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Coordinates: 51°28′33″N 0°17′11″W / 51.4759°N 0.2863°W / 51.4759; -0.2863
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Temperate House in Kew Gardens
Kew is located in Greater London
Location within Greater London
Area3.30 km2 (1.27 sq mi)
Population11,436 2011 Census (Kew ward 2011)[1]
• Density3,465/km2 (8,970/sq mi)
OS grid referenceTQ195775
London borough
Ceremonial countyGreater London
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Postcode districtTW9
Dialling code020
UK Parliament
London Assembly
List of places
51°28′33″N 0°17′11″W / 51.4759°N 0.2863°W / 51.4759; -0.2863

Kew (/kj/) is a district in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames.[2] Its population at the 2011 census was 11,436.[1] Kew is the location of the Royal Botanic Gardens ("Kew Gardens"), now a World Heritage Site, which includes Kew Palace. Kew is also the home of important historical documents such as Domesday Book, which is held at The National Archives.

Julius Caesar may have forded the Thames at Kew in 54 BC during the Gallic Wars.[3] Successive Tudor, Stuart and Georgian monarchs maintained links with Kew. During the French Revolution, many refugees established themselves there and it was the home of several artists in the 18th and 19th centuries.

Since 1965 Kew has incorporated the former area of North Sheen[4] which includes St Philip and All Saints, the first barn church consecrated in England.[5] It is now in a combined Church of England parish with St Luke's Church, Kew.

Today, Kew is an expensive residential area because of its prosperous suburban attributes. Among these are sports-and-leisure open spaces, schools, transport links, architecture, restaurants, no high-rise buildings, modest road sizes, trees and gardens. Most of Kew developed in the late 19th century, following the arrival of the District line of the London Underground. Further development took place in the 1920s and 1930s when new houses were built on the market gardens of North Sheen and in the first decade of the 21st century when considerably more river-fronting flats and houses were constructed by the Thames on land formerly owned by Thames Water.


The sculpture Cayho by Mark Folds, on the towpath next to Kew Pier, is a play on words, with Kew's 14th-century name rendered as "keyhole".

The name Kew, recorded in 1327 as Cayho, is a combination of two words: the Old French kai (landing place; "quay" derives from this) and Old English hoh (spur of land). The land spur is formed by the bend in the Thames.[6]


Kew forms part of the Richmond Park constituency in the UK Parliament; the Member of Parliament is Sarah Olney of the Liberal Democrats. For elections to the London Assembly it is part of the South West London Assembly constituency, which is represented by Nicholas Rogers of the Conservative Party.

Kew was added in 1892 to the Municipal Borough of Richmond which had been formed two years earlier and was in the county of Surrey.[2] In 1965, under the London Government Act 1963, the Municipal Borough of Richmond was abolished. Kew, along with Richmond, was transferred from Surrey to the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames, one of 32 boroughs in the newly created Greater London.


The Caxton Name Plate Manufacturing Company's former premises can still be identified from Kew Bridge, with its name on the building.
1954 Dodge Kew lorry

The fashion clothing retailer Jigsaw's headquarters, now at Water Lane, Richmond,[7] were previously in Mortlake Road, Kew.[8]

A former industry in Kew was that of nameplate manufacturing, by the Caxton Name Plate Manufacturing Company, based on Kew Green. The company was founded in 1964 and folded in 1997.[9]

It was in Kew that viscose was first developed into rayon, in a laboratory near Kew Gardens station run by Cowey Engineering. Rayon was produced in a factory on South Avenue, off Sandycombe Road, before Courtaulds acquired the patents for rayon in 1904.[10]

Also on a site near Kew Gardens station, the engineering company F C Blake, now commemorated in the Kew street name Blake Mews,[11] produced petrol-powered traction engines in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.[12]

Chrysler and Dodge[edit]

Currently, Kew Retail Park stands on the site of a former aircraft factory established in 1918 by Harry Whitworth, who owned Glendower Aircraft Ltd. The factory built Airco DH.4s and Sopwith Salamanders for the British government in the First World War.[13]

