Elon Musk in 2015
|Born||Elon Reeve Musk
June 28, 1971
Pretoria, Transvaal, South Africa
|Residence||Bel Air, Los Angeles, California, U.S.|
|Nationality||South African (1971), Canadian (1989), American (2002)|
|Alma mater||Queen's University
University of Pennsylvania
|Occupation||Entrepreneur, engineer, inventor, investor|
|Known for||SpaceX, PayPal, Tesla Motors, Hyperloop, SolarCity, OpenAI|
$78.2 million (2012)
|Net worth||US$11.5 billion (October 2016)|
|Title||CEO and CTO of SpaceX
CEO and product architect of Tesla Motors
Chairman of SolarCity
Co-chairman of OpenAI
Nevada (b. 2002, d. 2002)
Griffin (b. 2004)
Xavier (b. 2004)
Damian (b. 2006)
Saxon (b. 2006)
Kai (b. 2006)
|Parent(s)||Maye Musk (mother)
Errol Musk (father)
|Relatives||Tosca Musk (sister)
Kimbal Musk (brother)
He is the founder, CEO, and CTO of SpaceX; co-founder, CEO, and product architect of Tesla Motors; co-founder and chairman of SolarCity; co-chairman of OpenAI; co-founder of Zip2; and founder of X.com which merged with PayPal of Confinity. As of June 2016, he has an estimated net worth of US$11.5 billion, making him the 83rd wealthiest person in the world. In December 2016, Musk was ranked 21st on Forbes list of The World's Most Powerful People.
Musk has stated that the goals of SolarCity, Tesla Motors, and SpaceX revolve around his vision to change the world and humanity. His goals include reducing global warming through sustainable energy production and consumption, and reducing the "risk of human extinction" by "making life multiplanetary" by setting up a human colony on Mars.
In addition to his primary business pursuits, he has also envisioned a high-speed transportation system known as the Hyperloop, and has proposed a VTOL supersonic jet aircraft with electric fan propulsion, known as the Musk electric jet.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Career
- 3 Political positions
- 4 Opinions
- 5 Personal life
- 6 Awards and recognition
- 7 In popular media
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
Musk was born on June 28, 1971, in Pretoria, Transvaal, South Africa, the son of Maye Musk (née Haldeman), a model and dietician from Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada; and Errol Musk, a South African-born electromechanical engineer. He has a younger brother, Kimbal (born 1972), and a younger sister, Tosca (born 1974). His paternal grandmother was British, and he also has Pennsylvania Dutch ancestry. After his parents divorced in 1980, Musk lived mostly with his father in locations in South Africa.
At age 10, he developed an interest in computing with the Commodore VIC-20. He taught himself computer programming and at age 12, sold the code for a BASIC-based video game he created called Blastar to a magazine called PC and Office Technology for approximately US$500. A web version of the game is available online.
Musk was initially educated at private schools, attending the English-speaking Waterkloof House Preparatory School. Musk later graduated from Pretoria Boys High School and moved to Canada in June 1989, just before his 18th birthday, after obtaining Canadian citizenship through his Canadian-born mother.
At the age of 19, Musk was accepted into Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario, for undergraduate study. In 1992, after spending two years at Queen's University, Musk transferred to the University of Pennsylvania, where, at the age of 24, he received a Bachelor of Science degree in physics from its College of Arts and Sciences, and a Bachelor of Science degree in economics from its Wharton School of Business. Musk extended his studies for one year to finish the second bachelor's degree. While at the University of Pennsylvania, Musk and fellow Penn student Adeo Ressi rented a 10-bedroom fraternity house, using it as an unofficial nightclub.
In 1995, at age 24, Musk moved to California to begin a PhD in applied physics and materials science at Stanford University, but left the program after two days to pursue his entrepreneurial aspirations in the areas of the Internet, renewable energy and outer space. In 2002, he became a U.S. citizen.
In 1995, Musk and his brother, Kimbal, started Zip2, a web software company, with US$28,000 of their father's money. The company developed and marketed an Internet "city guide" for the newspaper publishing industry. Musk obtained contracts with The New York Times and the Chicago Tribune and persuaded the board of directors to abandon plans for a merger with CitySearch. While at Zip2, Musk wanted to become CEO; however, none of the board members would allow it. Compaq acquired Zip2 for US$307 million in cash and US$34 million in stock options in February 1999. Musk received 7% or US$22 million from the sale.
X.com and PayPal
In March 1999, Musk co-founded X.com, an online financial services and e-mail payment company, with US$10 million from the sale of Zip2. One year later, the company merged with Confinity, which had a money transfer service called PayPal. The merged company focused on the PayPal service and was renamed PayPal in 2001. PayPal's early growth was driven mainly by a viral marketing campaign where new customers were recruited when they received money through the service. Musk was ousted in October 2000 from his role as CEO (although he remained on the board) due to disagreements with other company leadership, notably over his desire to move PayPal's Unix-based infrastructure to Microsoft Windows. In October 2002, PayPal was acquired by eBay for US$1.5 billion in stock, of which Musk received US$165 million. Before its sale, Musk, who was the company's largest shareholder, owned 11.7% of PayPal's shares.
In 2001, Musk conceptualized "Mars Oasis"; a project to land a miniature experimental greenhouse on Mars, containing food crops growing on Martian regolith, in an attempt to regain public interest in space exploration. In October 2001, Musk travelled to Moscow with Jim Cantrell (an aerospace supplies fixer), and Adeo Ressi (his best friend from college), to buy refurbished ICBMs (Dnepr) that could send the envisioned payloads into space. The group met with companies such as NPO Lavochkin and Kosmotras, however, according to Cantrell, Musk was seen as a novice and was consequently spat on by one of the Russian chief designers, and the group returned to the United States empty-handed. In February 2002, the group returned to Russia to look for three ICBMs, bringing along Mike Griffin, who had worked for the CIA's venture capital arm, In-Q-Tel; NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory; and was just leaving Orbital Sciences, a maker of satellites and spacecraft. The group met again with Kosmotras, and were offered one rocket for US$8 million, however, this was seen by Musk as too expensive; Musk consequently stormed out of the meeting. On the flight back from Moscow, Musk realized that he could start a company that could build the affordable rockets he needed. According to early Tesla and SpaceX investor Steve Jurvetson, Musk calculated that the raw materials for building a rocket actually were only 3 percent of the sales price of a rocket at the time. By applying vertical integration and the modular approach from software engineering, SpaceX could cut launch price by a factor of ten and still enjoy a 70-percent gross margin. Ultimately, Musk ended up founding SpaceX with the long-term goal of creating a "true spacefaring civilization".
With US$100 million of his early fortune, Musk founded Space Exploration Technologies, or SpaceX, in June 2002. Musk is chief executive officer (CEO) and chief technology officer (CTO) of the Hawthorne, California-based company. SpaceX develops and manufactures space launch vehicles with a focus on advancing the state of rocket technology. The company's first two launch vehicles are the Falcon 1 and Falcon 9 rockets (a nod to Star Wars' Millennium Falcon), and its first spacecraft is the Dragon (a nod to Puff the Magic Dragon). In seven years, SpaceX designed the family of Falcon launch vehicles and the Dragon multipurpose spacecraft. In September 2008, SpaceX's Falcon 1 rocket became the first privately funded liquid-fueled vehicle to put a satellite into Earth orbit. On May 25, 2012, the SpaceX Dragon vehicle berthed with the ISS, making history as the first commercial company to launch and berth a vehicle to the International Space Station.
