Food Justice Movement

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Food justice)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

The Food Justice Movement is a grassroots initiative which emerged in response to food insecurity and economic pressures that prevent access to healthy, nutritious, and culturally appropriate foods (food should fit the cultural background of the people consuming it).[1] It includes more broad policy movements, such as the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.[2] Food justice recognizes the food system as "a racial project and problematizes the influence of race and class on the production, distribution and consumption of food".[1] This encompasses farm labor work, land disputes, issues of status and class, environmental justice, public politics, and advocacy.[1][3] Food justice is closely connected to food sovereignty, which critiques "structural barriers communities of color face to accessing local and organic foods" that are largely due to institutional racism and the effect it has on economic equality.[4] It is argued that lack of access to good food is both a cause and a symptom of the structural inequalities that divide society. A possible solution presented for poor areas includes community gardens, fairness for food workers, and a national food policy.[5]

History[edit]

Food justice has been a part of the activist sphere since the founding of the United States. Yet, the history of our modern Food Justice Movement formulated in the early 1960s during the height of the Civil Rights Movement. Access to food for Black people was stripped, mounting pushback.

For example, in November 1962, the completely white board of supervisors in Leflore County voted to discontinue the Federal Surplus Food Commodity Program.[6] Only white members of the community could attend, though those who used the program were less than 1 percent white. Officials like Mississippi's public welfare commissioner, Fred A. Ross, condemned the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee's free food distribution program. This welfare cut is now known as the Greenwood Food Blockade. The Federal Surplus Food Commodity Program provided items such as meal, flour, and powdered milk to 90 percent of Black people in the winters. In response to harsh conditions, the SNCC petitioned president John F. Kennedy to intervene. The federal government mandated that the program be continued, despite the continued pushback from white government officials. This marked the end of the Greenwood Food Blockade, but only was the beginning of white people in power weaponizing access to food.

Years later, the Black Panther Party played a big role in the burgeoning Food Justice movement in the coming years. In 1969, they launched the Free Breakfast for Children program at a church in Oakland, California. This model was adopted by countless cities across the country, and ultimately led Congress to increase funding for the National School Lunch Program and expand the breakfast program to all public schools.

A separate sphere of the Food Justice movement is that of the white community, whose trajectory in the movement differed from that of the Black activists. In 1996, the Community Food Security Coalition (CFSC) was an important player in advocating for access to fresh fruits and vegetables. However, this group was composed of all white Americans and neglected to seek input from residents of the food insecure areas they attempted to help. According to Daniel Ross, Director of Nuestras Raíces, food security cannot exist independently of the specific community in discussion because of how central food and agriculture are to a community.

Background[edit]

The modern Food Justice movement grew out of the Community Food Security Coalition (CFSC) in 1996, which sought to provide affordable, culturally appropriate, healthy food to Americans. A shortcoming of this group was that it was composed entirely of white Americans, and accepted little input from residents of food insecure areas which the CFSC was trying to help. It emphasized the consumption of local and fresh fruits and vegetables, and removed race from the conversation. Director of Nuestras Raices Daniel Ross points out that:

...food security cannot be divorced from the issues of concern to communities ... food and agriculture lends itself to addressing [racism and power imbalances] because food is so central to communities and, if you had working communities, you'd have justice and equality. ... At the heart is the element of justice.[7]

Other scholars who have done research in food justice and related topics include Monica M. White whose research is focused on the primarily black community in Detroit. In her article Sisters of the Soil: Urban Gardening as Resistance in Detroit, she discusses the work of the Detroit Black Community Food Security Network (DBCFSN) that uses farming as a way to alleviate food insecurity and make political statements. White cites the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of 2005–2006 to point out that 52.9% of black women are obese, compared to 37.2% of black men and 32.9% of white women due to phenomena like food deserts and food insecurity. Because the socioeconomic status of black communities in Detroit are a huge part of the food insecurity issues black communities face, this serves as an example for the inseparability of food justice movements and social reform.[8]

Article 25 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states: "Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control."

The Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations states that the right to food is "The right to feed oneself in dignity. It is the right to have continuous access to the resources that will enable you to produce, earn or purchase enough food to not only prevent hunger, but also to ensure health and well-being. The right to food only rarely means that a person has the right to free handouts."[2]

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has the National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA) which is a part of USDA's Research, Education, and Economics mission area (REE), NIFA is an agency that uses federal funding in order to address agricultural and food justice related issues that impact people's daily lives. This is a collaborative effort that uses scientists and research in order to locate and find solutions to issues in the agricultural chain. They use science-policy decision making, something to keep in mind when asking what problems are being fixed and for what purpose.[9]

Modern Political Response[edit]

Food access and justice is a contentious topic in current day legislation, as the fight for food justice is far from over.

The movement was highly popularized during President Obama's two terms, largely in part due to his wife, Michelle Obama. President Obama passed the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act in 2010, calling for a raised nutrition standard in the National School Lunch Program.[10] Despite some Republican lawmaker pushback, the law went into effect. In 2020, The University of Washington School of Public Health found that since the passing of this legislation, children from low-income households have been eating healthier school lunches with better nutritional quality.[11]

Supplementing the legal action taken by the President, Michelle Obama's activism in the political sphere led to the onset of programs like Let's Move, that target decreasing adolescent obesity across the United States. Nevertheless, a decade later, certain scholars justify a decrease in funding towards these programs that are anchored on obesity reduction instead of food justice and equity.[12]

In 2017, the Food Deserts Act was introduced to the House.[13] The Act called for consistent grants for grocery stores in areas defined as formal food deserts. Grant money would be allocated to selling healthy foods that are locally sourced. This bill did not make it past an introduction in the House. Scholars suggest that this highlights limited support for food justice from Congress, despite food insecurity being a relatively bipartisan issue.

Years later, the Healthy Food Access for All Americans Act was introduced in 2021 to the Senate.[14] The legislation calls for tax credits and grant funding for opening grocery stores and food banks in food deserts. This bill has yet to be passed as of April 2022.