In 1923 the now-redundant aircraft factory was sold and it became a factory for road vehicles.[13] From the 1920s until 1967, Dodge made lorries at this factory, with the model name Kew. Cars were also manufactured there.[14] Dodge Brothers became a Chrysler subsidiary in 1928 and lorry production moved to Chrysler's car plant at Kew. In 1933 it began to manufacture a British chassis, at its works in Kew, using American engines and gearboxes.[15] After Chrysler bought the Maxwell Motor Company and their Kew works, the cars of the lighter Chrysler range – Chryslers, De Sotos and Plymouths – were assembled at this Kew site until the Second World War. The various models of De Sotos were named Richmond, Mortlake and Croydon; Plymouths were Kew Six and Wimbledon.[16]

During the Second World War this Chrysler factory was part of the London Aircraft Production Group and built Handley Page Halifax aircraft assemblies. When wartime aircraft production ceased, the plant did not resume assembly of North American cars.


Royal associations with Kew[edit]

West Hall is Kew's only surviving 17th-century building apart from Kew Palace.
Sarah Kirby (née Bull) and Joshua Kirby by Thomas Gainsborough
A musical portrait of Frederick, Prince of Wales and his sisters by Philip Mercier, dated 1733, uses the Dutch House, the present-day Kew Palace, as its plein-air backdrop.
Marianne North Gallery, Kew Gardens, interior
French painter Camille Pissarro's impression of Kew Green in 1892
Tomb of the painter Johan Zoffany at St Anne's Church

The Tudors and Stuarts[edit]

Charles Somerset, 1st Earl of Worcester (c.1460–1526) was granted lands at Kew in 1517. When he died in 1526 he left his Kew estates to his third wife, Eleanor, with the remainder to his son George. In 1538 Sir George Somerset sold the house for £200 to Thomas Cromwell (c.1485–1540), who resold it for the same amount to Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk (c. 1484–1545). Brandon had probably already inhabited Kew during the life of his wife Mary Tudor, the daughter of Henry VII and widow of the French king Louis XII. According to John Leland's Cygnea Cantio ("Swan Song"), she stayed in Kew (which he refers to as "Cheva")[17] for a time after her return to England.[18]

One of Henry VIII's closest friends, Henry Norris (c.1482–1536), lived at Kew Farm,[19] which was later owned by Elizabeth I's favourite, Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester (1532–1588).[20] This large palatial house on the Thames riverbank predated the royal palaces of Kew Palace and the White House. Excavations at Kew Gardens in 2009 revealed a wall that may have belonged to the property.[21]

In Elizabeth's reign, and under the Stuarts, houses were developed along Kew Green.[22] West Hall, which survives in West Hall Road, dates from at least the 14th century and the present house was built at the end of the 17th century.[23]

Elizabeth Stuart (1596–1662), daughter of James I, later known as the "Winter Queen", was given a household at Kew in 1608.[18]

Queen Anne subscribed to the building of the parish church on Kew Green, which was dedicated to St Anne in 1714, three months before the queen's death.[24]

The Hanoverians[edit]

The Hanoverians maintained the strongest links with Kew, in particular Princess Augusta who founded the botanic gardens[25] and her husband Frederick, Prince of Wales (1707–1751) who lived at the White House in Kew. Augusta, as Dowager Princess of Wales, continued to live there until her death in 1772.[26] Frederick commissioned the building of the first substantial greenhouse at Kew Gardens.[27]

In 1772 King George III and Queen Charlotte moved into the White House at Kew.[26] Queen Charlotte died at the Dutch House (Kew Palace) in 1818.[26]

King William IV spent most of his early life at Richmond and at Kew Palace, where he was educated by private tutors.[28]

Georgian expansion[edit]

During the French Revolution, many refugees established themselves in Kew, having built many of the houses of this period. In the 1760s and 1770s the presence of royalty attracted artists such as Thomas Gainsborough and Johann Zoffany.[18][29]

Artists associated with Kew[edit]

Botanists who have lived in Kew[edit]

Unsurprisingly, many botanists have lived in Kew, near the botanic gardens:

Grave of John Smith and his family in the churchyard at St Anne's
  • William Aiton (1731–1793), botanist, was appointed director in 1759 of the newly established botanical garden at Kew, where he remained until his death. He effected many improvements at the gardens, and in 1789 he published Hortus Kewensis, a catalogue of the plants cultivated there.[nb 1] When he died, he was succeeded as director at Kew Gardens by his son William Townsend Aiton (1766–1849), who was also a botanist, and was born in Kew.[63] William Townsend Aiton was one of the founders of the Royal Horticultural Society.[63] He retired in 1841 but remained living at Kew, although passing much of his time with his brother at Kensington where he died in 1849.[63] Both father and son lived at Descanso House on Kew Green and are buried in St Anne's churchyard[63] where the substantial family tomb is a prominent feature. Inside the church there is also a memorial to them.[64]
  • Sir William Hooker (1785–1865) and his son Sir Joseph Hooker (1817–1911), botanists and directors of Kew Gardens, lived at 49 Kew Green, Kew. The site is marked by a blue plaque.[65][66]
  • John Hutchinson (1884–1972), botanist, lived on Kew Green, near Kew Gardens' Herbarium, during the Second World War.[67][68]
  • Daniel Oliver (1830–1916), Professor of Botany at University College London 1861–88 and Keeper of the Herbarium at Kew Gardens 1864–90, lived on Kew Green.[69]
  • Henry Nicholas Ridley (1855–1956), botanist, geologist and naturalist, died at his home in Kew.[70]
  • John Smith (1798–1888), botanist, the first curator at Kew Gardens, lived on Kew Green.[71] He died at Park House, Kew Road, and is buried in St Anne's churchyard.[72]
  • William T Stearn (1911–2001), botanist, who was president of the Linnean Society, lived in Kew.[73]
  • John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute (1713–1792), botanist and honorary director of Kew Gardens 1754–72, adviser to Princess Augusta and tutor to George III and, later, Prime Minister of Great Britain 1762–63, lived at King's Cottage, 33 Kew Green.[74]

Other notable inhabitants[edit]

Cottages on Kew Green
Playwright Harold Pinter lived in Kew.
Krishnan Guru-Murthy lives in Kew.
Comedian Milton Jones was brought up in Kew.
TV presenter and former international gymnast Gabby Logan lives in Kew.

Historical figures[edit]

Living people[edit]


In the ten years from the time of the 2001 census, the population rose from 9,445[118] to 11,436,[1] the sharpest ten-year increase in Kew since the early 20th century. This was partly accounted for by the conversion of former Thames Water land to residential use, and increases in property sizes. The figures are based on those for Kew ward,[118] the boundaries of the enlarged parish having been adjusted to allow for all wards in the borough to be equally sized.

Homes and households[edit]

2011 Census homes
Ward Detached Semi-detached Terraced Flats and apartments Caravans/temporary/
mobile homes/houseboats
Shared between households[1]
Kew 426 1,029 1,212 2,268 4 25
Kew Bridge
Kew Pier
Kew Railway Bridge stonework
Kew Gardens Station Footbridge
Kew Gardens Station: main entrance on the eastbound side, 2014
2011 Census households
Ward Population Households % Owned outright % Owned with a loan Hectares[1]
Kew 11,436 4,941 30 30 330


In the 2011 census, 66.2% of Kew's population were White British. Other White was the second largest category at 16%, with 8.1% being Asian.[119]


In the past, a main mode of transport between Kew and London, for rich and poor alike, was by water along the Thames, which separated Middlesex (on the north bank) from Surrey: Kew was also connected to Brentford, Middlesex by ferry, first replaced by a bridge in 1759. The current Kew Bridge, which carries the South Circular Road (the A205), was opened by King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra in 1903.[26]

Kew Road (A307) passes through Kew as a single carriageway, and provides the main road link to Richmond. The M4 motorway starts a short distance north of Kew, providing access to Heathrow Airport and the west. The A316 road starts in Chiswick and continues over Chiswick Bridge and a complex junction with the South Circular Road at Chalker's Corner at the south-eastern end of the district.

Since 1869 rail services have been available from Kew Gardens station. London Underground (District line) services run to Richmond and to central London. London Overground trains run to Richmond and (via Willesden Junction) to Stratford.