In 2006, SpaceX was awarded a contract from NASA to continue the development and test of the SpaceX Falcon 9 launch vehicle and Dragon spacecraft in order to transport cargo to the International Space Station,[not in citation given] followed by a US$1.6 billion NASA Commercial Resupply Services program contract on December 23, 2008, for 12 flights of its Falcon 9 rocket and Dragon spacecraft to the Space Station, replacing the US Space Shuttle after it retired in 2011. Astronaut transport to the ISS is currently handled solely by the Soyuz, but SpaceX is one of two companies awarded a contract by NASA as part of the Commercial Crew Development program, which is intended to develop a US astronaut transport capability by 2018. On 22 December 2015, SpaceX successfully landed the first stage of its Falcon rocket back at the launch pad. This was the first time in history such a feat had been achieved by an orbital rocket and is a significant step towards rocket reusability lowering the costs of access to space. This first stage recovery was replicated several times in 2016 by landing on an Autonomous spaceport drone ship, an ocean based recovery platform. In late 2016 SpaceX intends to launch its Falcon Heavy rocket, which will be the most powerful operational rocket in the world.
SpaceX is both the largest private producer of rocket motors in the world, and holder of the record for highest thrust-to-weight ratio for any known rocket motor. SpaceX has produced more than 100 operational Merlin 1D engines, currently the world's most powerful motor for its weight. The relatively immense power to weight ratio allows each Merlin 1D motor to vertically lift the weight of 40 average family cars. In combination, the 9 Merlin engines in the Falcon 9 first stage produces anywhere from 5.8 to 6.7 MN (1.3 to 1.5 million pounds) of thrust, depending on altitude.
Musk was influenced by Isaac Asimov's Foundation series and views space exploration as an important step in expanding—if not preserving—the consciousness of human life. Musk said that multiplanetary life may serve as a hedge against threats to the survival of the human species.
An asteroid or a super volcano could destroy us, and we face risks the dinosaurs never saw: an engineered virus, inadvertent creation of a micro black hole, catastrophic global warming or some as-yet-unknown technology could spell the end of us. Humankind evolved over millions of years, but in the last sixty years atomic weaponry created the potential to extinguish ourselves. Sooner or later, we must expand life beyond this green and blue ball—or go extinct.
Musk's goal is to reduce the cost of human spaceflight by a factor of 10. In a 2011 interview, he said he hopes to send humans to Mars' surface within 10–20 years. In Ashlee Vance's biography, Musk stated that he wants to establish a Mars colony by 2040, with a population of 80,000. Musk stated that, since Mars' atmosphere lacks oxygen, all transportation would have to be electric (electric cars, electric trains, Hyperloop, electric aircraft). Space X intends to launch a Dragon spacecraft on a Falcon Heavy in 2018 to soft-land on Mars - this is intended to be the first of a regular cargo mission supply-run to Mars building up to later crewed flights. Musk stated in June 2016 that the first unmanned flight of the larger Mars Colonial Transporter (MCT) spacecraft is aimed for departure to the red planet in 2022, to be followed by the first manned MCT Mars flight departing in 2024. In September 2016, Musk revealed details of his plan to explore and colonize Mars. By 2016, Musk's private trust holds 54% of SpaceX stock, equivalent to 78% of voting shares.
Both men played active roles in the company's early development prior to Elon Musk's involvement. Musk led the Series A round of investment in February 2004, joining Tesla's board of directors as its chairman. Musk took an active role within the company and oversaw Roadster product design at a detailed level, but was not deeply involved in day-to-day business operations.
Following the financial crisis in 2008, Musk assumed leadership of the company as CEO and product architect, positions he still holds today. Tesla Motors first built an electric sports car, the Tesla Roadster in 2008, with sales of about 2,500 vehicles to 31 countries. Tesla began delivery of its four-door Model S sedan on June 22, 2012. It unveiled its third product, the Model X, aimed at the SUV/minivan market, on February 9, 2012; the Model X launch was however delayed until September 2015. In addition to its own cars, Tesla sells electric powertrain systems to Daimler for the Smart EV, Mercedes B-Class Electric Drive and Mercedes A Class and to Toyota for the RAV4 EV. Musk was able to bring in both companies as long-term investors in Tesla.
Musk has favored building a sub-US$30,000 subcompact Tesla model and building and selling electric vehicle powertrain components so that other automakers can produce electric vehicles at affordable prices without having to develop the products in-house. Several mainstream publications have compared him with Henry Ford for his work on advanced vehicle powertrains.
In a May 2013 interview with All Things Digital, Musk said that to overcome the range limitations of electric cars, Tesla is "dramatically accelerating" its network of supercharger stations, tripling the number on the East and West coasts of the U.S. that June, with plans for more expansion across North America, including Canada, throughout the year. As of January 29, 2016, Musk owns about 28.9 million Tesla shares, which equates to about 22% of the company.
In 2014, Musk announced that Tesla Motors will allow its technology patents to be used by anyone in good faith in a bid to entice automobile manufacturers to speed up development of electric cars. "The unfortunate reality is electric car programs (or programs for any vehicle that doesn't burn hydrocarbons) at the major manufacturers are small to non-existent, constituting an average of far less than 1% of their total vehicle sales", Musk said.
Musk provided the initial concept and financial capital for SolarCity, which was then co-founded in 2006 by his cousins Lyndon and Peter Rive. Musk remains the largest shareholder. SolarCity is now the second largest provider of solar power systems in the United States.
The underlying motivation for funding both SolarCity and Tesla is to help combat global warming. In 2012, Musk announced that SolarCity and Tesla Motors are collaborating to use electric vehicle batteries to smooth the impact of rooftop solar on the power grid, with the program going live in 2013.
On June 17, 2014, Musk committed to building in Buffalo, New York, a SolarCity advanced production facility that would triple the size of the largest solar plant in the United States. Musk stated the plant will be "one of the single largest solar panel production plants in the world", and it will be followed by one or more even bigger facilities in subsequent years.[needs update]
In June 2016, Musk's car company, Tesla Motors, formally submitted an offer to acquire SolarCity.
On August 12, 2013, Musk unveiled a concept for a high-speed transportation system incorporating reduced-pressure tubes in which pressurized capsules ride on an air cushion driven by linear induction motors and air compressors. The mechanism for releasing the concept was an alpha-design document that, in addition to scoping out the technology, outlined a notional route where such a transport system might be built: between the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area.
After earlier envisioning Hyperloop, Musk assigned a dozen engineers from Tesla Motors and SpaceX who worked for nine months, establishing the conceptual foundations and creating the designs for the transportation system. An early design for the system was then published in a whitepaper posted to the Tesla and SpaceX blogs. Musk's proposal, if technologically feasible at the costs he has cited, would make travel cheaper than any other mode of transport for such long distances. The alpha design was proposed to use a partial vacuum to reduce aerodynamic drag, which it is theorized would allow for high-speed travel with relatively low power, with certain other features like air-bearing skis and an inlet compressor to reduce air drag. The alpha design document estimated the total cost of an LA-to-SF Hyperloop system at US$6 billion, but this amount is speculative.
In June 2015, Musk announced a design competition for students and others to build Hyperloop pods to operate on a SpaceX-sponsored mile-long track in a 2016 Hyperloop pod competition. That track is currently under construction and the competition is slated for August 2016.
In December 2015, Elon Musk announced the creation of OpenAI, a not-for-profit artificial intelligence (AI) research company. OpenAI aims to develop artificial general intelligence in a way that is safe and beneficial to humanity.