Research and theory[edit]

There is a plethora of research pertaining to community gardens, urban farming, and their impact on local communities.[15] The literature tries to connect the activities of community gardens and urban agricultural projects to social, health, and economic outcomes. However, due to the overwhelming lack of diversity in the perspectives that inform the food justice movement, a new concept of just sustainability[1] has been proposed. To address white and middle class culture dominating the discussion and priorities of organic food and sustainability practices, a more multi-cultural and intersectional approach is suggested that includes the narratives of historically marginalized communities.[1]

Food movements and race[edit]

The food justice movement points out that many food activists and scholars, such as journalist Michael Pollan, fail to account for the social and economic constraints that shape the food habits and choices of certain groups, and overly emphasize individual choices. Food justice activists point out that communities of color have lost food sovereignty, and they note that racism and economic inequality prevent Black communities in particular from having access to sufficient amounts of nutritious foods. This movement aims to reform the food system by addressing such structural inequalities and also by celebrating foods that are of cultural significance to different groups.[16]

The intersection of race and food justice appears in the food justice movement, for example, in the San Francisco Bay Area and most notably in the city of Oakland. West Oakland, historically a neighborhood with a higher Black population, has also long been known as a food desert, meaning residents must travel over a mile for fresh food. Thirty five percent of residents in this area also lack access to a car to drive to a store, a quarter of residents live below the poverty line, and diabetes is three times more prevalent in this neighborhood than in the rest of Alameda County.[17]

On a national level, Black households are twice as likely and Latinx households 1.5 more likely than white households to be food insecure.[18] These disproportionate levels of food insecurity expose the systemic issues at the root of the problem. People are food insecure because they do not have room in their budget to buy sufficient food for themselves and their families, and the fact that people of color are more likely to be food insecure is because they are more likely to live in poverty.[19] This goes back to societal issues of disinvestment in communities of color, with Black communities in particular being less likely to have access to quality education, job opportunities, and knowledge of government assistance programs.[20] This issue was brought to public attention during COVID-19, when food insecurity levels dramatically increased, particularly for Black communities. The pandemic exposed which populations were most vulnerable; Black people are more likely to work in high exposure jobs, less likely to have access to quality health care, and more likely to face bias by health care workers.[20] It is these inequalities that led to the food justice movement in the first place: a movement that specifically addresses racial disparities in the food system.

78% of Native Americans live outside of tribal-designated lands, despite literature on food security and Native peoples almost exclusively being in the context of reservation residency, and there is often a difference in food security seen in urban and rural settings among these individuals (Tomayko et al., 2017). A study done with 240 rural Native American households, and 210 urban Native American households found that the average rate of food insecurity was about 61%, with 80% of urban homes being food insecure and 45% of rural homes being food insecure within the study (Tomayko et al., 2017). Native Americans are often excluded from studies on food insecurity, and research on Native American food insecurity and injustices are rare. The USDA Annual Household Food Security Report in 2019 neglected to include Native American individuals in their findings (Meredith, 2020). One of the first and only longitudinal studies of Native food insecurity at the national level was written by Craig Gunderson in 2008, although the US government officially defined a measurement of food insecurity in 1995 (Gunderson, 2008).

Food justice and policy[edit]

Food justice emerged as a way of applying food security and anti-hunger movements to policy by drawing from established social and environmental theoretical frameworks. The food justice movement is related to food sovereignty in that it critiques "structural barriers communities of color face to accessing local and organic foods" that are largely due to institutional racism and the effect it has on economic equality.[21] This movement seeks to create equal access to nutritious food for all people, regardless of race, and policy is one mode that this mission is accomplished through. One way that this policy in integrated is through food policy councils, which have existed in North America since 1982.[22] The implementation of food policy councils at the city level has allowed for changes to respond directly to community needs, with communities being involved with the creation of policy.[22]

Organizations and festivals such as the Coalition of Immokalee Workers, Familias Unidas por la Justicia,[23] and Farm Aid are credited as working to raise awareness of or assist with food justice by fighting for family farmers to keep and sustain their land, fair pay and treatment of workers, and ensuring access to healthy foods to those previously denied affordable nourishment.

Consequences[edit]

Food Deserts[edit]

Food deserts are defined by the USDA as census tracts that contain a notable population of low income people that lack access to healthy and affordable food, such as a typical chain grocery store within reachable distance.[24] In food deserts, it is typical to see an abundance of fast food restaurants alongside gas stations and liquor stores with no fresh food, only offering bagged chips, sodas, and other quick eat items that lack nutritional substance, are available, alongside fast food restaurants that do not offer healthy options. In a Report to Congress done by the United States Department of Agriculture, it was found that 23.5 million Americans live more than one mile away from a grocery store and do not have access to a car.[25] There are concerns regarding individuals in food insecure areas that have to rely on public transportation to access local food markets to grocery stores.

Some activists criticize the term "food desert" as a bad descriptor of these neighborhoods, for two main reasons. First, the word "desert" implies something that is naturally existing. Deserts are labeled as so because they receive a certain amount of precipitation, a factor beyond human control. Rather, urban planner Karen Washington of Johns Hopkins explains that residents in "food deserts" often may have food, but it is the quality of such food that suffers.[26] Grocery stores may have produce that is financially inaccessible for residents, and as such proximity is not always the main issue. Research from the University of Washington has shown that proximity to supermarkets had no correlation to ability to shop at a supermarket, and perhaps social deprivation is a better explanation. Scholars have used the term food mirage to explain this concept.

Food Apartheid[edit]

In recent years, racial justice organizers have began to label the lack of access to fresh, healthy, and affordable food a form of Food Apartheid. These organizers argue that this disparity is predominantly because of structural inequalities that deprive poor communities of color from access to the same selections of food as richer white communities.[27] Ashante Reese, author of Black Food Geographies: Race, Self-Reliance, and Food Access explains that the anti-Black  racism and uneven capitalist urban development create conditions that can only be called food apartheid.

Critics of this term explain that using the word apartheid to describe this unequal food access devalues the suffering inflicted on millions of South Africans upon its introduction in 1948. Apartheid was a traumatic experience for the millions of South Africans that lived under apartheid rule, and for that reason some call it an insensitive label for the food segregation phenomenon.[28]

Structural Inequities[edit]

Access to food is a highly racialized topic.

Indigenous Americans[edit]

Most of the farms in the United States exist on stolen land from legislation such as the Indian Removal Act of 1830.[29] This land was then portioned among white settlers for extremely low costs, through legislation such as the Homestead Act. Prior to European colonization of the Americas, the indigenous people that inhabited America had various regionally unique food resources. Nevertheless, today one in four Native Americans lack reliable access to healthy food and have a much higher risk for diet-related diseases. American Indian and Alaska Native adults are 50% more likely to be obese and 30% more likely to suffer from hypertension compared to white Americans.[30] They are also 50% more likely to be diagnosed with coronary heart disease, and three times more likely to have diabetes.

Valarie Blue Bird Jernigan, the executive director of the Center for Indigenous Health Research and Policy, posits that these levels of food insecurity are a direct cause of colonization.[31] Her Community-based Participatory Research (CBPR) study on the Round Valley Reservation in Mendocino County, California, found that the 4000 residents studied had nutritionally poor diets because of lack of access to fresh foods. The Round Valley Reservation's only sources of food during the study was a single grocery store located in the town over, with a fried chicken fast food restaurant inside, where 85% of its shelf space is dedicated to prepackaged foods. The only other source was reported to be a gas station which sells prepackaged snacks and hot dogs.

