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Erythroxylum monogynum Alwis.jpg
Erythroxylum monogynum
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Malpighiales
Family: Erythroxylaceae
Genus: Erythroxylum
P. Browne

250+, see text

Erythroxylum (Erythroxylon) is a genus of tropical flowering plants in the family Erythroxylaceae. Many of the approximately 200 species contain the substance cocaine,[1][2] and two of the species within this genus, Erythroxylum coca and Erythroxylum novogranatense, both native to South America, are the main commercial source of cocaine and of the mild stimulant coca tea.[3] Another species, Erythroxylum vaccinifolium (also known as catuaba) is used as an aphrodisiac in Brazilian drinks and herbal medicine.

Erythroxylum species are food sources for the larvae of some butterflies and moths, including several Morpho species and Dalcera abrasa, which has been recorded on E. deciduum, and the species of Agrias.


As of 2021, Kew's Plants of the World Online listed 259 species:[4]


  1. ^ Dr Duke's List of plants containing COCAINE "Chemical Information". Archived from the original on 2004-11-07. Retrieved 2004-11-07.
  2. ^ Bieri S, Brachet A, Veuthey J, Christen P. Cocaine distribution in wild Erythroxylum species. Journal of ethnopharmacology. 2006; 103: 439-447. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2005.08.021
  3. ^ Johnson, E; Zhang D; Emche S (2005). "Inter- and Intra-specific Variation among Five Erythroxylum Taxa Assessed by AFLP". Annals of Botany. 95 (4): 601–608. doi:10.1093/aob/mci062. PMC 4246853. PMID 15650009.
  4. ^ "Erythroxylum P.Browne". Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 8 January 2021.