By making AI available to everyone, OpenAI wants to "counteract large corporations who may gain too much power by owning super-intelligence systems devoted to profits, as well as governments which may use AI to gain power and even oppress their citizenry".
|Title||Application number||Grant number||Application date||Grant date||Original assignee|
|Funnel shaped charge inlet||13/549185||8579635||2012-07-13||2013-11-12||Tesla Motors, Inc.|
|Vehicle charge inlet||29/427056||D724031||2012-07-13||2015-03-10||Tesla Motors, Inc.|
|Vehicle||29/412833||D683268||2012-02-08||2013-05-28||Tesla Motors, Inc.|
|Vehicle door||29/412841||D678154||2012-02-08||2013-03-19||Tesla Motors, Inc.|
Politically, Musk has described himself as "half Democrat, half Republican". In his own words: "I'm somewhere in the middle, socially liberal and fiscally conservative." In December 2016, it was announced that Musk would join President-elect Donald Trump's Strategic and Policy Forum, as a corporate adviser.
Musk has described himself as "nauseatingly pro-American". According to Musk, the United States is "[inarguably] the greatest country that has ever existed on Earth", describing it as "the greatest force for good of any country that's ever been". Musk believes outright that there "would not be democracy in the world if not for the United States", arguing there were "three separate occasions in the 20th-century where democracy would have fallen with World War I, World War II and the Cold War, if not for the United States". Musk also stated that he thinks "it would be a mistake to say the United States is perfect, it certainly is not. There have been many foolish things the United States has done and bad things the United States has done".
In an interview with the Washington Post, Musk stated he was a "significant (though not top-tier) donor to Democrats, but that he also gives heavily to Republicans". Musk further stated, "in order to have your voice be heard in Washington, you have to make some little contribution."
A recent report from the Sunlight Foundation (a nonpartisan group that tracks government spending), found that "SpaceX has spent over US$4 million on lobbying Congress since it was established in 2002 and doled out more than US$800,000 in political contributions" to Democrats and Republicans. The same report noted that "SpaceX's campaign to win political support has been systematic and sophisticated", and that "unlike most tech-startups, SpaceX has maintained a significant lobbying presence in Washington almost since day 1". The report further noted that "Musk himself has donated roughly US$725,000 to various campaigns since 2002. In 2004, he contributed US$2,000 to President George W. Bush's reelection campaign, maxing out (over US$100,000) to Obama's reelection campaign and donated US$5,000 to Republican Sen. Marco Rubio, who represents Florida, a state critical to the space industry... All told, Musk and SpaceX gave out roughly US$250,000 in the 2012 election cycle. Additionally, SpaceX hired former Republican Senate Majority Leader Trent Lott to represent the company, via the Washington-based lobbying group Patton Boggs LLP. Alongside Patton Boggs LLP, SpaceX uses several other outside lobbying firms, who work alongside SpaceX's own lobbyists.
Musk had been a supporter of the U.S. political action committee FWD.us, which was started by fellow high-profile entrepreneur Mark Zuckerberg and advocates for immigration reform. However, in May 2013, Musk publicly withdrew his support in protest of advertisements the PAC was running that supported causes like the Keystone Pipeline. Musk and other members, including David O. Sacks, pulled out, criticizing the strategy as "cynical". Musk further stated, "we shouldn't give in to the politics. If we give in to that, we'll get the political system we deserve".
In December 2013, Sean Becker of the media/political website Mic called Musk a "complete hypocrite", stating that "[for] the 2014 election cycle, Musk has contributed to the Longhorn PAC and the National Republican Congressional Committee — both of which have funded the campaigns of anti-science, anti-environment candidates such as Rep. Michelle Bachman (R-Minn.)". Musk has directly contributed to Republican Sen. Marco Rubio, who has been accused of holding similar positions regarding climate change.
Musk has stated that he does not believe the U.S. government should provide subsidies to companies but should instead use a carbon tax to price in the negative externality of air pollution and discourage "bad behavior". Musk argues that the free market would achieve the "best solution", and that producing environmentally unfriendly vehicles should come with its own consequences.
Musk's statements have been widely criticized, with Stanford University Professor Fred Turner noting that "if you're an entrepreneur like Elon Musk, you will take the money where you can get it, but at the same time believe as a matter of faith that it's entrepreneurship and technology that are the sources of social change, not the state. It is not quite self-delusion, but there is a habit of thinking of oneself as a free-standing, independent agent, and of not acknowledging the subsidies that one received. And this goes on all the time in Silicon Valley." Author Michael Shellenberger argued that "in the case of Musk, it is hard not to read that as a kind of defensiveness. And I think there is a business reason for it. They are dealing with a lot of investors for whom subsidies are not the basis for a long-term viable business, and they often want to exaggerate the speed with which they are going to be able to become independent". Shellenberger continues, "we would all be better off if these entrepreneurs were a bit more grateful, a bit more humble". While journalist and author Jim Motavalli, who interviewed Musk for High Voltage, his 2011 book about the electric vehicle industry, speculated that "Elon is now looking at it from the point of view of a winner, and he doesn't want to see other people win because they get government money – I do think there is a tendency of people, once they have succeeded, to want to pull the ladder up after them."
In 2015, Musk's statements came under further scrutiny after an LA Times article claimed that SpaceX, Tesla Motors and SolarCity had or was projected to receive together an estimated US$4.9 billion in government subsidies over twenty years.
Destiny and religion
When asked whether he believed "there was some kind of destiny involved" in humanity's transition to a multi-planetary species, rather than "just physics", Musk responded:
Well, I do. Do I think that there's some sort of master intelligence architecting all of this stuff? I think probably not because then you have to say: "Where does the master intelligence come from?" So it sort of begs the question. So I think really you can explain this with the fundamental laws of physics. You know its complex phenomenon from simple elements.
Musk has stated that he does not pray, or worship any being, although previously admitted to praying before an important Falcon 1 launch, asking "any entities that [were] listening", to "bless [the] launch". When asked whether he believed "religion and science could co-exist", Musk replied "probably not".
Although Musk believes "there is a good chance that there is simple life on other planets", he "questions whether there is other intelligent life in the known universe". Musk later clarified his "hope that there is other intelligent life in the known universe", and stated that it is "probably more likely than not, but that's a complete guess."
The absence of any noticeable life may be an argument in favour of us being in a simulation.... Like when you're playing an adventure game, and you can see the stars in the background, but you can't ever get there. If it's not a simulation, then maybe we're in a lab and there's some advanced alien civilization that's just watching how we develop, out of curiosity, like mould in a petri dish.... If you look at our current technology level, something strange has to happen to civilizations, and I mean strange in a bad way. ... And it could be that there are a whole lot of dead, one-planet civilizations.
Musk has frequently spoken out about the potential dangers of artificial intelligence, declaring it "the most serious threat to the survival of the human race". During an interview at the MIT AeroAstro Centennial Symposium, Musk described AI as "[humanity's] biggest existential threat", further stating, "I'm increasingly inclined to think that there should be some regulatory oversight, maybe at the national and international level, just to make sure that we don't do something very foolish." Musk described the creation of artificial intelligence as "summoning the demon".
Despite this, Musk has previously invested in DeepMind (an AI firm) and Vicarious, a company working to improve machine intelligence. In January 2015, he donated $10 million to the Future of Life Institute, an organization focused on challenges posed by advanced technologies. He is the co-chairman of OpenAI, a non-profit artificial intelligence research company.