Currently, up to 85% of Native American peoples on Reservations take part in food assistance programs, one of them being the US Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations (FDPIR).[32] The foods that these programs distribute are often canned and prepackaged, inevitably being high in salt, sugar, and fats as well as low in vital micronutrients. As such, reform is necessary for these programs to more effectively target the problem. She explains that her ideal solution is increased efforts should be focused on providing Indigenous food sovereignty, which is a specific policy approach that works to mobilize communities using multi-millennial cultural harvesting strategies.

Black Americans[edit]

In the aftermath of slavery, Black Americans faced a unique and difficult struggle to obtain food justice. Between 1865 and 1910, though many Black men became landowners, land was stolen from them through legal trickery and undue violent acts. Furthermore, many were unable to own land at all. As a result, countless Black people were forced to sharecrop on other people's land.[33] White supremacist violence and discriminatory money lending policies, many of which were instituted by the US Department of Agriculture, allowed for white developers to easily acquire properties. In 1920, Black Americans owned 14% of American farms. In 2017, that proportion has gone down to 2%.[34] This inability to farm and grow one's own food prevents many communities from achieving a truly sustainable food system. Dara Cooper, the executive director of the National Black Food and Justice Alliance, claims that providing healthy food options is not enough to achieve food justice. She explains that a community must own and control the institutions that deliver said food.[35]

Beyond farming discrimination, since the end of the Great Recession, the income disparity between Black and white households has widened, and this intersection of socioeconomic issues and racial history creates a higher risk for Black Americans to face food insecurity.[36] Food mirages explain the concept of grocery stores being present, but the healthy items within them being financially out of reach for their customers.

Harlem, New York is a neighborhood that highlights much of the radicalized nature of food injustice. Harlem was 87.6% Black in 1990. Past and current resident Angela Helm explains that at the time, the neighborhood would have been described as a food desert.[37] Spurred by a real estate transformation, Starbucks locations began to open and President Bill Clinton moved his office into the neighborhood. As such, rents began to skyrocket and the landscape shifted. Residents protested the opening of Whole Foods, which drew in white neighbors and produce that remained unaffordable for residents and their families. Gentrification is a phenomenon that disproportionately impacts Black residents in urban areas, and also their access to food.

A similar phenomenon can be seen in New Orleans, Louisiana. Following the destruction wreaked by Hurricane Katrina, New Orleans East was still home to 73,000 predominantly African American residents. This neighborhood in itself would constitute the fourth-largest city in Louisiana, yet the entire neighborhood has not a single grocery store.[33]

To target these disparities in economic capital, Soul Fire Farm, an Afro-Indigenous centered community farm, created a reparations map to allow these efforts to become more useful. Additionally, other scholars propose nutrition incentive programs, that provide cash matches for SNAP and WIC benefits spent on fruits and vegetables in markets and grocery stores.[38]

Residential segregation[edit]

Food apartheid and the lack of access to food are the results of racist politicking and they stem from socioeconomic injustices that disproportionately affect low income Black communities.[citation needed] According to the ACLU, food deserts are the direct manifestation of structural inequities that have been solidified over time. These institutional racisms that have resulted in a lack of access to healthy food for minorities are innumerable—but among them include housing policies leading to segregated communities and financial policies leading to commercial flight. These policies have all interacted over time to contribute to health disparities among the Black community.[39]

In 1962, 61% of white Americans shared the sentiment that "white people[possessed] a right to keep blacks out of their neighborhoods if they [wanted] to, and blacks should respect that right."[40] Despite years of policy changes a result of the Civil Rights Movement, 30 years later in 1990, a Detroit survey of whites found that a quarter of white respondents would not move into a neighborhood that was more than 50% Black.[41] Discrimination towards Blacks continues to influence real estate practices, while public policies and institutional discrimination continue to reinforce race segregated living patterns. Although segregation by race is illegal, it has not ceased to be the standard in America. Living patterns are not only correlated with access to educational opportunities, and employment opportunities—they are also correlated to access to food.[41]

Studies published by American Journal of Preventative Medicine have found that low-income neighborhoods and minority neighborhoods are less likely to have access to large supermarkets.[42] Federal government policies have directly hindered the development of supermarkets in Black populated communities. As middle-income whites got subsidized government loans to move from cities to suburbia, businesses, including supermarkets, relocated with them.[43] Grocery stores and retailers alike, were supported by the United States government to relocate to the suburbs—catering to the White middle class and leaving the cities desolate.

Another housing issue related to food justice is the phenomena of green gentrification. Green gentrification is the idea that as initiatives to promote nutritious food in communities such as community gardens and farmers markets grow, neighborhoods become more appealing, and attract wealthier residents. These resources which were originally implemented to benefit low-income and marginalized communities then end up being used by more privileged populations. This was seen in Oakland, California, when a community garden started by the food justice organization Phat Beets was shown in a real estate ad.[44] Issues such as this one have led to many food justice organizations incorporating other social justice issues such as gentrification and affordable housing into their missions.[44]

Health outcomes related to nutrition in communities of color[edit]

Research links many health issues to the lack of nutritious food, and since food insecurity disproportionately impacts people of color, so do these health conditions. For example, cancer, diabetes, and other nutrition-related health conditions are disproportionately seen in communities of color.[17] According to the Centers For Disease Control, obesity has been linked to a wide range of health problems including Type 2 Diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, various types of cancer, hypertension, and high cholesterol among both adults and children.[45]

In a 2004 study done by medical doctors and public health professionals of New York's Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, a community coalition study was done to compare the availability and cost of diabetes-healthy foods in a Black populated neighborhood in East Harlem with that of the adjacent White, wealthy Upper East Side in New York City. Researchers surveyed 173 East Harlem and 152 Upper East Side grocery stores to find whether or not they stocked five basic diabetes-diet recommended foods. Results showed that only 18% of East Harlem stores stocked the recommended foods, compared with 58% of stores in the Upper East Side. Further, they found that only 9% of East Harlem bodegas (convenience stores) carried all five recommended items while 48% of Upper East Side bodegas carried the items.[46] This discrepancy is an example of how structural inequalities such as lack of access to healthy foods perpetuate high levels of type 2 diabetes in the black community.

