|Shown here||Adobe Garamond Pro (regular style based on Garamond's work; italic on the work of Robert Granjon)|
Garamond is the name given to many serif typefaces, after the Latinized name of the 16th-century French artisan Claude Garamond, often written as 'Garamont' in his lifetime. Garamond worked as an engraver of punches, the masters used to stamp matrices, the moulds used to cast metal type. He worked in the tradition of what is now called old-style serif letter design, that produced letters with a relatively organic structure resembling handwriting with a pen.
Some distinctive characteristics in Garamond's letters are the small eye of the 'e' and the bowl of the a, which has a sharp hook upwards at top left. The x-height (height of lower-case letters) is low, especially at larger sizes, making the capitals large relative to the lower case, while the top serifs on the ascenders of letters like 'd' have a downward slope. Garamond typefaces are popular and often used, particularly for printing body text and books.
Since around 1910, many modern revivals of Garamond and related typefaces have been developed. Among these, the roman (regular; upright) versions of Adobe Garamond, Granjon, Sabon, and Stempel Garamond are directly based on Garamond's work. It is common to pair these with italics based on those created by his contemporary Robert Granjon, who was well known for his proficiency in this genre. However, many 'Garamond' revivals are actually based on the work of a later punch-cutter, Jean Jannon, whose work was for many years misattributed to Garamond.
Modern Garamond revivals also often add a matching bold and 'lining' numbers at the height of capital letters, neither of which were used in Garamond's time.[a] The most common digital release of Garamond is Monotype Garamond. Bundled with many Microsoft products; it is a revival of Jannon's work.
- 1 History
- 2 Timeline
- 3 Contemporary versions
- 3.1 Based on Garamond's design
- 3.2 Based on Jannon's design
- 3.3 Related fonts
- 4 Printer ink usage
- 5 In popular culture
- 6 Gallery
- 7 Notes
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Garamond's life and career
French artisan Claude Garamond designed type in the 'roman', or upright style, in italic, and Greek. In the period of Garamond's early life roman type had been displacing the blackletter or Gothic type which was used in much (although not all) early French printing.
The roman designs of Garamond which are his most imitated were based on a typeface cut in 1495–1496 for Venetian printer Aldus Manutius by Francesco Griffo; this was first used in the book De Aetna, a short work by poet and cleric Pietro Bembo which was Manutius' first printing in the Latin alphabet. French typefounders of the 16th century assiduously examined Manutius's work as a source of ideas, going so far as to sometimes copy his first 'M' which had no serif pointing out of the letter at top right, a design considered very eccentric; it has been suggested to be the result of defective casting, especially since Manutius' later fonts do not show it.
Garamond was born perhaps around 1510, but very little is known about his life or work before 1540. He worked for a variety of employers on commission, creating punches for publishers and the government. Garamond's typefaces were popular abroad, and replaced Griffo's original roman type at the Aldine Press in Venice. He also worked as a publisher and bookseller. While his italics have been considered less impressive than his roman typefaces, he was one of the early printers to establish the modern tradition that the italic capitals should slope as the lower case does, rather than remain upright as Roman square capitals do.
Garamond designed type for the Greek alphabet from early in his career, but these, the Grecs du roi fonts created for the government around 1540, are very different to his Latin designs: they attempt to simulate the elegant handwriting of Cretan scribe Angelo Vergecio and include a vast variety of alternate letters and ligatures to achieve this. This style is impractical for modern setting of body text, since it requires careful manual choice of characters for every word. Several 'Garamond' releases such as Adobe's contain Greek designs that are either a compromise between Garamond's upright Latin designs and his slanted Greek ones or primarily inspired by his Latin designs.
Garamond died in 1561 and his punches and matrices were sold off by his widow. Purchasers included the Le Bé type foundry in Paris run by the family of Guillaume Le Bé, Christophe Plantin of Antwerp, and the Frankfurt foundry often referred to by historians as Egenolff-Berner. The chaotic sales caused problems, and Le Bé's son wrote to Plantin's successor Moretus offering to trade matrices so they could both have complementary type in a range of sizes. Egelhoff-Berner brought out a specimen in 1592 of types by Garamond and others, which would later be a source for many Garamond revivals.