Musk has said that his investments are, "not from the standpoint of actually trying to make any investment return... I like to just keep an eye on what's going on with artificial intelligence." Musk continued, "There have been movies about this, you know, like Terminator – there are some scary outcomes. And we should try to make sure the outcomes are good, not bad."
In June 2016, he was asked whether he thinks humans live in a computer simulation, to which he answered "probably". Elaborated as follows:
The strongest argument for us probably being in a simulation I think is the following: 40 years ago we had Pong – two rectangles and a dot. That’s where we were. Now 40 years later we have photorealistic, 3D simulations with millions of people playing simultaneously and it’s getting better every year. And soon we’ll have virtual reality, we’ll have augmented reality. If you assume any rate of improvement at all, then the games will become indistinguishable from reality, just indistinguishable.
The 1994 model Dassault Falcon 900 aircraft used in the 2005 film Thank You for Smoking is registered to Musk (N900SX), and Musk had a cameo as the pilot of his plane, opening the door for Robert Duvall and escorting Aaron Eckhart aboard. Musk owns Wet Nellie, the Lotus Esprit from the James Bond film The Spy Who Loved Me. He plans to convert it into the functional car-submarine from the film.
Musk stated that he wants to die on Mars, just not on impact.
Musk is chairman of the Musk Foundation, which focuses its philanthropic efforts on providing solar-power energy systems in disaster areas. In 2010, the Musk foundation collaborated with SolarCity to donate a 25-kW solar power system to the South Bay Community Alliance's (SBCA) hurricane response centre in Coden, Alabama. In July 2011, the Musk Foundation donated US$250,000 towards a solar power project in Sōma, Japan, a city that had been recently devastated by tsunami.
In July 2014, Musk was asked by cartoonist Matthew Inman and the great-nephew of Nikola Tesla (William Terbo) to donate US$8 million towards the construction of the Tesla Science Center at Wardenclyffe. Ultimately, Musk agreed to donate US$1 million towards the project and additionally pledged to build a Tesla Supercharger in the museum car park.
Musk met his first wife, Canadian author Justine Wilson, while both were students at Ontario's Queen's University. They married in 2000 and separated in 2008, after having six sons. Their first son, Nevada Alexander Musk, died of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) at the age of 10 weeks.
In 2008, Musk began dating English actress Talulah Riley, and in 2010, the couple married. In January 2012, Musk announced that he had recently ended his four-year relationship with Riley, tweeting to Riley, "It was an amazing four years. I will love you forever. You will make someone very happy one day." However, in July 2013, Musk and Riley remarried. In December 2014, Musk filed for a second divorce from Riley; however the action was withdrawn. It was announced in March 2016 that divorce proceedings were again under way, this time with Riley filing for divorce from Musk. The divorce was finalized in October 2016.
Awards and recognition
- In 2006, Musk served as a member of the United States National Academy of Sciences Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board.
- R&D Magazine Innovator of the Year for 2007 for SpaceX, Tesla and SolarCity.
- Inc Magazine Entrepreneur of the Year award for 2007 for his work on Tesla and SpaceX.
- 2007 Index Design award for his design of the Tesla Roadster. Global Green 2006 product design award for his design of the Tesla Roadster, presented by Mikhail Gorbachev.
- American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics George Low award for the most outstanding contribution in the field of space transportation in 2007/2008. Musk was recognized for his design of the Falcon 1, the first privately developed liquid-fuel rocket to reach orbit.
- National Wildlife Federation 2008 National Conservation Achievement award for Tesla Motors and SolarCity. Other 2008 recipients include journalist Thomas Friedman, U.S. Senator Patrick Leahy (D-VT), and Florida Governor Charlie Crist.
- The Aviation Week 2008 Laureate for the most significant achievement worldwide in the space industry.
- National Space Society's Von Braun Trophy in 2008/2009, given for leadership of the most significant achievement in space. Prior recipients include Burt Rutan and Steve Squyres.
- Automotive Executive of the Year (worldwide) in 2010 for demonstrating technology leadership and innovation via Tesla Motors. Prior awardees include Bill Ford Jr, Bob Lutz, Dieter Zetsche and Lee Iacocca. Musk is the youngest ever recipient of this award.
- Listed as one of Time's 100 people who most affected the world in 2010.
- The world governing body for aerospace records, Fédération Aéronautique Internationale, presented Musk in 2010 with the highest award in air and space, the FAI Gold Space Medal, for designing the first privately developed rocket to reach orbit. Prior recipients include Neil Armstrong, Burt Rutan of Scaled Composites and John Glenn.
- Named as one of the 75 most influential people of the 21st century by Esquire magazine.
- Recognized as a Living Legend of Aviation in 2010 by the Kitty Hawk Foundation for creating the successor to the Space Shuttle (Falcon 9 rocket and Dragon spacecraft). Other recipients include Buzz Aldrin and Richard Branson.
- In 2010, Musk was elected to the board of trustees of the California Institute of Technology, however no longer holds the position.
- In a 2010 Space Foundation survey, he was ranked as the No. 10 (tied with rocketry pioneer and scientist Wernher von Braun) most popular space hero.
- In February 2011, Forbes listed Musk as one of "America's 20 Most Powerful CEOs 40 And Under".
- In June 2011, Musk was awarded the US$250,000 Heinlein Prize for Advances in Space Commercialization
- In 2011, Musk was honored as a Legendary Leader at the Churchill Club Awards.
- In 2012, Musk was awarded with the Royal Aeronautical Society's highest award: a Gold Medal.
- Musk was the 2012 recipient of Smithsonian magazine's American Ingenuity Award in the Technology category.
- In 2013, Musk was named the Fortune Businessperson of the year for SpaceX, SolarCity, and Tesla Motors.
- In 2015 he was awarded IEEE Honorary Membership.
- As of 2015, Musk serves on the board of advisors of Social Concepts, Inc.
- In 2016, The Drive, a division of Time, named Musk the most influential person in the car business and as the second most influential person in the automotive tech sector.
- In December 2016, Musk was ranked 21st on Forbes list of The World's Most Powerful People.
- Honorary doctorate in Design from the Art Center College of Design
- Honorary doctorate (DUniv) in Aerospace Engineering from the University of Surrey
- Honorary doctorate of Engineering and Technology from Yale University
In popular media
In the 2005 film Thank You for Smoking Musk had a cameo as the pilot of his own plane, opening the door for the Captain (Robert Duvall) and escorting Nick Naylor (Aaron Eckhart) aboard. In Iron Man 2 (2010) he met Tony Stark (Robert Downey Jr.) in a restaurant, and had some brief lines regarding an "idea for an electric jet". In 2014, he was satirized in the South Park episode "Handicar". He later made a guest appearance in three more episodes of South Park in 2016, this time voicing himself in the episodes "Members Only", "Not Funny", and "The End of Serialization as We Know It." In January 2015, he made a guest appearance playing himself on The Simpsons in an episode titled "The Musk Who Fell to Earth"; the episode poked fun at many of the inventor's ideas.
In November 2015, Musk appeared in an episode of The Big Bang Theory, playing himself, volunteering at a soup kitchen with Howard. In 2016 Musk was referenced by Dr. Martin Stein on The CW time-travel TV show DC's Legends of Tomorrow. During a time travel to the past, Stein meets his younger self and introduced himself as Elon Musk, to disguise his own identity. Following the same TV universe on The CW, in the DC Superhero series The Flash, one of the characters quoted that he wished he'd be like Elon Musk on alternate universes.