Victim blaming[edit]

Access to food disproportionately affects minority communities, but victim-blaming narratives about them exist. For example, an article published by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service entitled "Access to Affordable, Nutritious Food is Limited in Food Deserts", states that consumers' demographic and economic characteristics, buying habits, and tastes can explain why stores do not locate in some areas or carry particularly healthy foods.[47] Some criticized that such argument blames the communities themselves for the lack of access to healthy food and fails to acknowledge the historical influences and governmental policies that have marginalized these minority communities.[48] Additionally, one study found that the difference in nutritional quality of food between food secure and food insecure populations was likely to be a result of financial or time constraints.[49] Finally, food insecure minority communities were found to be less likely to have the cooking facilities or skills needed to cook home cooked meals.[49]

Food Sovereignty[edit]

Food sovereignty is defined in the Declaration of Nyéléni as "the right of peoples to healthy and culturally appropriate food produced through ecologically sound and sustainable methods, and their right to define their own food and agriculture systems."[50] It revolves around the issues of "self determination, global uneven development, and ecological degradation," issues commonly associated with the Global South and rural Global North.[51] This differs from food justice, which mostly describes inaccessibility and consumption of healthy food.[51] Other common areas of food sovereignty discourse include issues of scarcity, environmental factors, population growth, and allocation of resources. Food sovereignty often places emphasis on property rights of indigenous communities and small-scale farmers.[51]

The food sovereignty movement in the United States was inspired by the Belgium-based international La Via Campesina movement, and focuses on the right to produce food. This movement challenges current neoliberal approaches to solving food insecurity, and introduces a radical restructuring of the food system. Food sovereignty takes a more rights-based approach than other forms of food movements, where every individual has the right to culturally appropriate, sustainably produced food.[52]

Food Sovereignty and the Global South[edit]

Colonialism is also a major source of food insecurity in the Global South. Colonialism had a direct impact on those who depended on seasonal farming due to prolonged droughts in certain regions, however, colonial policy often made important pasture and water resources legally inaccessible.[53] Food insecurity has been perpetuated by post-colonial policies more recently through the inflation of food prices, aggregation of cropland, and displacement of groups from land available for food crops.[54] Similarly, colonial policies that encouraged the planting of cash crops for export over subsistence crops has continued to affect food security in the Global South.[55] Many Global South countries have subsequently become dependent on food aid from Global North nations.[53]

Food Sovereignty and the United States[edit]

Food sovereignty is also an important part of the food justice movement in Global North countries, such as the United States. In the United States, food sovereignty is a critical part of indigenous food activism. Indigenous food sovereignty activists argue that indigenous communities have been systematically displaced from their traditional foodways, which has led to mass food insecurity.[56] They assert that the most effective way to achieve food security for indigenous groups is for those groups to be more involved in the production of their own food.[57] Some activists also argue for food sovereignty as a means of healing historical trauma. Food sovereignty of indigenous groups is also closely linked to seed sovereignty and plant breeders' rights.[58] This is because seed saving is an important practice both culturally and for the preservation of a large enough seed stock to feed communities.[59]

High rates of food insecurity among Native peoples is juxtaposed by the reality that current American cuisine is largely dependent on Native American food culture, with the influences of potatoes, beans, corn, peanuts, pumpkins, tomatoes, squash, peppers, melons, and sunflower seeds (Meredith, 2020). The indigenous food sovereignty movement has climbed to the forefront in combating food insecurity among Native peoples to incorporate back these traditional foods in their communities. With this is the increasing support for Tribal governance on Native lands to hopefully increase accessibility to these traditional foods, increase the support of home food production, and educate on the traditions of gathering, preparation, and preservation of food (Meredith, 2020).

Possible solutions[edit]

Food insecurity recognized as one of the world's current most pressing issues. In fact, agricultural food scientists and corporations argue that responding to the issue using food justice practices is not sufficient in regards to the urgency of the issue.[51] Such argumentation is the basis for defending the use of GMOs to feed the world. However research from scholars, farmers, and NGO's go to disprove this by presenting that smaller scale farming has been proven to be not only environmentally friendly but can in fact 'feed the world.'[51]

Urban or community farms[edit]

One of the first tactics to battle the food injustice and scarcity found in both rural and urban areas is by the use of community or urban gardens. Community gardens, according to the American Community Gardening Association's (ACGA) mission statement, are essential catalysts for the neighborhood and surrounding community by not only helping combat food insecurity in providing healthy food options but it is also economically and environmentally sound, these gardens also provide a source for recreation, therapy, beauty and education.[60] In addition, having communal gardens may also benefit immigrants and refugees who use gardening as a tactic to immerse themselves in new surroundings while also getting a chance to reconnect with their culture and receive food for their family and community.[61] This epitomizes how the Center for Rural Affairs sees the working of the community food system of which may take many forms but at its core aims to, form a connection between the producers locals who grow or make the food and the consumers, the community.[62] Despite the great change and development community gardens bring, many in these communities had to fight for the right to use the land for gardening which was evident in the 1960s with "guerrilla gardening" tactics to combat land scarcity and resist the, "inequalities between the powerful and powerless."[63] Today, according to the ACGA annual report, 61% of community or urban gardens are found on government lands, indicating the important role local governments play in the allowing or blocking the use of community gardens through the implementation of opposing legislation or strict land use policies.[64]

Produce availability[edit]

Equity in both the decision-making process and the distribution of resources is the core of the food justice movement and can be achieved through government policies. One possible course of action to combat food deserts may be in mandating that corner stores and such in food deserts provide some variation of fruits and vegetables. For instance, in Minneapolis, the Department of Health and Family Support understood, that residents in food deserts, who were unable to travel to grocery stores or farmers markets, purchased their staple foods from convenience stores, which also carried more unhealthy quick foods rather than fresh produce.[65] To combat this issue the Minneapolis City Council passed an ordinance requiring Minneapolis corner stores to carry "five varieties of perishable produce" and the Minnesota Department of Health requires, "WIC-certified stores to carry a minimum of seven varieties (and thirty pounds) of fresh produce."[65]: 3  However even with the ordinances North Minneapolis residents who, "shopped most often at corner stores... did not purchase produce from them," due to factors such as produce being out of site or not fresh.[65]: 3  This indicates however that ordinances as such may not always be enough. In the case of Minneapolis, the MDHFS created the Healthy Corner Store Program to ensure the success of the ordinance by providing assistance from a grocery store consultant to store owners to, "making healthy foods and fresh produce more visible, affordable, and attractive to neighborhood residents."[65]: 4 

Another possible solution to food injustices and specifically food injustice may be in making new regulations providing that there be more grocery stores in urban and rural areas. The USDA also sees this as an issue in stating that 2.2 million Americans have difficulty in accessing large grocery stores due to have to travel over a mile in urban areas or more than 10 in urban areas may increase reliance on convenience stores and restaurants(fast food), resulting in a poor diet and diet-related health problems.[66] The USDA recognizes that the limited food access in Urban core areas, "are characterized by higher levels of racial segregation and greater income inequality." In small-town and rural areas with limited the lack of transportation infrastructure."[66] However not all chain groceries will go into small neighborhoods due to the risk and upkeep, For places like West Oakland in California, where about half the residents do not have a car, access to grocery stores is even more so a struggle, so Brahm Ahmadi, decided to open his own full service grocery store and health center by selling bonds directly to the public.[67]