The 65, 110 and R68 bus routes serve Kew.[120]

River bus services run from Kew Pier to Westminster Millennium Pier, Richmond and Hampton Court.[121]

Nearest places
Nearest railway stations

Parks and open spaces[edit]

Kew Green
Japanese garden in Kew Gardens
The war memorial gate at Westerley Ware
  • Kew Green is used by Kew Cricket Club for cricket matches in the summer.
  • Kew Pond, near the northeast corner of Kew Green, believed to date from the tenth century,[122] is originally thought to have been a natural pond fed from a creek of the tidal Thames. During high (spring) tides, sluice gates are opened to allow river water to fill the pond via an underground channel. The pond is concreted, rectangular in shape and contains an important reed bed habitat which is vital for conservation and resident water birds.
  • North Sheen Recreation Ground in Dancer Road, known locally as "The Rec", was originally part of an orchard belonging to the Popham Estate, owned by the Leyborne Pophams whose family seat was at Littlecote House, Wiltshire. Opened in June 1909 and extended in 1923, it now contains football pitches, a running track, a children's paddling pool, two extensive playgrounds, a large dog-free grassed area and a pavilion set amongst trees and shrubs.[123] It is also the home of a local football club, Kew Park Rangers. A sports pavilion[124] was opened in September 2011.[125]
  • Pensford Field,[126] previously playing fields of the former Gainsborough School, is now a nature reserve and also the home of Pensford Tennis Club.
  • St Luke's Open Space, a quiet sitting area and toddlers' play area, was previously a playground for a former Victorian primary school.[127][nb 3]
  • Westerley Ware is at the foot of Kew Bridge. It was created as a memorial garden to the fallen in the First World War, and also has a grass area, three hard tennis courts and a children's playground. Its name refers to the practice of netting weirs or "wares" to catch fish.[128][129]

Sport and leisure[edit]

Kew's several other sports clubs include:

The nearest football club in the Premier League is Brentford FC, whose stadium, opened in 2021, is on the other side of Kew Bridge, near Kew Bridge station.


The Kew Society
Formation1901 (as the Kew Union)[134]
Legal statusregistered charity
Shiona Williams
Main organ
The Kew Society Newsletter

The Kew Horticultural Society, founded in 1938, organises an annual show in late August/early September[136][137][138] as well as talks, events and outings throughout the year.

The Kew Society, founded in 1901 as the Kew Union,[134] is a civic society that seeks to enhance the beauty of Kew and preserve its heritage. It reviews all planning applications in Kew with special regard to the architectural integrity and heritage of the neighbourhood, and plays an active role in the improvement of local amenities. The Society, which is a member of Civic Voice,[139] organises community events including lectures and outings and produces a quarterly newsletter.

The Richmond Local History Society is concerned with the history of Kew, as well as that of Richmond, Petersham and Ham.[140]


Darell Primary and Nursery School

Primary schools[edit]

  • Darell Primary and Nursery School is on Darell Road and Niton Road. It opened in 1906, as the Darell Road Schools, at the southern end of what had been the Leyborne-Popham estate.[141] It was Richmond Borough Council's first primary school and was built in the Queen Anne Revival style , in brick with white stone facings. Although it has been extended several times, it is now the only Richmond borough primary school still in its historic original pre-1914 building.[142]
  • Kew Riverside Primary School, on Courtlands Avenue, opened in 2003.[143]
  • The King’s Church of England Primary School is in Cumberland Road, where it moved in 1969.[144] In her will of 1719, Dorothy, Lady Capel of Kew House left to four trustees Perry Court Farm in Kent, which she had inherited from her father. One twelfth of the rent from the farm was to be given to St Anne's Church to establish a school in Kew.[145] In 1810, a "Free School" was opened in the church for 50 children, financed by subscribers who gave one guinea a year, in addition to a contribution by King George III. In 1824 the school moved to a site near the pond on Kew Green. The foundation stone was laid on 12 August, the birthday of King George IV, who gave £300 on condition that it be called "The King's Free School". Queen Victoria gave permission for it to be called "The Queen's School" and decreed that its title should change with that of the monarch.[144]

Independent preparatory schools[edit]