Musk was also featured in the 2015 environmental documentary Racing Extinction, in which a custom Tesla Model S was designed to help project images of critically endangered species onto public buildings, including the Empire State Building and the Vatican.
- "Billionaire Tesla CEO Elon Musk Buys Neighbor's Home in Bel Air For $6.75 Million". Forbes. Retrieved November 1, 2013.
- "Inside Elon Musk's $17M Bel Air Mansion". Bloomberg News. Retrieved August 21, 2013.
- Hull, Dana (April 11, 2014). "Timeline: Elon Musk's accomplishments". Retrieved June 11, 2015 – via Mercury News.
- Zanerhaft, Jaron (2013). "Elon Musk: Patriarchs and Prodigies". CSQ. C-Suite Quarterly. Retrieved June 11, 2015.
- Ohnsman, Alan (April 25, 2014). "Tesla Pays CEO Musk $70,000 Following $78 Million Year". Bloomberg Business. Bloomberg. Retrieved June 11, 2015.
- "Elon Musk". Forbes. Retrieved October 22, 2016.
- "Actor Talulah Riley files to divorce billionaire Elon Musk, again". The Guardian. March 21, 2016. Retrieved April 20, 2016.
The pair first married in 2010 and divorced in 2012. They remarried 18 months later.
- "Elon Musk withdraws Talulah Riley divorce papers after being spotted at Allen & Company conference". Mail Online. August 5, 2015.
- Musk, Justine (September 10, 2010). "'I Was a Starter Wife': Inside America's Messiest Divorce". Marie Claire. Retrieved November 28, 2012.
- "Family Tree for Nevada Alexander Musk". Retrieved December 20, 2016.
- Shandrow, Kim Lachance (May 8, 2015). "5 Things You Don't Know About Elon Musk". Retrieved December 20, 2016.
- Curtis, Sophie (November 10, 2014). "Elon Musk 'to launch fleet of internet satellites'". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved June 23, 2015.
Elon Musk, inventor and business magnate
- Vance, Ashlee (September 13, 2012). "Elon Musk, the 21st Century Industrialist". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. Retrieved June 23, 2015.
- "Early Career Engineers, Conferences and Careers". asme.org. Retrieved November 4, 2015.
- Bellis, Mary. "Biography of Elon Musk". inventors.about.com. About.com. Retrieved June 10, 2015.
- "The Top 10 Venture Capitalists on 2014's Midas List". Forbes. Retrieved June 10, 2015.
- Albergotti, Reed (March 21, 2014). "Zuckerberg, Musk Invest in Artificial Intelligence Company". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved June 10, 2015.
- Love, Dylan (March 21, 2014). "Elon Musk And Mark Zuckerberg Have Invested $40 Million in a Mysterious Artificial Intelligence Company". Business Insider. Business Insider. Retrieved June 10, 2015.
- Martin LaMonica (September 21, 2009). "Tesla Motors founders: Now there are five". CNET.
- "A Brief history of Tesla". Tech Crunch. January 4, 2013. Retrieved April 21, 2014.
Tesla was founded not by Elon Musk, but rather by Martin Eberhard and Marc Tarpenning in July 2003. The two bootstrapped the fledgling auto company until Elon Musk led the company's US$7.5 million Series A financing round in February 2004, when Musk became the company's Chairman of the Board.
- Hardy, Quentin; Bilton, Nick (March 16, 2014). "Start-Ups Aim to Conquer Space Market". The New York Times. Retrieved April 21, 2014.
Space Exploration Technologies, or SpaceX, started by the Tesla founder Elon Musk
- "Trust Your Own Focus Group of One". Entrepreneur.com. April 11, 2014. Retrieved April 21, 2014.
Elon Musk, founder of PayPal, Tesla and SpaceX
- "Elon Musk". Forbes.com. Retrieved October 22, 2016.
- "The World's Most Powerful People". Forbes. December 2016. Retrieved 14 December 2016.
- "Youtube Video - Elon Musk: The mind behind Tesla, SpaceX, SolarCity".
- Why Invest In Making Life Multi-Planetary? Elon Musk. December 13, 2011. Retrieved February 21, 2016 – via YouTube.
- Ross Andersen (September 30, 2014). "Elon Musk puts his case for a multi-planet civilisation". Aeon. Retrieved February 21, 2016.
- Jonathan Charlton. "Elon Musk 'Toying' with Designs for Electric Jet". Aviation.com. Retrieved May 30, 2015.
- Elon Musk on dodging a nervous breakdown (2013). YouTube. March 16, 2015.
- "Elon Musk (South African entrepreneur)". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved December 23, 2012.
- His Biography author Ashlee Vance interviewed on the TV show Triangulation on the TWiT.tv network, discussion of his family starts around the 15th minute
- Friend, Tad (2009). "Plugged In". The New Yorker. 85 (23–30): 53. Retrieved December 23, 2012.
- Masia, Seth (May 2011). "A Family Leads to the Installer Universe". Solar Today. Retrieved December 23, 2012.
- Elliott, Hannah (March 3, 2012). "At Home With Elon Musk: The (Soon-to-Be) Bachelor Billionaire". Forbes. Retrieved August 12, 2013.
- Hall, Dana (April 11, 2014). "Rocket Man: The otherworldly ambitions of Elon Musk". San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved April 14, 2014.
- Hannah Elliott. "At Home With Elon Musk: The (Soon-to-Be) Bachelor Billionaire". Forbes. Retrieved May 30, 2015.
- Pierre Haski (May 28, 2015). "Elon Musk (Tesla, SpaceX): génie ou prédateur de la Silicon Valley?" (in French). rue89.nouvelobs.com.
- "Play the PC game Elon Musk wrote as a pre-teen".
- Belfiore, Michael (2007). "Chapter 7: Orbit on a Shoestring". Rocketeers. Harper Collins. pp. 166–95. ISBN 978-0-06-114902-3.
- "Blastar for HTML5". blastar-1984.appspot.com. Retrieved November 4, 2015.
- Vance, Ashlee (2015). Elon Musk: Tesla, SpaceX, and the Quest for a Fantastic Future. ISBN 978-0062301239.
- "37 Interesting Facts about Elon Musk, One of the Most Innovative Entrepreneurs of Our Time". BoomsBeat.com. February 14, 2014. Retrieved June 10, 2015.
- Davis, Johnny (August 4, 2007). "One more giant leap". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved November 1, 2013.
- Diggelen, Alison van (February 7, 2013). "Iron Man, Growing up in South Africa". Fresh Dialogues. Retrieved November 1, 2013.
I actually filled out the forms for her and got her a Canadian passport, and me too. Within three weeks of getting my Canadian passport, I was in Canada.
- Robin Keats (2013). "Rocket man". Queen's University. Archived from the original on May 4, 2015.
- Inspirations with Elon Musk. OnInnovation. Retrieved June 24, 2010.
- Junod, Tom (November 15, 2012). "Triumph of His Will". Esquire. Retrieved November 1, 2013.
- Clark, Steve (September 27, 2014). "SpaceX chief: Commercial launch sites necessary step to Mars". Brownsville Herald. Retrieved September 30, 2014.
- Friedman, Josh (April 22, 2003), "Entrepreneur Tries His Midas Touch in Space", Los Angeles Times
- "Elon Musk Biography". Advameg. August 23, 2005.