Plantin's collection of original Garamond punches and matrices survives at the Plantin-Moretus Museum in Antwerp, together with many other typefaces collected by Plantin from other typefounders of the period. The collection has been used extensively for research, for example by historians Harry Carter and Hendrik Vervliet. Carter's son Matthew would later describe his research as helping to demonstrate "that the finest collection of printing types made in typography's golden age was in perfect condition (some muddle aside) [along with] Plantin's accounts and inventories which names the cutters of his types."
While some records such as Plantin's exist of what exact types were cut by Garamond himself, many details of his career remain uncertain, with initial opinion of his date of birth as around 1480 being substituted by much later estimates more recently. A document called the Le Bé Memorandum (based on the memories of Guillaume Le Bé, but collated by one of his sons around 1643) suggests that Garamond finished his apprenticeship around 1510. This is considered unlikely by modern historians since his mother was still alive when he died in 1561 and little is known of him before around 1540. The first Roman type designed by Claude Garamond has been suggested to have been a set created for Robert Estienne around 1530-3. However, Vervliet, Mosley and the French ministry of culture's history of Garamond's career suggest that these 'Estienne typefaces' were not designed by Garamond and that his career began somewhat later. Vervliet suggests that the creator of this set of unified typefaces may have been a 'Master Constantin', recorded in the Le Bé Memorandum as a master type designer of the period before Garamond but about whom nothing is otherwise known and to whom no obvious other body of work can be ascribed. If so, his disappearance from history (perhaps due to an early death, since all these types appeared in just three years from 1530-1533) may have allowed Garamond's reputation to develop in the following decade. Vervliet however notes that attributions of the Estienne type to Garamond begin quite early.
In 1621, sixty years after Garamond's death, the French printer Jean Jannon released a specimen of typefaces that had some characteristics similar to the Garamond designs. The French Royal Printing Office (Imprimerie Royale) appears to have bought matrices from him in 1641. (The contract is actually made for one 'Nicholas Jannon', which historians have concluded to be a simple mistake.) Despite the purchase, it is not clear that the office ever much used Jannon's type.[b] His type would later be misattributed to Garamond. Jannon wrote in his specimen that:
Seeing that for some time many persons have had to do with the art [of printing] who have greatly lowered it…the desire came upon me to try if I might imitate, after some fashion, some one among those who honourably busied themselves with the art, [men whose deaths] I hear regretted every day [Jannon mentions some eminent printers of the previous century]…and inasmuch as I could not accomplish this design for lack of types which I needed…[some typefounders] would not, and others could not furnish me with what I lacked [so] I resolved, about six years ago, to turn my hand in good earnest to the making of punches, matrices and moulds for all sorts of characters, for the accommodation both of the public and of myself.
Jannon's career took place during a politically tense period. Jannon was a Protestant in mostly Catholic France, and began his career as printer for the Protestant Academy at Sedan in what is now northeastern France before taking up punchcutting, in his thirties by his report. Sedan the time enjoyed an unstable independence as a principality at a time when the French government had conceded through the Edict of Nantes to allowing a complicated system of restricted liberties for Protestants. While acknowledging his talent and commissioning equipment from him, as documented by the surviving purchase order, it is known that authorities in 1644 raided an office in Caen where he had been commissioned to do printing. Warde initially assumed that this was the source of the Jannon materials in the Imprimerie Nationale before the government's purchase order from Jannon came to light. Jannon's types and their descendants are recognizable by the triangular serifs on the top left of such characters as 'm', 'n' and 'r', which have a very steep slant in Jannon's design compared to Garamond's. The italics are also very different to Garamond's own or Granjon's, being much more ornate.
By the nineteenth century, Jannon's matrices had come to be known as the Caractères de l'Université (Characters of the University). The term has sometimes been claimed to have been coined by Cardinal Richelieu, while Warde in 1926 suggested it might be a garbled recollection of Jannon's work with the Sedan Academy, which operated much like a university despite not using the name; Carter in the 1970s followed this conclusion. Mosley, however, concludes that no report of the term (or much use of Jannon's type at all) exists before the nineteenth century, and it may originate from a generic term of the previous century simply meaning older or more conservative typeface designs, perhaps those preferred in academic publishing.