  • Broomfield House School, on Broomfield Road, was founded in 1876.[146]
  • Kew College, a co-educational school for 3- to 11-year-olds, was founded in 1927 by Mrs Ellen Upton in rooms over a shop in Kew. Mrs Upton's young daughter was one of the first pupils. The school later moved to Cumberland Road. In 1953, Mrs Upton retired and sold the school to Mrs Hamilton-Spry who, in 1985, handed over the buildings to a charitable trust to ensure the school's long term continuity.
  • Kew Green Preparatory School, at Layton House, Ferry Lane, near Kew Green, opened in 2004.
  • Unicorn School, established in 1970, is a co-educational, parent-owned school on Kew Road, opposite Kew Gardens.[147]

Former schools[edit]

In the 19th century, Leopold Neumegen operated a school for Jews at Gloucester House in Kew after his earlier school in Highgate closed and when, for financial reasons, he needed to commence work again.[148]

Places of worship[edit]

Four churches in Kew are currently in use:

Name Denomination History Address Website Image
Our Lady of Loreto and St Winefride's, Kew Roman Catholic From 1890 to 1906 local Roman Catholics met in a temporary chapel at a Catholic mission on Kew Gardens Road. Designed by the architects Scoles & Raymond, the new church was opened in 1906 and the side aisles, baptistery and chapels were added in 1968. The sanctuary was remodelled in 1977 and the church was refurbished and decorated in 1998. A parish hall is located next to the church. After a parishioner's bequest paid off the church's debts, the church was dedicated and consecrated in 1979. 1 Leyborne Park, Kew, Richmond TW9 3HB www.stwinefrides.org.uk
St Anne's Church, Kew Anglican Built in 1714 on land given by Queen Anne, the church, now Grade II* listed, has been extended several times. The present parish hall was built in 1978. The churchyard has two Grade II* listed monuments – the tombs of the artists Johan Zoffany (d. 1816) and Thomas Gainsborough (d. 1788). Kew Green, Kew, Richmond TW9 3AA www.saintanne-kew.org.uk
St Luke's Church, Kew Anglican Founded in 1889, St Luke's now forms a joint parish with the Barn Church (below). The church, built in the Gothic Revival style by architects Goldie, Child and Goldie, was redesigned in 1983 to create a smaller space for Christian worship in the former chancel area and to enable the former nave, and a second hall constructed in a loft conversion, to be used for community purposes also: it now hosts the Kew Community Trust and acts as a community centre. The Avenue, Kew, Richmond TW9 2AJ www.stlukeskew.org
St Philip and All Saints Church, Kew (the Barn Church) Anglican Founded in 1929, this was the first barn church to be consecrated in England. Local Anglicans previously worshipped at St Peter's, a hall erected in 1910 (and now demolished) on the corner of Marksbury Avenue and Chilton Road. The church building was constructed in 1929 from a 17th- (or possibly 16th-) century barn from Oxted in Surrey. The west end was converted in 2002 into a large parish room with a gallery above looking down the length of the building. The sanctuary was refurbished and remodelled in 1998. Atwood Avenue, Kew, Richmond TW9 4HF barnchurchkew.uk

Former churches include:

  • Kew Baptist Church, a Grace Baptist church, was founded in 1861 in Richmond as Salem Baptist Church. It moved in 1973 to a new building on Windsor Road in Kew, adopting the name Kew Baptist Church in 1990, and closed in 2020.
  • the late 19th-century Cambridge Road Wesleyan Methodist Chapel, previously known as the Gloucester Road Wesleyan Methodist Chapel[149] and also known as Cambridge Road Methodist Church,[150] which was in use from 1891 to 1969.[150] It is now a private residence.

A late Victorian Salvation Army hall at 6 North Road, built in the style of a chapel, was converted into flats (1–5 Quiet Way) in the early 21st century.[151]

Cemeteries and crematorium[edit]

North Sheen Cemetery

Mortlake Crematorium and two cemeteries – North Sheen Cemetery and Mortlake Cemetery – are located in Kew.[152] The crematorium serves the boroughs of Ealing, Hammersmith and Fulham, Hounslow and Richmond upon Thames and the two cemeteries are managed by Hammersmith and Fulham Council.

Literary references to Kew[edit]

Lilac in Kew Gardens
Tram to Kew and Richmond c.1900

I am His Highness' dog at Kew;
Pray tell me, sir, whose dog are you?