- Kidder, David; Hoffman, Reid (2013). The Startup Playbook: Secrets of the Fastest Growing Start-Ups from the founding Entrepreneurs. San Francisco, CA: Chronicle Books. pp. 2224–228. ISBN 978-1452105048.
- Junnarkar, Sandeep (February 16, 1999). "Compaq buys Zip2". CNET.
- Jackson, Erik (2004). The PayPal Wars. Los Angeles, CA: World Ahead Publishing. pp. 40, 69, 130, 163.
- Musk, Elon (October 8, 2003). Success Through Viral Marketing: PayPal. Entrepreneurial Thought Leaders Lecture.
- "The PayPal Mafia". Fortune. Retrieved July 4, 2015.
- "SEC 10-K" (PDF). eBay. December 31, 2002.
- "SEC 10-K". Paypal. December 31, 2001.
- McKnight, John Carter (September 25, 2001). "Elon Musk, Life to Mars Foundation". Mars Now, a weekly column. Space Frontier Foundation.
- Musk, Elon. "Risky Business". IEEE Spectrum. Retrieved April 27, 2014.
- Vance, Ashlee (May 14, 2015). "Elon Musk's space dream almost killed Tesla". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved June 7, 2015.
- "How Steve Jurvetson Saved Elon Musk". Business Insider. September 14, 2012.
- SpaceX and Daring to Think Big – Steve Jurvetson. YouTube. January 28, 2015.
- Elon Musk (September 8, 2006). "SpaceX wins NASA competition to replace Space Shuttle". SpaceX.
- Wayne, Leslie (February 5, 2006). "A Bold Plan to Go Where Men Have Gone Before". The New York Times. Retrieved February 16, 2015.
- Wayne, Leslie (February 5, 2006). "A Bold Plan to Go Where Men Have Gone Before". The New York Times. Retrieved December 11, 2010.
- Harwood, William (May 31, 2012). "SpaceX Dragon returns to Earth, ends historic trip". CBS News. Retrieved August 3, 2013.
- COTS 2006 Demo Competition. NASA (accessed August 26, 2014); and announcement "Commercial Orbital Transportation Services Demonstrations". January 18, 2006 (accessed August 26, 2014)
- "NASA Awards Space Station Commercial Resupply Services Contracts". nasa.gov. NASA. 23 December 2008. Retrieved 2016-06-30.
- "Boeing And SpaceX Win $6.8 Billion In NASA Contracts". NPR.org. National Public Radio. Retrieved 2016-06-30.
- "SpaceX rocket in historic upright landing". BBC News. Retrieved 2016-06-30.
- O'Kane, Sean (2016-05-27). "SpaceX successfully lands a Falcon 9 rocket at sea for the third time". The Verge. Retrieved 2016-06-30.
- Clark, Stephen. "SpaceX undecided on payload for first Falcon Heavy flight – Spaceflight Now". Retrieved 2016-06-30.
- "Is SpaceX Changing the Rocket Equation?". airspacemag.com. Retrieved May 30, 2015.
- Clark, Stephen. "100th Merlin 1D engine flies on Falcon 9 rocket – Spaceflight Now". Retrieved 2016-06-30.
- "SpaceX completes 100th Merlin 1D Engine". SpaceX. Retrieved April 19, 2015.
- Carroll, Roy (July 17, 2013). "Elon Musk's mission to Mars". The Guardian. London, UK. Retrieved July 23, 2013.
- "75 most influential people: Elon Musk". Esquire. October 1, 2008.
- "Space Exploration Technologies Corporation Press Release". SpaceX. Retrieved December 15, 2012.
- "Elon Musk: I'll Put a Man on Mars in 10 Years". Market Watch. New York. April 22, 2011. Archived from the original on December 1, 2011. Retrieved December 1, 2011.
- Elon Musk speaks at the Hyperloop Pod Award Ceremony (2016.1.30). January 31, 2016. Retrieved February 21, 2016 – via YouTube.
- "SpaceX Will Launch Private Mars Missions as Soon as 2018". Retrieved December 20, 2016.
- Davenport, Christian (2016-06-13). "Elon Musk provides new details on his 'mind blowing' mission to Mars". Washington Post. Retrieved 2016-06-14.
- Chang, Kenneth (27 September 2016). "Elon Musk's Plan: Get Humans to Mars, and Beyond". New York Times. Retrieved 27 September 2016.
- Lambert, Fred (November 16, 2016). "Elon Musk's stake in SpaceX is actually worth more than his Tesla shares". Electrek. Retrieved November 17, 2016.
- Burns, Matt (October 8, 2014). "A Brief History of Tesla". TechCrunch. TechCrunch.com. Retrieved June 11, 2015.
- Nordqvist, Joseph (February 12, 2014). "Tesla Motors Inc.—Company Information". Market Business News. Archived from the original on February 12, 2014. Retrieved April 16, 2014.
- Musk, Elon (August 2, 2006). "The Secret Tesla Motors Master Plan (just between you and me) No. 124". Tesla Motors. Archived from the original on August 2, 2010. Retrieved October 3, 2010.[self-published source]
- Musk, Elon. "CEO Elon Musk". Tesla Motors. Retrieved October 20, 2010.
- Morrison, Chris (October 15, 2008). "Musk steps in as CEO". The New York Times.
- Graham Ruddick. "Tesla's Model X electric car spreads falcon wings at US launch". the Guardian. Retrieved November 4, 2015.
- "Tesla Model X: Not a model launch". Fortune. Retrieved November 4, 2015.
- "Model X". Tesla Motors. October 29, 2012.
- Joann Muller (June 1, 2013). "What Do Toyota And Mercedes See in Tesla? A Bit of Themselves". Forbes.com.
- Musk, Elon (August 2, 2006). "The Secret Tesla Motors Master Plan (just between you and me)". Tesla Motors.
- Hamilton, Tyler (October 12, 2009). "Tesla CEO following in Henry Ford's tracks". Toronto Star. Archived from the original on October 17, 2009.
- Del Ray, Jason (May 29, 2013), Musk: You'll Be Able to Drive Your Tesla Cross-Country by Year's End With Supercharger Expansion, All Things D
- Claudia Assis; Jeremy C. Owens. "Elon Musk exercises Tesla options, pays $50 million tax bill with own cash". MarketWatch. Retrieved February 21, 2016.
- Chris Ziegler (January 29, 2016). "Elon Musk bought $100 million more worth of Tesla this week". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved February 21, 2016.
- "Tesla's Elon Musk worked for free last year". Fortune. Retrieved November 4, 2015.
- Durisin, Megan (August 10, 2013). "Musk get US$4.3 million of stock options for Model X work". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved January 15, 2014.
- "All Our Patent Are Belong To You". Tesla Motors. Retrieved November 4, 2015.
- Dana Hull (2016-02-19). "Musk Gets Tesla.com Domain Name After Waiting a Decade". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved 2016-03-22.
- "Management Team". SolarCity.
- Kanellos, Michael (February 15, 2008). "Newsmaker: Elon Musk on rockets, sports cars, and solar power". CNET.
- "2013 Top 250 Solar Contractors". Solar Power World. September 13, 2013.
- The unveiling of the Tesla Motors Electric Car. Autoblog. Retrieved July 26, 2006.
- Diggelen, Alison van. "Tesla and SolarCity Collaborate on Clean Energy Storage". KQED. Retrieved June 25, 2012.
- Aaron Smith (June 17, 2014). "Elon Musk's sunny plans for Buffalo". CNNMoney.