The old-style typefaces of Garamond and his contemporaries and successors remained in use in printing for over two hundred years after Garamond's death, and became influential on Dutch printing during the period known as Dutch golden age, when Dutch printing was itself very influential across Europe. Dutch printers and punchcutters, however, sometimes favoured more solid, darker designs than Garamond's. They finally fell out of use with the arrival of what is now called the Didone style of printing in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, promoted by the Didot family in France and others. This favoured a much more geometric, constructed style of letter which could show off the increasingly refined paper and printing technologies of the period. Mosley comments:
The upheavals of the Revolution coincided with the major shift in the style of printing types that is associated with the family of Didot, and the stock of old materials abruptly lost its value, except as scrap. Punches rust, and the copper of matrices is recyclable. All traces of the early types that had been in the hands of the trade typefounders like Le Bé, Sanlecque and Lamesle in Paris vanished completely. No relics of them were saved anywhere, except in commercial centres that had become relative backwaters, like Antwerp, where the Plantin-Moretus printing office piously preserved the collection of its founder...the term caractères de l’Université became attached by default to the set of apparently early matrices that had survived, its provenance forgotten, in the mixed stock of materials of the national printing-office.
Garamond's reputation remained being venerated, even by members of the Didot family whose type designs came to dominate French printing.
A revival of interest in 'old-style' serif typefaces took place in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. This saw a revival of the Imprimerie royale typefaces (the office was now called the Imprimerie nationale following the end of the French monarchy), which, unlike Garamond's own work, had survived in Paris. The attribution came to be considered certain by the Imprimerie's director Arthur Christian.
Early revivals were often based directly on the Imprimerie nationale types, one of the first by Peignot and then by American Type Founders. These revivals could be made using pantograph engraving systems, which gave a cleaner result than historic typefaces which had been hand-carved out of steel, and allowed rapid development of a large range of sizes. In addition, the new hot metal typesetting technology of the period created increasing availability and demand for new fonts. Among hot metal typesetting companies, Monotype's branches in Britain and the United States brought out separate versions, and the American branch of Linotype licensed that of ATF.
A number of historians began in the early twentieth century to question if the Imprimerie nationale Latin-alphabet type was really the work Garamond as the Grecs du Roi undoubtedly were. Doubt was raised by French historian Jean Paillard, but he died in the First World War soon after publishing his conclusions in 1914 and his work remained little-read. Beatrice Warde, later to become a prominent writer on printing in Britain, later recalled while a junior librarian working at ATF in the 1920s talking to ATF's historian Henry Lewis Bullen, who said that he secretly doubted that the 'Garamond' his company was reviving was really Garamond's work, noting that he had never seen it in a sixteenth-century book.
In a 1926 paper published on the British typography journal The Fleuron, Beatrice Warde revealed her discovery that the Imprimerie nationale type had been created by Jean Jannon, something she had discovered by examining printing credited to him in London and Paris and through reading the work of Paillard.[c]
By the time Warde's article was published some revivals had been released that were more authentic revivals of Garamond's work, based on period books and printing specimens. The German company Stempel brought out a crisp revival of the original Garamond typefaces in the 1920s, inspired by a rediscovered specimen from the Egenolff-Berner foundry in Frankfurt, as did Linotype in Britain.[d]
- 1470 - first book printed in France, by a Swiss/German team at the Sorbonne, Paris. Early books printed in France use type of a blackletter design or influenced by it.
- 1496 - Aldus Manutius publishes De Aetna, a short text of poetry that serves as his first printing in the Latin alphabet. Its new 'roman' metal type sets a standard imitated by French printers.
- 1510 - Garamond may have been born around this time.
- 1530 - Robert Estienne begins to publish in a new and more elegant style of 'roman' type, influenced by De Aetna with its asymmetrical 'M'. These typefaces were once attributed to Garamond. Vervliet has argued that they are not by Garamond, but notes that the attribution of them to him begins quite early.
- 1541 - Garamond is advanced money to cut the Grecs du Roi type.
- 1561 - Death of Garamond.
- 1563 - Christophe Plantin buys matrices and other equipment in Paris at auction, some from Garamond's widow, for his partnership in Antwerp. Other equipment is bought by other Parisian and German printers; a specimen sheet identifying his types is issued by a Frankfurt foundry in 1592.