Food vending[edit]

Food trucks and other local services provide another option to help provide food to food deserts and other rural areas. In some places these food trucks like the Second Harvest Food Bank's Produce Mobile Program help communities and neighborhoods in need by providing them with high-quality and fresh produce.[68] Food trucks are another important source of food, and are unique in their mobility but also in their locations. Food trucks are found in cities, towns, and universities all over the United States and Canada although they have a longer history in places like Portland where there was little laws preventing them or Los Angeles where immigrants carried on traditions.[69] Other spaces for these vendors became fairly recent in places like Montreal where trucks and cultural spaces were previously regulated.[70] Although often overlooked because they may not always supply the most 'healthy' food, they help combat food insecurity by supplying food to communities that either have no other means of getting food or simply bringing more food options into the community.[71] Food trucks have also been labeled, "powerful affirmation of pop-up urbanism," that are controlled by ordinary people creating culturally different and creative spaces.[69] However, food trucks and other street vendors have often been banned by cities if they did not have permits or if they were considered a competitive threat to establishments nearby.[72] Yet recently, legislation in California (SB946) and Arizona (HB 2371) are aimed to not only legalize food trucks statewide but also decriminalize the sidewalk vending.[72] Legislation like these will not only help to boost the local economy but it will also allow vendors to safely and securely provide food to the community. However food trucks are not just an American or Western phenomenon, they are part of a phenomenon that has been quite common in much of the Global South.[69] Food vending in the Global South slightly differs as food vending enables many to simply survive, hang on, and cope with urban towns.[73] It also allows them to develop networks and strategies to get by in these towns by forming relationships with commercial and small-holder irrigation farmers.[74] Food delivery services are another way from either local grocery stores or market boxes sent to your door. However, some of these tend to be expensive or require internet accessibility to control your account, depending on the community especially those in rural areas this option may not be possible.

There are other innovations from the nonprofit, social enterprise sector that show promise for connecting residents with limited access to fresh food to sources of fresh produce. New Roots Fresh Stop Markets were created in 2009 with the express purpose of "igniting community power for fresh food access." Fresh Stop Markets are fresh food markets that pop up biweekly in urban fresh food insecure communities in Louisville, Kentucky, southern Indiana, and in two rural Kentucky towns—Hazard and Brandenburg. Families agree to cooperate with each other and pool their resources—SNAP Benefits and Debit/Credit—on an income-based sliding scale, a week ahead, purchasing in bulk from local, organic farmers. This big buying power creates an opportunity for farmers to sell to a committed group with no risk, while families benefit from wholesale prices. Each family receives the same share (bag) of fresh, seasonal produce regardless of what they pay. Fresh Stop Markets always feature a chef or culinary enthusiast who demos fresh, plant-based dishes, distributes recipes and shares information and support. Veggie cheerleaders advocate for the vegetables so that everyone feels comfortable with the varieties offered. Fresh Stop Markets are volunteer driven by shareholders so that everyone from children to older adults can offer to share their knowledge with others.[75][76]

SNAP and other food assistance programs[edit]

Another solution to potentially combat the food injustice, both in terms of quality and quantity of food, is in government provided subsidies and vouchers to help alleviate financial burden in affording food, as well as making healthier options available. The U.S. Federal government, as many other governments has put in much of its resources, approximately 50 billion dollars per year towards nutrition assistance programs.[77] Snap is one of these programs, mitigated by the federal government under the Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) in the 1960s that according to one of their publications, "improves health, enhances self-sufficiency, and alleviates food insecurity."[78] The Public Policy Institute has conducted research showing that since the introduction of food stamps, they have reduced illnesses attributed to poor diet such as diabetes and increased average birth weights among adults who had access to the program from youth.[78] Food vouchers such as Calfresh had success in reducing, "food insecurity among low-income households" during the recent recession.[78] However, despite the efforts made by these comprehensive assistance networks the United States has failed to make little to no advancement towards reducing food insecurity to 6% , relative to 1995 when measurements of food inequity within households began.[77] With prevalent ideas/facts like these as well as the fear of fraudulent cases the federal government has proposed a new way to alleviate food insecurity and provide what it deems as healthier choices in the Food Harvest Program.[79] The harvest program would cut the budget for SNAP by 30% over the next ten years by using a food delivery service to provide a box of non-perishable "surplus" goods to the recipients including a set box with canned fruits, vegetables, meats, peanut butter, and canned or frozen meat, and shelf stable milk, each box will be sized to the family size and granted benefits.[79] However other sources note that those with more than $90 a month in benefits, additional to the box will have any remaining balance put on to their EBT cards.[80] In terms of what the impact on food insecurity is unknown however there is a lack of choice in terms of what food the participants can have. Even though many still purchase foods that are deemed unhealthy much of this is due to the fact that some may live in substandard housing or not have a functional kitchen so these foods, although some may be healthy will not always be suitable for all recipients.[80] In comparison to SNAP, the administration's new program would only cover 90,000 people, while the former helped millions to come out of poverty.[80] There are still many questions left to answer, like delivery and how recipients will receive their boxes, as the use of delivery may pose a risk for delays.[79]

Beyond money there are children and summer food programs enacted in various states including California that allows either free or reduced lunches for those in food deserts and underprivileged neighborhoods. These initiatives allow these individuals to have food security in having necessary access to food they would not be able to have otherwise. Being that schools are pivotal institutions in securing food availability, the USDA has, done its part in having healthy/wholesome options available by adding new items to school lunches such as frozen rather than canned mixed berries and vegetables, grilled chicken breast fillets, egg patty rounds, and white whole wheat flour.[81]

Education[edit]

Many argue that simply increasing availability and providing vouchers will not solve the food justice issue in regards to food deserts, which is where the argument for nutrition education comes in. Studies have been shown that eating habits do not change when put grocery stores in poor neighborhoods, as reiterated by Barry Popkin, a professor of Nutrition at the University of North Carolina stated that simply adding a grocery store in poor neighborhoods, will not make a huge impact as food prices and people's shopping and eating habits undermine convenience.[82] According to a study, within the first year government-subsidized supermarkets in high need neighborhoods households were reported to have a significance effect on food availability and consumption habits.[83] Reasoning behind this includes that individuals formed reliance on their usual supermarkets and the abundance and affordability of processed foods.[83] Due to these reasons, overall lower income families bought less healthy food than wealthier families, however there were even greater disparities found, "between families with and without a college education."[82] These results suggest that in order to improve a person's diet and change perceptions it is essential that there be education on diet and health on top of increasing food accessibility and affordability.[82] However the affordability of food may in fact influence food choice if the government chose to not only subsidize fruits and vegetables but also tax fast food, "to improve weight outcomes among children and adolescents."[84]