- "Tesla Makes Offer to Acquire SolarCity". www.teslamotors.com. Retrieved 2016-06-22.
- "Beyond the hype of Hyperloop: An analysis of Elon Musk's proposed transit system". Gizmag.com. August 22, 2013. Retrieved August 23, 2013.
- Ashlee Vance. "Revealed: Elon Musk Explains the Hyperloop, the Solar-Powered High-Speed Future of Inter-City Transportation". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. Retrieved April 27, 2016.
- "Hyperloop Update: Elon Musk Will Start Developing It Himself". Forbes.com. Retrieved 2016-03-22.
- "Musk announces plans to build Hyperloop demonstrator". gizmag.com. Retrieved November 4, 2015.
- Musk, Elon (August 12, 2013). "Hyperloop Alpha" (PDF). SpaceX. Retrieved August 13, 2013.
- Musk, Elon (August 12, 2013). "Hyperloop". Tesla. Retrieved August 13, 2013.
- "Hyperloop Designed for Quick, Convenient Commute". ABC News. March 9, 2013. Retrieved August 15, 2013.
- "Hyperloop". SpaceX. Retrieved August 13, 2013.
- Hawkins, Andrew J. (January 30, 2016). "MIT wins SpaceX's Hyperloop competition, and Elon Musk made a cameo". The Verge. Retrieved January 31, 2016.
- Markoff, John (December 11, 2015). "Artificial-Intelligence Research Center Is Founded by Silicon Valley Investors". The New York Times. Retrieved December 15, 2015.
- Levy, Steven (December 11, 2015). "How Elon Musk and Y Combinator Plan to Stop Computers From Taking Over". Medium/Backchannel. Retrieved December 15, 2015.
- Musk, Elon Reeve; Ferguson, Joshua Willard; Zalan, Daryl; Van Dyke, Christopher Hugo (November 12, 2013), United States Patent: 8579635 - Funnel shaped charge inlet, retrieved 2016-09-23
- Musk, Elon Reeve; Ferguson, Joshua Willard; Zalan, Daryl; Van Dyke, Christopher Hugo (March 10, 2015), United States Patent: D724031 - Vehicle charge inlet, retrieved 2016-09-23
- Musk, Elon Reeve; von Holzhausen, Franz; Lee, Bernard; Imai, David Tadashi (May 28, 2013), United States Patent: D683268 - Vehicle, retrieved 2016-09-23
- Musk, Elon Reeve; von Holzhausen, Franz; Lee, Bernard (March 19, 2013), United States Patent: D678154 - Vehicle door, retrieved 2016-09-23
- "Elon Musk: The Way Of The Future". YouTube. Retrieved November 4, 2015.
- Team, The Transition (December 14, 2016). "President-Elect Trump Announces Additional Members of President's Strategic and Policy Forum". Retrieved December 20, 2016.
- "Elon Musk and the chief executive of Uber are now advising Donald Trump". Retrieved December 20, 2016.
- "Donald Trump Adds Elon Musk, Travis Kalanick, and Indra Nooyi to His Team of Advisers". December 14, 2016. Retrieved December 20, 2016.
- Wattenberg, Ben. "Elon Musk and the frontier of Technology". Think Tank. PBS.org. Retrieved June 12, 2015.
- "Elon Musk, SpaceX Founder, Battles Entrenched Rivals Over NASA Contracts". The Huffington Post. February 20, 2013. Retrieved May 30, 2015.
- "Obama and Congress at odds over Elon Musk". fightforvotes.com. Retrieved May 30, 2015.
- Timothy P. Carney, "Carney: Green stimulus profiteer comes under IRS scrutiny", WashingtonExaminer.com, October 14, 2012.
- "SpaceX blasts off literally and politically". Sunlight Foundation. Retrieved May 30, 2015.
- Salant, Jonathan D. (September 27, 2013). "Billionaires Battle as Bezos-Musk Companies Vie for Launch Pad". Bloomberg.com. Bloomberg Business. Retrieved July 1, 2015.
- Steven Kovach, "Elon Musk Says He Quit Mark Zuckerberg's PAC Because It Was Too Cynical", BusinessInsider.com, May 31, 2013.
- Becker, Sean (December 11, 2013). "Elon Musk Donated to Anti-Science Republicans". Mic. Policy.Mic. Retrieved June 10, 2015.
- Werber, Cassie. "Elon Musk says tax-free carbon is "the dumbest experiment in history"". Quartz. Retrieved 30 August 2016.
- "Taxpayer Subsidies Helped Tesla Motors, So Why Does Elon Musk Slam Them?". Mother Jones. Retrieved April 19, 2015.
- Harkinson, Josh (September 2013). "Taxpayer Subsidies Helped Tesla Motors, So Why Does Elon Musk Slam Them?". Mother Jones. Retrieved June 10, 2015.
- Hirsch, Jerry (May 30, 2015). "Elon Musk's growing empire is fuelled by US$4.9 billion in government subsidies". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 2, 2015.
- "Going to Mars with Elon Musk". OnInnovation.com. June 2008. Retrieved June 10, 2015.
- "Elon Musk and Rainn Wilson discuss colonizing Mars, global warming, and the fear of failure". The Verge. March 19, 2013. Retrieved June 12, 2015.
- "Elon Musk, CEO and CTO, Space Exploration Technologies Corp (SpaceX), Peter Diamandis, CEO, X Prize Foundation and John Doerr, Venture Capital, Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers". YouTube. Retrieved November 4, 2015.
- Anderson, Ross (September 30, 2014). "The Elon Musk Interview on Mars Colonization". Aeon. Retrieved June 10, 2015.
- Gibbs, Samuel (October 27, 2014). "Elon Musk: artificial intelligence is our biggest existential threat". The Guardian. Retrieved December 15, 2015.
- "Elon Musk and Stephen Hawking think we should ban killer robots". Washington Post. July 28, 2015. Archived from the original on March 8, 2016. Retrieved January 5, 2017.
- Kosoff, Maya (January 15, 2015). "Elon Musk Is Donating $10 Million To Keep Killer Robots From Taking Over The World". Business Insider. Retrieved December 15, 2015.
- Muoio, Danielle (December 11, 2015). "Elon Musk just announced a new artificial intelligence research company". Tech Insider. Retrieved December 11, 2015.
- Hern, Alex (June 18, 2014). "Elon Musk says he invested in DeepMind over 'Terminator' fears". Retrieved June 10, 2015 – via The Guardian.
- "We are living in a computer simulation, Elon Musk says". The Independent. 2016-06-02. Retrieved 2016-06-30.
- Matt Hardigree. "Elon Musk Explains How He Wrecked An Uninsured $1 Million McLaren F1". Jalopnik.
- Wayne, Leslie (February 5, 2006). "A Bold Plan to Go Where Men Have Gone Before". The New York Times.
- FlightAware. "Aircraft Registration N900SK". Retrieved June 25, 2012.
- Chris Woodyard,"Tesla's Elon Musk buys 007's sub to make it real", USAToday.com, October 18, 2013; accessed November 13, 2013.
- "Tosca Musk profile at". Musk entertainment.
- Achenbach, Joel. "Elon Musk Wants to Go to Mars" National Geographic November 2016. p. 41.
- "Elon Musk and SolarCity Donate Solar Power Project to Coastal Response Center in Alabama". Enhanced Online News. Business Wire.
- "Elon Musk Donates Solar Power Project to Soma City in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan". BusinessWire.com. Retrieved April 27, 2014.
