game released for PlayStation 2, Xbox, Xbox 360 and Microsoft Windows, developed by Stormfront Studios. Also released are unique versions of Eragon for the Game Boy Advance, Nintendo DS, PlayStation Portable, and mobile phone handheld gaming systems, primarily developed by Amaze Entertainment. The console and PC versions of the game are very similar, focusing on the same style of gameplay. However, the Xbox 360 edition features two exclusive levels. One is on foot as Eragon, and Saphira is controlled in the second mission.

The game has received generally negative reviews usually receiving press averages around the 4-6 out of 10 region (or the equivalent), (45-55 out of 100) according to review aggregator sites Metacritic and GameRankings. The combined sales in North America were over 400,000 copies.

The majority of the game is taken up by third-person combat, usually on foot. Some missions permit the player to use the dragon Saphira in combat. The gameplay mechanics within these levels are largely similar to those in ground-based levels, with the exception of some different attack moves (such as tail attacks). Protagonist Eragon sits on Saphira's back during these sections, and can be made to fire magic arrows. The player has no choice as to whether or not they use Saphira. Similarly, the player cannot use Saphira in ground-based levels: they can call for her and she will swoop past, but it is not possible to use this feature to ride Saphira. There is a multiplayer co-op mode which allows two people to play through the main storyline. It is possible to switch from playing a one-player game to a two-player game at any time. There are no Internet multiplayer options.


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External links[edit]

  • Eragon at the official website