Erdős–Bacon number

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A person's Erdős–Bacon number is the sum of one's Erdős number—which measures the "collaborative distance" in authoring academic papers between that person and Hungarian mathematician Paul Erdős—and one's Bacon number—which represents the number of links, through roles in films, by which the individual is separated from American actor Kevin Bacon.[1][2] The lower the number, the closer a person is to Erdős and Bacon, which reflects a small world phenomenon in academia and entertainment.[3]

To have a defined Erdős–Bacon number, it is necessary to have both appeared in a film and co-authored an academic paper, although this in and of itself is not sufficient.


Mathematicians Daniel Kleitman and Bruce Reznick have the Erdős–Bacon number of 3, which is the lowest among scientists. Both co-authored papers with Erdős; Kleitman has a Bacon number of 2 via Minnie Driver in Good Will Hunting, while Reznick was an extra in Pretty Maids All in a Row with Roddy McDowall.[4]

Mathematician Doron Zeilberger has an Erdős–Bacon number of 5.[5][better source needed] Computer scientist Tom Porter also has an Erdős–Bacon number of 5; 3 for Erdős in two ways[6][7][better source needed] and 2 for Bacon.[8][9][better source needed]

Astronomer Carl Sagan has an Erdős number of 4 (via Steven J. Ostro) and a Bacon number of 2 (Sagan and Bacon having appeared with Johnny Carson on episodes of The Tonight Show), for a total of 6.[10]

Physicist Richard Feynman has an Erdős number of 3, and a Bacon number of 3, having appeared in the film Anti-Clock alongside Tony Tang.[11]

Geneticist Jonathan Pritchard appeared in the 1998 movie Without Limits[12][better source needed] which gives him a Bacon number of 2.[13][better source needed] Pritchard has an Erdős number of 4[14][15][16][17][better source needed] thus giving him an Erdős–Bacon number of 6.

Geneticist Joseph Terwilliger has an Erdős–Bacon number of 6. His Bacon number of 3 comes from his appearance with Dennis Rodman in Dennis Rodman's Big Bang in Pyongyang,[18] who appeared in Double Team (film) with Mickey Rourke who appeared in Diner (film) with Kevin Bacon. His Erdős number of 3 comes from publishing with Eric Lander[19][20][better source needed] who published with Daniel Kleitman who published with Erdös.

Theoretical physicist Stephen Hawking has an Erdős–Bacon number of 6: his Bacon number of 2 (via his appearance alongside John Cleese in Monty Python Live (Mostly) who acted alongside Kevin Bacon in The Big Picture) is lower than his Erdős number of 4.[21]


Canadian actor Albert M. Chan has an Erdős–Bacon number of 4. He co-authored a peer-reviewed paper on Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing, giving him an Erdős number of 3,[22][23][24] and was cast alongside Kevin Bacon in Patriots Day, giving him a Bacon number of 1.[25]

Danica McKellar, who played Winnie Cooper in The Wonder Years, has an Erdős–Bacon number of 6, having coauthored a mathematics paper published while an undergraduate at the University of California, Los Angeles. Her paper gives her an Erdős number of 4, and she has a Bacon number of 2, having worked with Margaret Easley.[2]

American actress Natalie Portman has an Erdős–Bacon number of 7. She collaborated (using her birth name, Natalie Hershlag) with Abigail A. Baird,[26] who has a collaboration path[27][28][29] leading to Joseph Gillis, who has an Erdős number of 1.[30] Portman appeared in A Powerful Noise Live (2009) with Sarah Michelle Gellar, who appeared in The Air I Breathe (2007) with Bacon, giving Portman a Bacon number of 2 and an Erdős number of 5.

British actor Colin Firth has an Erdős–Bacon number of 7. Firth is credited as co-author of a neuroscience paper, "Political Orientations Are Correlated with Brain Structure in Young Adults",[31] after he suggested on BBC Radio 4 that such a study could be done.[32] Another author of that paper, Geraint Rees, has an Erdős number of 5,[33][34][35] which gives Firth an Erdős number of 6. Firth's Bacon number of 1 is due to his appearance in Where the Truth Lies.[36]

Kristen Stewart has an Erdős–Bacon number of 7; she is credited as a co-author on an artificial intelligence paper that was written after a technique was used for her short film Come Swim, giving her an Erdős number of 5,[37][38] and she co-starred with Michael Sheen in Twilight, who co-starred with Bacon in Frost/Nixon, giving her a Bacon number of 2.


Name Erdős number Bacon number Erdős–Bacon number
Mayim Bialik 5 2 7[39]
Albert M. Chan 3[22][23][24] 1[25] 4
Paul Check 2[40][41] 2[42][43] 4
Michael M. Chemers 3 3 6
William A. Dembski 4[44][45][46][47] 2[a][48] 6[a]
Richard Feynman 3 3 6[11]
Colin Firth 6[b][31] 1[36] 7
Ken Goldberg 3[49][50][51] 3[52][53][54] 6
Yannai A. Gonczarowski 2[55][56] 3[57][58][59] 5
Donovan Hare 2[60][61] 2[62][63] 4
Stephen Hawking 4 2[a] 6[21]
Henry Houh 5[64][65][66][67][68] 2[69][70] 7
Daniel Kleitman 1 2 3[4]
Robert Knight 4[71][72][73][74] 2[c][75][76] 6[c]
Robert J. Marks II 3[44][45][46] 2[77][78][79] 5
Danica McKellar 4[80][81][82][83] 2[b] 6
Nicholas Metropolis 2[11] 2[84] 4
Tom Porter 3 (in two ways)[6][7] 2[a][c][8][9] 5[a][c]
Natalie Portman (Hershlag) 5[26][27][28][29][30] 2[b] 7
Jonathan Pritchard 4[14][17][15][16] 2[12][13] 6
Bruce Reznick 1 2 3[85]
Carl Sagan 4 2[a] 6[10]
Jared Van Snellenberg 4[86][87][88][89] 2[90][91] 6
Kristen Stewart 5[37] 2[92][93] 7
Steven Strogatz 3[94][95][96] 1[a][c][97] 4[a][c]
Joseph Terwilliger 3[19][20][98] 3[18][99][100] 6
Richard Thaler 3[101][102][103] 2[104][a][105] 5
Jeff Westbrook 3[106][107] 3[106][107] 6
Doron Zeilberger 2[108][30] 3[a][109][110][111] 5[a][c]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Includes role as self.
  2. ^ a b c See discussion above (Actors).
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Includes documentary credit.


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  109. ^ To Infinity and Beyond on IMDb features Doron Zeilberger as himself, with Steven Berkoff (in the BBC Horizon documentary)
  110. ^ The Rapture on IMDb features Steven Berkoff and Duncan J. C Mayers
  111. ^ The X-Men: First Class on IMDb features Duncan J. C Mayers and Kevin Bacon