- "What it's like to own a Tesla Model S – Part 2 – The Oatmeal". theoatmeal.com.
- Greg Kumparak. "Elon Musk Donates $1 Million to the Oatmeal's Nikola Tesla Museum". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved November 4, 2015.
- Elon Musk donates US$10M to keep AI beneficial, Future of Life Institute, 2015, retrieved January 20, 2015
- "Elon Musk Donates $10M To Make Sure AI Doesn't Go The Way of Skynet". Mashable. 2015. Retrieved June 21, 2015.
- "Elon Musk". XPRIZE. Retrieved April 19, 2015.
- Kroll, Luisa (April 19, 2012). "The Giving Pledge Signs on 12 More Wealthy Americans Including Tesla's Elon Musk And Home Depot's Arthur Blank". Forbes.
- Hannah Elliott. "Elon Musk – In Photos: Forbes Life Elon Musk". Forbes. Retrieved November 4, 2015.
- Lai, Jennifer (January 19, 2012). "Elon Musk Divorce: Announces Split From Talulah Riley On Twitter". The Huffington Post. Retrieved July 23, 2013.
- "Elon Musk Divorce: Announces Split From Talulah Riley On Twitter", The Huffington Post, January 19, 2012.
- "Billionaire Elon Musk's wife files for divorce", Mashable.com, March 21, 2016.
- "Elon Musk and Talulah Riley reach divorce settlement". TV3 (Ireland). 21 October 2016. Retrieved 22 October 2016.
- Priorities in Space Science Enabled by Nuclear Power And Propulsion. The National Academies Press. 2006. ISBN 9780309180108. Retrieved November 4, 2015.
- "Rocket Man". R&D. September 4, 2007. Retrieved April 20, 2016.
- Chafkin, Max (December 1, 2007). "Entrepreneur of the Year, 2007: Elon Musk". inc.com.
- "Tesla Roadster". Index. 2007. Archived from the original on January 18, 2012.
- "Tesla Motors team". Tesla Motors.
- "SpaceX successfully launches Falcon 1 to orbit". Space Exploration Technologies Corp. 2008.
- "Connie Awards". National Wildlife Federation. 2008. Archived from the original on June 29, 2009.
- Michels, Jennifer (March 4, 2009). "Aviation Week Reveals Laureate Award Winners". Aviation Week.
- "Space Community Gathers at National Space Society's ISDC 2009" (Press release). National Space Society. June 17, 2009.
- "Automotive Executive of the Year". DNV Certification. 2010. Retrieved November 4, 2015.
- Favreau, Jon (April 29, 2010). "The 2010 Time 100". Time.
- "Barron Hilton and Elon Musk honoured with the highest FAI awards". Fédération Aéronautique Internationale. December 16, 2010. Retrieved March 25, 2015.
- "Living Legend of Aviation Awards". Kittie Hawk Air Academy. 2010. Retrieved November 4, 2015.
- "Caltech Elects Two Innovators to Board of Trustees".
- "Trustee List". The California Institute of Technology. Retrieved April 19, 2015.
- "Space Foundation Survey Reveals Broad Range of Space Heroes".
- Smith, Jacquelyn (February 14, 2011). "America's 20 Most Powerful CEOs 40 And Under". Forbes. Retrieved February 18, 2011.
To make this list, you had to be the chief executive of one of the 20 biggest publicly traded companies in the U.S. (as of Feb. 11, by market capitalization) with a CEO aged 40 or under.
- Dula, Art (June 16, 2011). "Heinlein Prize Honors Elon Musk of SpaceX". The Heinlein Prize.
- "2011 Churchill Club Awards".
- "2012 RAeS Gold Medal".
- Jonathan Welsh (November 21, 2013). "Tesla's Elon Musk is Fortune Businessperson of the Year". The Wall Street Journal.
- "IEEE Honorary Membership Recipients" (PDF). IEEE. Retrieved March 25, 2015.
- "Social Concepts, Inc: We connect people ™". socialconcepts.com. Retrieved November 4, 2015.
- Elon Musk Named Most Influential Person In The Car Business Teslarati, Retrieved 11 May 2016.
- "The World's Most Powerful People". Forbes. December 2016. Retrieved 14 December 2016.
- "Graduation show, Art Center College of Design". Cumulusassociation.org. November 23, 2010. Retrieved August 15, 2013.
- Surrey celebrates its honorary graduates, Surrey celebrates graduation 2015, Surrey Graduate, Surrey Alumni Society (Autumn/Winter 2009)[dead link]
- SEAS Celebrates Class of 2015, Honors Innovators Elon Musk and Dean Kamen, 314th commencement (Spring 2015)
- "Elon Musk SpaceX Tesla on the Simpsons – Business Insider". Business Insider. January 27, 2015. Retrieved April 19, 2015.
- "Tesla CEO Elon Musk To Appear On Upcoming Episode Of The Big Bang Theory - CBS.com". CBS. Retrieved December 4, 2015.
- "'DC's Legends of Tomorrow' Power Rankings, Week 2: Burn, Baby, Burn – Observer". Observer. January 29, 2016. Retrieved February 7, 2016.
- Field, Kyle. "Tesla Stars In "Racing Extinction" Documentary". CleanTechnica. Retrieved 11 July 2016.
- Vance, Ashlee. Elon Musk: How the Billionaire CEO of SpaceX and Tesla is Shaping our Future. Virgin Books (2015). ISBN 9780753555620. Afterthoughts by Ashlee Vance
- Elon Musk at the Internet Movie Database
- SolarCity official website
- SpaceX official website
- Tesla Motors official website
- Paypal official website
- Gimien, Mark (August 17, 1999). "Fast Track". Salon.
- Statement of Elon Musk at House Space and Aeronautics Subcommittee Hearings on the Future Market for Commercial Space (2005)
- History of PayPal, gawker.com (2007)
- Bailey, Brandon (2010). "Elon Musk: Will his Silicon Valley story have a Hollywood ending?". San Jose Mercury News.
- "Science Fiction Books That Inspired Elon Musk", MediaBistro.com, March 19, 2013.
- "Elon Musk’s Space Dream Almost Killed Tesla" (Bloomberg, 2015)
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- "An interview with Elon Musk". HobbySpace. August 5, 2003.
- "Lift off with Elon Musk". Carte Blanche. September 4, 2005. Archived from the original on September 28, 2007.
- Bergin, Chris (January 20, 2006). "SpaceX's Musk and Thompson Q and A". nasaspaceflight.com.
- Video interview of Elon Musk by Zadi Diaz of EPIC FU, June 17, 2008. Retrieved April 27, 2014
- Gray, Sadie (January 4, 2009). "Forget the bungalow, retire to Mars". Sunday Times. London, UK. Retrieved April 27, 2014.
- Musk profile onInnovation.com. Retrieved April 27, 2014
- An interview at the Founders Showcase, August 5, 2010
- Elon Musk: 'I'm planning to retire to Mars', video interview for The Guardian, August 1, 2010
- 60 Minutes interview; March 18, 2012.
- A 20 minute interview about sending humans to Mars with BBC's Jonathan Amos, March 20, 2012
- Elon Musk: The mind behind Tesla, SpaceX, SolarCity, ted.com. Retrieved April 27, 2014
- Musk, Elon (January 6, 2015). "I am Elon Musk, CEO/CTO of a rocket company, AMA!". Reddit.com. Retrieved January 7, 2015.
- Elon Musk Powers Up: Inside Tesla's $5 Billion Gigafactory Fast Company (magazine), November 2015