- 1560s The work of Garamond and his contemporaries becomes very influential in the Low Countries and western Germany.
Early modern period
- 1580 - birth of Jannon
- 1621 - Jannon issues a specimen of his type.
- 1640 - Jannon leaves Sedan for Paris.
- 1641 - foundation of the Imprimerie Royale, which buys matrices from Jannon
- 1644 - Jannon's printing office in Caen is raided by authorities concerned that he may have been publishing banned material. Jannon is not imprisoned, but returns to Sedan.
- 1658 - death of Jannon
- 1756 - Parisian printer Jean-Pierre Fournier, who had inherited the Le Bé foundry, writes of his collection of vintage type that "I own the foundry of Garamond, the Le Bé family and Granjon. I shall be happy to display my punches and matrices to all those who are lovers of true beauty...these are the types that made the reputations of the Estiennes, Plantin and the Elzevirs."[e] However, his extensive collections are dispersed after his death in 1783 and ultimately 'traditional' old-style type falls out of use in France.
Revival era, late 19th century to present
- Late nineteenth century - revival in interest in 'old-style' typefaces such as the Caslon type (1730s, England) and that of Jenson (1470s, Venice).
- 1912 - revival of the Imprimerie Royale (now Imprimerie nationale, following the revolution) type by the Peignot foundry.
- 1914 - Jean Paillard publishes a book arguing that the Imprimerie nationale type was not created by Garamond but his work attracts little attention. He is killed serving in the First World War a few months later.
- 1920 - a copy of the 1592 Berner specimen of typefaces is published in facsimile.
- 1923 - ATF issue a specimen of their Garamond revival, in development for several years prior. ATF's historian Henry Bullen privately tells Beatrice Warde, then a junior librarian, that he suspects that Garamond had nothing to do with the type, since he had never seen it in a contemporary book, but has no better candidate for its creator. Warde subsequently moves to Europe, becoming a freelance writer on printing and informal advisor to Monotype in London.
- 1925 - Based on the Egelhoff-Berner specimen, Stempel Garamond is released in Germany: later also released by Linotype, it is the first Garamond revival actually based on his work.
- 1923 - Monotype Garamond is published based on the Imprimerie nationale type.
- 1926 - Warde discovers and reveals that the Imprimerie nationale type was created by Jannon, and that all revivals based on it are not directly based on Garamond's work.
Based on Garamond's design
Released in 1989, Adobe Garamond is designed by Robert Slimbach for Adobe Systems, based on a Roman type by Garamond and an italic type by Robert Granjon. The font family contains regular, semibold, and bold weights and was developed through viewing fifteenth-century equipment at the Plantin-Moretus Museum. Its quite even, mature design attracted attention on release for its authenticity to Garamond's work, a contrast to the much more aggressive ITC Garamond popular at the time. The OpenType version of the font family was released in 2000 as Adobe Garamond Pro, with enhanced support for its alternate glyphs such as swashes, and is sold through Adobe's Typekit system. It is one of the most popular versions of Garamond in books and fine printing.
Slimbach started planning for a second interpretation of Garamond after visiting the Plantin-Moretus Museum in 1988, during the production of Adobe Garamond. His visit there led him to conclude that Garamond could not be truly revived digitally unless in a set of optical sizes, with adaptations in the design for different sizes of text. Unable to create such a large range of styles practically with the technology and business requirements of the 1980s, he completed the project in 2005 with several optical sizes, each designed in four weights (regular, medium, semibold and bold, with an additional light weight for display sizes) using the OpenType font format. It features glyph coverage for Central European, Cyrillic and Greek characters including polytonics. Professor Gerry Leonidas, an expert in Greek-language printing, described it in 2005 as "bar none, the most accomplished typeface you can get for complex Greek texts". Adobe executive Thomas Phinney described it as a "modernized interpretation" different to their earlier Garamond, which remains on sale.
A hot-metal period adaptation created by the Stempel Type Foundry in the interwar period, and released through Linotype in other countries, that has remained popular. A sharp, somewhat angular design, it has relatively short descenders, allowing it to be particularly tightly linespaced. An unusual feature is the digit 0, which has reversed contrast, with the thickest points of the number on the top and bottom of the digit. The italic has been described as one of the few Garamond revivals to pair it with a Garamond italic.