Epigram, engraved on the Collar of a Dog which I gave to his Royal Highness (Frederick, Prince of Wales), 1736[153] (Alexander Pope, 1688–1744)

And the wildest dreams of Kew are the facts of Khatmandhu.

In The Neolithic Age, 1892 (Rudyard Kipling, 1865–1936)

Go down to Kew in lilac-time, in lilac-time, in lilac-time;
Go down to Kew in lilac-time (it isn't far from London!)
And you shall wander hand in hand with love in summer's wonderland;
Go down to Kew in lilac-time (it isn't far from London!)

The Barrel-Organ, 1920 (Alfred Noyes, 1880–1958)

Trams and dusty trees.
Highbury bore me. Richmond and Kew
Undid me.

The Waste Land, 1922 (T. S. Eliot, 1888–1965)

Lady Croom: My hyacinth dell is become a haunt for
hobgoblins, my Chinese bridge, which I am assured is
superior to the one at Kew, and for all I know at Peking, is
usurped by a fallen obelisk overgrown with briars.

Arcadia, 1993 (Tom Stoppard, b. 1937)

See also[edit]


  1. ^  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Aiton, William". Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 448.
  2. ^  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Aiton, William". Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 460.
  3. ^ The former building of St Luke's School is now an art studio."Kew Studio". 24 January 2013. Retrieved 23 November 2022.