GMO's[edit]

Many solutions target how to improve conditions in urban areas or rural areas however the food injustice and food sovereignty issue is a global one that also deals with resource availability and scarcity. Food Scarcity is and has been a motivating force behind companies such as Monsanto who campaigned on feeding the world by using genetic engineering of plants. Such plants that Monsanto and other companies create include, Herbicide-tolerant soybeans, herbicide-tolerant corn, and Bt or insect repellent corn.[85] However, according to recent reports in comparison to conventional methods, GMO's and herbicide tolerant plants have failed to increase intrinsic or operational yields.[85] The report does acknowledge the possibility of genetic engineering eventually contributing to increase crop yields, however, the Union of Concerned Scientists note that when using farming practices that use minimal pesticides and synthetic fertilizers such as organic farming, "can more than double crop yields at little cost to poor farmers in such developing regions as Sub-Saharan Africa."[85] There are some risks associated with GMO farming however. Critics of GMO's cite the harms of overproduction, as well as decreasing genetic diversity of crops which can lead to wipe out due to invasive species.[86]

Criticisms[edit]

Working locally allows organizations to directly solve issues of hunger in their immediate communities, and this work is often successful in providing more nutritious food to disadvantaged communities. However, critics of the food justice movement argue that working locally also prevents larger structural changes from occurring. Most organizations work around the neoliberal food system in place, and mitigate damage done by this system instead of taking down the system itself.[52] NGOs are an important part of the food movement, yet these NGOs require outside funding which some argue depoliticizes the movement.[87] To remain strong in their values and their mission, some in the movement argue that no connections can exist between their organizations and outside companies that do not align with their goals. However, these organizations need money to have a strong impact, and face the challenge of finding a balance between radicalism and realistic change. Food justice has a longer history in the US than other movements such as food sovereignty, and was initially seen as politically strong with its roots in groups including the Black Panthers. However, more recently, critics argue that food sovereignty is leading to more effective restructuring of the unequal food system.[52]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Alkon AH, Agyeman J (2011). Cultivating Food Justice: Race, Class, and Sustainability. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. ISBN 9780262516327.
  2. ^ a b Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. Right to Food Unit. Right to Food Questions and Answers. 2007
  3. ^ Sbicca, J (2018). Food Justice Now!: Deepening the Roots of Social Struggle. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 9781517904012.
  4. ^ Alkon AH, Agyeman J (2011). Cultivating Food Justice: Race, Class, and Sustainability. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. ISBN 9780262516327.
  5. ^ "Fixing Food | Union of Concerned Scientists".
  6. ^ "The Greenwood Food Blockade | Southern Foodways Alliance - Southern Foodways Alliance". www.southernfoodways.org. 2018-03-20. Retrieved 2022-05-09.
  7. ^ Slocum R (2015). "Notes on the practice of food justice in the U.S.: understanding and confronting trauma and inequity" (PDF). Journal of Political Ecology. 22: 27. doi:10.2458/v22i1.21077.
  8. ^ White, Monica M. "Sisters of the Soil: Urban Gardening as Resistance in Detroit." Race/Ethnicity: Multidisciplinary Global Contexts, vol. 5, no. 1, 2011, pp. 13–28. JSTOR, JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/10.2979/racethmulglocon.5.1.13.
  9. ^ NIFA.org "About NIFA" (https://nifa.usda.gov/about-nifa)
  10. ^ "How Michelle Obama Has Shaped Nutrition Politics - Washingtonian". 2015-06-02. Retrieved 2022-05-09.
  11. ^ Kinderknecht, Kelsey; Harris, Cristen; Jones-Smith, Jessica (2020-07-28). "Association of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act With Dietary Quality Among Children in the US National School Lunch Program". JAMA. 324 (4): 359–368. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.9517. ISSN 0098-7484. PMC 7388023. PMID 32721008.
  12. ^ Cadieux, Kirsten; Slocum, Rachel (2015-12-01). "What does it mean to do food justice?". Journal of Political Ecology. 22 (1). doi:10.2458/v22i1.21076. ISSN 1073-0451.
  13. ^ Carson, Andre (2017-07-24). "H.R.3104 - 115th Congress (2017-2018): Food Deserts Act of 2017". www.congress.gov. Retrieved 2022-05-09.
  14. ^ Warner, Mark R. (2021-02-03). "S.203 - 117th Congress (2021-2022): Healthy Food Access for All Americans Act". www.congress.gov. Retrieved 2022-05-09.
  15. ^ Golden S (November 13, 2013). "Urban Agriculture Impacts: Social, Health, and Economic - A Literature Review". UC Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Program.
  16. ^ Cultivating Food Justice : Race, Class, and Sustainability. Alison Hope Alkon, Julian Agyeman. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. 2011. ISBN 978-0-262-30021-6. OCLC 767579490.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  17. ^ a b Curran, Christopher J.; González, Marc-Tizoc (2011). "Food Justice as Interracial Justice: Urban Farmers, Community Organizations and the Role of Government in Oakland, California". The University of Miami Inter-American Law Review. 43 (1): 207–232. ISSN 0884-1756. JSTOR 23339452.
  18. ^ "The Federal Government Is Failing Communities Suffering From Food Insecurity". The Appeal. Retrieved 2021-04-14.
  19. ^ "Hunger is a Racial Equity Issue | Move For Hunger". moveforhunger.org. Retrieved 2021-04-14.
  20. ^ a b Frueh, Sara (July 9, 2020). "Covid-19 and Black Communities". www.nationalacademies.org. Retrieved 2021-04-14.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  21. ^ Agyeman J, Alkon AH, eds. (2011-10-21). Cultivating Food Justice: Race, Class, and Sustainability. doi:10.7551/mitpress/8922.001.0001. ISBN 9780262300216.
  22. ^ a b Purifoy, Danielle (2014). "Food policy Councils: Integrating Food Justice and Environmental Justice". Duke Environmental Law and Policy Forum. XXIV: 375–398.