  1. ^ a b c d e Key Statistics; Quick Statistics: Population Density Office for National Statistics
  2. ^ a b "History of Kew, in Richmond upon Thames and Surrey". Map and description, A Vision of Britain through Time. GB Historical GIS / University of Portsmouth. Retrieved 3 July 2023.
  3. ^ Blomfield 1994, p.3
  4. ^ a b Blomfield 1994, p.131
  5. ^ Blomfield, David. The Story of Kew, second edition, p.36, Leyborne Publications, 1996, ISBN 0 9520515 2 4
  6. ^ Room, Adrian. Dictionary of Place-Names in the British Isles, Bloomsbury, 1988, ISBN 978-0747501701
  7. ^ "Customer Care". Jigsaw. Retrieved 22 January 2023.
  8. ^ Meyer-Stabley, Bertrand [in French] (2016). Kate Middleton: La vie de Catherine, Duchesse de Cambridge. Paris: La Boite a Pandore. ISBN 978-2-39009-130-1.
  9. ^ "Caxton Name Plate Manufacturing Company Limited". Duedil. Archived from the original on 4 March 2018. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  10. ^ Stilwell, Martin (2020). "Industries in Kew and North Richmond in the First World War". Richmond History, Journal of the Richmond Local History Society. 41: 72–73. ISSN 0263-0958.
  11. ^ Members of the Richmond Local History Society (2022). The Streets of Richmond and Kew (Fourth ed.). Richmond Local History Society. p. 21. ISBN 9781912-31403-4.
  12. ^ Stilwell, Martin (2020). "Industries in Kew and North Richmond in the First World War". Richmond History, Journal of the Richmond Local History Society. 41: 71–77. ISSN 0263-0958.
  13. ^ a b Stilwell, Martin (2020). "Industries in Kew and North Richmond in the First World War". Richmond History, Journal of the Richmond Local History Society. 41: 75–76. ISSN 0263-0958.
  14. ^ Amies, Mark (17 November 2015). "London's Lost Manufacturing – We Were Once The British Detroit". Londonist. Retrieved 4 February 2016.
  15. ^ Stevens-Stratten, S W (1983). British Lorries 1945–1983 (2nd, revised ed.). Littlehampton Book Services Ltd. ISBN 978-0711013001.
  16. ^ Kimes, Beverly (1996). Standard Catalog of American Cars 1805–1942. Krause Publications. pp. 306–334. ISBN 0-87341-478-0.
  17. ^ Leland, John (translated by Sutton, Dana F) (1545). "Cygnea Cantio". Cygnea Cantio (Swan Song). The Philological Museum. Retrieved 31 May 2023.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  18. ^ a b c Malden, H E, ed. (1911). "Parishes: Kew". A History of the County of Surrey: Volume 3. London. pp. 482–487. Retrieved 15 June 2023.
  19. ^ Blomfield 1994, p.5
  20. ^ Blomfield 1994, p.12
  21. ^ Potter, G (2010). "Replacement Outdoor Children's Play Area, land adjacent to the Climbers and Creepers Building, Royal Botanic Gardens Kew... Archaeological Watching Brief and in situ Preservation of Remains". Archaeological Data Service. pp. i and 4. Retrieved 31 May 2023.
  22. ^ Blomfield 1994, p.16
  23. ^ Blomfield 1994, p.18
  24. ^ Blomfield 1994, p.23
  25. ^ "Reading the Royal Landscape: Heritage Year 2006" (Press release). Royal Botanic Gardens Kew. 2006. Archived from the original on 5 February 2016. Retrieved 4 February 2016.
  26. ^ a b c d "Royal Richmond timeline: 900 years of royal associations with Richmond upon Thames". Local history timelines. London Borough of Richmond upon Thames. 1 April 2020. Retrieved 31 May 2023.
  27. ^ Blomfield 1994, p.32
  28. ^ Zeigler, Philip (1971). King William IV. London: Collins. pp. 13–19. ISBN 978-0-00-211934-4.
  29. ^ a b c Blomfield 1994, pp.43–45
  30. ^ "Interview with local artist, Diana Armfield" (PDF). The Kew Society Newsletter. Summer 2021. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 July 2021. Retrieved 21 July 2021.
  31. ^ a b Macpherson, Amy (14 December 2015). "Painting their life: Diana Armfield and Bernard Dunstan". Royal Academy. Retrieved 21 July 2021.
  32. ^ "Armfield, Diana Maxwell". Benezit Dictionary of Artists. Oxford Art Online. Retrieved 15 June 2023.
  33. ^ Buckman, David (2006). Artists in Britain Since 1945. Art Dictionaries Ltd. p. 44. ISBN 0-953260-95X.
  34. ^ "St Anne's Church, Kew Green" (PDF). Local History Notes. London Borough of Richmond upon Thames. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 August 2017. Retrieved 8 October 2022.
  35. ^ Blomfield 1994, p.95
  36. ^ "Penelope Blathwayt, Mrs Jeremiah Pierce Crane (1755–1810): George Engleheart (Kew 1750 – Blackheath 1839) National Trust Inventory Number 453454". National Trust Collections. National Trust. Archived from the original on 5 September 2014. Retrieved 10 October 2017.
  37. ^ 1881 England Census. Class: RG11; Piece: 845; Folio: 111; Page: 3; GSU roll: 1341200
  38. ^ Nash, Steven A; Federle Orr, Lynn; California Palace of the Legion of Honor; Stewart, Marion C (1999). Masterworks of European Painting in the California Palace of the Legion of Honor. Hudson Hills. p. 111. ISBN 9781555951825.
  39. ^ Riggs, Terry (November 1997). "Arthur Hughes: artist biography". Tate. Retrieved 12 December 2022.
  40. ^ "Hughes, Arthur (1832-1915)". Visit Richmond. English Heritage. Retrieved 3 July 2023.
  41. ^ Norman, Geraldine (10 August 1976). "Samuel Palmer imitator who duped art world". The Times. p. 1.
  42. ^ Rais, Guy (16 January 1979). "Art fakes girl under spell of older painter". The Times. p. 9.
  43. ^ Staff Reporter (20 August 1976). "Mr. Keating says art imitations are protest". The Times. p. 1.
  44. ^ Norman, Geraldine (27 August 1976). "Mr. Keating made 2000 pastiches". The Times. p. 1.
  45. ^ Sweet, Matthew (31 January 1999). "The Faker's Moll". The Independent on Sunday. Retrieved 2 April 2023.
  46. ^ Staff reporter (28 January 1979). "Court Portraits: The best free show in town". The Observer.
  47. ^ Rais, Guy (2 February 1979). "Old masters' spirits took over, says Tom Keating". The Times. p. 3.
  48. ^ Davalle, Peter, ed. (11 November 1982). "Today's television programmes – CHOICE: Tom Keating On Painters". The Times. p. 25.
  49. ^ Gosling, Kenneth (18 March 1983). "Channel 4 wins two awards". The Times. p. 5.
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