  23. ^ Peña D, Calvo L, McFarland P, Valle GR, eds. (2017-09-01). Mexican-Origin Foods, Foodways, and Social Movements: Decolonial Perspectives. University of Arkansas Press. pp. 274–276. ISBN 9781610756181.
  24. ^ Service., United States. Department of Agriculture. Economic Research. Food access research atlas. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research Service. OCLC 730943048.
  25. ^ Sturm, Roland; Hattori, Aiko (May 2015). "Diet and obesity in Los Angeles County 2007–2012: Is there a measurable effect of the 2008 "Fast-Food Ban"?". Social Science & Medicine. 133: 205–211. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2015.03.004. PMC 4410074. PMID 25779774.
  26. ^ Spring 2014, Kelly Brooks / Published (2014-03-10). "Research shows food deserts more abundant in minority neighborhoods". The Hub. Retrieved 2022-05-09.
  27. ^ "Glossary", Ethical Justice, Elsevier, pp. 455–461, 2013, doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-404597-2.17001-9, ISBN 9780124045972, retrieved 2022-05-09
  28. ^ Dickinson, Maggie (2019-09-03). "Black agency and food access: leaving the food desert narrative behind". City. 23 (4–5): 690–693. doi:10.1080/13604813.2019.1682873. ISSN 1360-4813. S2CID 210456018.
  29. ^ Cafiero, Carlo (2019-12-06), "Measuring food insecurity", Food Security Policy, Evaluation and Impact Assessment, Routledge, pp. 169–205, doi:10.4324/9781351019828-17, ISBN 978-1-351-01982-8, S2CID 213728686, retrieved 2022-05-09
  30. ^ "Obesity and American Indians/Alaska Natives - The Office of Minority Health". minorityhealth.hhs.gov. Retrieved 2022-05-09.
  31. ^ Jernigan, Valarie Blue Bird. "Ending food insecurity in Native communities means restoring land rights, handing back control". The Conversation. Retrieved 2022-05-09.
  32. ^ Sovereignty, Working Group on Indigenous Food. "Indigenous Food Sovereignty | Indigenous Food Systems Network". www.indigenousfoodsystems.org. Retrieved 2022-05-09.
  33. ^ a b Billings, David; Cabbil, Lila (2011). "Food Justice: What's Race Got to Do with It?". Race/Ethnicity: Multidisciplinary Global Contexts. 5 (1): 103–112. doi:10.2979/racethmulglocon.5.1.103. ISSN 1935-8644. JSTOR 10.2979/racethmulglocon.5.1.103. S2CID 56420036.
  34. ^ "Advocates Call for Shift in US Agriculture Policy to Benefit Black Farmers". Non Profit News | Nonprofit Quarterly. 2021-02-01. Retrieved 2022-05-09.
  35. ^ "A Burgeoning Food Justice Movement Rises in Black America". Non Profit News | Nonprofit Quarterly. 2021-02-24. Retrieved 2022-05-09.
  36. ^ Kochhar, Rakesh; Fry, Richard. "Wealth inequality has widened along racial, ethnic lines since end of Great Recession". Pew Research Center. Retrieved 2022-05-09.
  37. ^ "On Whole Foods, Gentrification and the Erasure of Black Harlem". The Root. 3 August 2017. Retrieved 2022-05-09.
  38. ^ "Food Justice & Racism in the Food System". Roots of Change. Retrieved 2022-05-09.
  39. ^ New York Law School, ACLU (13 May 2018). "Unshared Bounty: How Structural Racism Contributes to the Creation and Persistence of Food Deserts".{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  40. ^ James H. Carr and Nandinee K. Kutty, The New Imperative for Equality, in Segregation: The Rising Cost for Americans 40, 68 (James H. Carr & Nandinee K. Kutty, eds., 2008).
  41. ^ a b "Expanding Opportunity Through Fair Housing Choice | HUD USER". www.huduser.gov. Retrieved 2018-06-07.
  42. ^ Larson NI, Story MT, Nelson MC (January 2009). "Neighborhood environments: disparities in access to healthy foods in the U.S". American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 36 (1): 74–81. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2008.09.025. PMID 18977112.
  43. ^ Carr JH, Kutty NK, Smith SL (2008). Segregation : the rising costs for America in SearchWorks catalog. searchworks.stanford.edu. ISBN 9780415965347. Retrieved 2018-06-07.
  44. ^ a b Alkon, Alison Hope; Cadji, Josh (2018-09-25). "Sowing Seeds of Displacement: Gentrification and Food Justice in Oakland, CA". International Journal of Urban and Regional Research. 44 (1): 108–123. doi:10.1111/1468-2427.12684. ISSN 0309-1317. S2CID 149475935.
  45. ^ "National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion | At A Glance Reports | Publications | Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion | CDC". 2017-10-02. Retrieved 2018-05-23.
  46. ^ Horowitz CR, Colson KA, Hebert PL, Lancaster K (September 2004). "Barriers to buying healthy foods for people with diabetes: evidence of environmental disparities". American Journal of Public Health. 94 (9): 1549–54. doi:10.2105/AJPH.94.9.1549. PMC 1448492. PMID 15333313.
  47. ^ "USDA ERS - Access to Affordable, Nutritious Food Is Limited in "Food Deserts"". www.ers.usda.gov. Retrieved 2018-05-23.
  48. ^ Alkon, Alison Hope; Block, Daniel; Moore, Kelly; Gillis, Catherine; DiNuccio, Nicole; Chavez, Noel (August 2013). "Foodways of the urban poor". Geoforum. 48: 126–135. doi:10.1016/j.geoforum.2013.04.021.
  49. ^ a b Butcher, Lucy M.; O’Sullivan, Therese A.; Ryan, Maria M.; Lo, Johnny; Nyanjom, Julie; Wilkins, Hugh C.; Devine, Amanda (2021). Judd, Jenni (ed.). "To dine in or not to dine in: A comparison of food selection and preparation behaviours in those with and without food security". Health Promotion Journal of Australia. 32 (S2): 267–282. doi:10.1002/hpja.427. ISSN 1036-1073. PMC 8597035. PMID 32991748.
  50. ^ Declaration of Nyéléni (2007) Retrieved from https://viacampesina.org/en/declaration-of-nyi
  51. ^ a b c d e Cadieux K, Slocum R (2015). "What does it mean to do food justice?" (PDF). Journal of Political Ecology. 22: 3. doi:10.2458/v22i1.21076. Retrieved 13 May 2018.
  52. ^ a b c Clendenning, Jessica; Dressler, Wolfram H.; Richards, Carol (March 2016). "Food justice or food sovereignty? Understanding the rise of urban food movements in the USA". Agriculture and Human Values. 33 (1): 165–177. doi:10.1007/s10460-015-9625-8. hdl:11343/283038. ISSN 0889-048X. S2CID 145661471.
  53. ^ a b Oba G (December 1992). "Ecological Factors in Land Use Conflicts, Land Administration and Food Insecurity in Turkana, Kenya" (PDF). ODI Pastoral Development Network Paper: 10. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.536.1825. Retrieved 5 June 2018.
  54. ^ McMichael P (31 July 2009). "A food regime analysis of the 'world food crisis'". Agriculture and Human Values. 26 (4): 281–295. doi:10.1007/s10460-009-9218-5. S2CID 14407925.
  55. ^ Alfreds D (6 December 2011). "Colonialism legacy 'haunts' food production" (PDF). News24. 24Media. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 June 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
  56. ^ Coté C (2016). ""Indigenizing" Food Sovereignty. Revitalizing Indigenous Food Practices and Ecological Knowledges in Canada and the United States". Humanities. 5 (3): 57. doi:10.3390/h5030057.
  57. ^ Murphy, Andi. (2019). Indigenous Food Security is Dependent on Food Sovereignty. Retrieved from https://civileats.com/2019/07/24/indigenous-food-security-is-dependent-on-food-sovereignty/
  58. ^ LaDuke, Winona. (2012). Seeds of Our Ancestors, Seeds of Life, TEDxTC. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pHNlel72eQc
  59. ^ White, Rowen. (2018). The Native Seed Pod, Episode 1. https://www.nativeseedpod.org/podcast/2018/episode-1-the-natural-law-of-seeds
  60. ^ American Community Gardening Association. "Growign Community Across the U.S. and Canada". Community Garden. American Community Gardening Association. Archived from the original on 16 April 2018. Retrieved 13 May 2018.
  61. ^ American Community Gardening Association (2016). "2015 Annual Report" (PDF): 10. Retrieved 13 May 2018. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)[permanent dead link]
  62. ^ Center For Rural Affairs. "Community Food". CFRA. Center For Rural Affairs. Retrieved 13 May 2018.
  63. ^ Baudry S (2012). "Reclaiming Urban Space as Resistance: The Infrapolitics of Gardening". Revue Française d'Études Américaines. 131 (1): 35–36. doi:10.3917/rfea.131.0032.
  64. ^ American Community Gardening Association (2016). "2015 Annual Report" (PDF): 9. Retrieved 13 May 2018. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)[permanent dead link]
  65. ^ a b c d "Minneapolis Healthy Corner Store Program Making produce more visible, affordable and attractive" (PDF). Minneapolis, Minnesota: Minneapolis Department of Health and Family Support. 2012. p. 3.
  66. ^ a b Ver Ploeg M, Breneman V, Farrigan T, Hamrick K, Hopkins D, Kaufman P, et al. (2009). "Access to Affordable and Nutritious Food Measuring and Understanding Food Deserts and Their Consequences" (PDF). Report to Congress (June): iii. Retrieved 14 May 2018.
  67. ^ Finz S (20 February 2013). "West Oakland supermarket shops for funds Food Stock for planned grocery store, much needed in West Oakland, being sold in direct public offering". SFGate. Hearst Communications. Retrieved 14 May 2018.
  68. ^ Second Harvest Food Bank. "Produce Mobile Program". Second Harvest Food Bank. Retrieved 13 May 2018.
  69. ^ a b c Ferguson L (June 2018). "Food Trucks as a Force for Social Justice". Tufts Now. Tufts University. Retrieved 6 June 2018.
  70. ^ Ferguson L (2018-04-19). "Food Trucks as a Force for Social Justice". Tufts Now. Tufts University. Retrieved 6 June 2018.
  71. ^ Reese A (20 November 2015). "Between a Corner Store and a Safeway: Navigating the Unequal Foodscape in Washington, D.C". Retrieved 22 May 2018. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  72. ^ a b Powers M (February 2018). "California and Arizona File Bills to Legalize Vending Trades". Institute for Justice. Institute for Justice. Retrieved 22 May 2018.
  73. ^ Muzvidziwa V (July 2000). "Food Vending: Adaptation Under Difficult Circumstances" (PDF). Journal of Social Development in Africa. 15 (2): 69–70. doi:10.4314/jsda.v15i2.23860. Retrieved 5 June 2018.
  74. ^ Muzvidziwa V (July 2000). "Food Vending: Adaptation Under Difficult Circumstances" (PDF). Journal of Social Development in Africa. 15 (2): 70. doi:10.4314/jsda.v15i2.23860. Retrieved 5 June 2018.
  75. ^ "NR Sustain Article 2013.pdf". Google Docs. Retrieved 2019-09-30.
  76. ^ "New Roots, Inc". www.facebook.com. Retrieved 2019-09-30.
  77. ^ a b Chilton M, Rose D (July 2009). "A rights-based approach to food insecurity in the United States". American Journal of Public Health. 99 (7): 1203–11. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2007.130229. PMC 2696644. PMID 19443834.
  78. ^ a b c Danielson C (February 2018). "The CalFresh Food Assistance Program". Public Policy Institute of California. Public Policy Institute of California. Retrieved 13 May 2018.
  79. ^ a b c Rosenbaum D, Dean S, Bolen EW, Keith-Jennings B, Cai L, Nchako C (February 2018). "President's Budget Would Cut Food Assistance for Millions and Radically Restructure SNAP". Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. Retrieved 6 June 2018.
  80. ^ a b c Kirby J (13 February 2018). "Trump wants to replace food stamps with food boxes, for some reason". Vox. Vox Media, Inc. Retrieved 6 June 2018.
  81. ^ USDA. "USDA Foods from Farm to Plate: Spotlight on Schools". USDA. United States Department of Agriculture.
  82. ^ a b c Sanger-Katz M (8 May 2018). "Giving the Poor Easy Access to Healthy Food Doesn't Mean They'll Buy It". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 13 May 2018.
  83. ^ a b Elbel B, Moran A, Dixon LB, Kiszko K, Cantor J, Abrams C, Mijanovich T (October 2015). "Assessment of a government-subsidized supermarket in a high-need area on household food availability and children's dietary intakes". Public Health Nutrition. 18 (15): 2881–90. doi:10.1017/S1368980015000282. PMID 25714993.
  84. ^ National Research Council (US) (2009). "Determining the Extent of Food Deserts". The Public Health Effects of Food Deserts. p. 14. doi:10.17226/12623. ISBN 978-0-309-13728-7. PMID 25032337.
  85. ^ a b c Gurian-Sherman D (April 2009). "Failure to Yield: Evaluating the Performance of Genetically Engineered Crops" (PDF). Union of Concerned Scientists. Union of Concerned Scientists. Retrieved 13 May 2018.
  86. ^ Abushal, Logayn T.; Salama, Mohamed; Essa, Musthafa Mohamed; Qoronfleh, M. Walid (2021). "Agricultural biotechnology: Revealing insights about ethical concerns". Journal of Biosciences. 46 (3): 81. doi:10.1007/s12038-021-00203-0. ISSN 0250-5991. S2CID 236993748.
  87. ^ Brent, Zoe W.; Schiavoni, Christina M.; Alonso-Fradejas, Alberto (2015-03-04). "Contextualising food sovereignty: the politics of convergence among movements in the USA". Third World Quarterly. 36 (3): 618–635. doi:10.1080/01436597.2015.1023570. ISSN 0143-6597. S2CID 155057582.