Sabon is a Garamond revival designed by Jan Tschichold in 1964, jointly released by Linotype, Monotype and Stempel in 1967. It is named after Jacques Sabon, who introduced Garamond's types to German printing. A distinguishing feature of many releases of Sabon is that the italic, based on Granjon's work, is wider than most normal italics, at the same width as the roman style. This suited the hot metal typesetting machines of the period.
Released in 2011 by Georg Duffner, EB Garamond is a free software version of Garamond released under the Open Font License and available through Google Fonts. Duffner based the design on a specimen printed by Egelnoff-Berner in 1592, with italic and Greek characters based on Robert Granjon's work, as well as the addition of Cyrillic characters and OpenType features such as swashes and schoolbook characters. It is intended to include multiple optical sizes, as of 2014 including fonts based on the 8 and 12 point forms on the 1592 specimen. It has been described as "one of the best open source fonts" by prominent typeface designer Erik Spiekermann. No bold weight has yet been released.
URW++ Garamond No. 8
Garamond No. 8 is a freeware version of Garamond contributed by URW++ to the Ghostscript project, based on Stempel Garamond.[f] Featuring a bold weight, small capitals, optional text figures and automatic ligature insertion, it is particularly popular in the TeX community and is also included on some Linux distributions. Originally released as a PostScript Type 1, it has been converted into the TrueType format, usable by most current software. It is distributed under the AFP license, which allows it to be used freely (without support) but not sold or have its distribution charged for.
Despite the name, Granjon, by the English branch of Linotype, is based on the original Garamond roman with a Granjon italic. (Warde commented "It would seem that Garamond's name, having so long been used on a design he never cut, is now by stern justice left off a face which is undoubtedly his.")
Based on Jannon's design
ATF Garamond/Garamond No. 3
Morris Fuller Benton and American Type Founders created a revival of the Imprimerie Nationale typefaces around 1919–1923, receiving a sumptuous showing marketed especially towards advertisers in ATF's specimen book of that year. Also involved in the revival was book designer T.M. Cleland, who created a set of matching borders and ornaments. The design gained its current name in a more practical hot metal type adaptation licensed to and marketed by Linotype's American branch from around 1936; the number distinguished it from Stempel's version and other variants which Linotype also sold. It was the style of Garamond preferred by prominent designer Massimo Vignelli. A variant is used by Deutsche Bahn, and the original ATF Garamond on which it was based has also been revived.
Monotype's 1922 design, based on Jannon's work in the Imprimerie Nationale, is bundled with many Microsoft products. Its italic, faithful to Jannon's, is extremely calligraphic, with a very variable angle of slant and swashes on many lower-case letters.[h] Its commercial release is more extensive than the basic Microsoft release, featuring additional features such as swash capitals and small capitals, although like many pre-digital fonts these are only included in the regular weight. Popular in the metal type era, its digitisation has been criticised for being too light, a feature of many Monotype digitisations of the period, making it less well suited to body text. Some publicity art for it in the metal period was created by a young Rodney Peppé. Monotype's 1933 guide to identifying their typefaces noted the asymmetrical T, the sharp triangular serif at top left of m, n, p and r, and a q unlike the p, with a point at top right rather than a full serif.
A revival by Frederic Goudy for the American branch of Monotype, the name chosen to differ from other revivals. An elegant sample created by Bruce Rogers was shown in a spring 1923 issue of Monotype's magazine. It like Monotype Garamond features a large range of swash characters. Mosley has described it as "a lively type, underappreciated I think." LTC's digitisation deliberately maintained its eccentricity and irregularity true to period printing, avoiding perfect verticals.
As one of the most popular typefaces in history, a number of designs have been created that are influenced by Garamond's design but follow different design paths.
ITC Garamond was created by Tony Stan in 1975, and follows ITC's house style of unusually high x-height. It was initially intended to serve as a display version but was used for text, in which its tight spacing and high x-height gives it a somewhat hectoring appearance. As a result, it has proven somewhat controversial among designers; it is generally considered poorly-proportioned for body text. It remains the corporate font of the California State University system in printed text. As seen below, it was also modified into Apple Garamond which served as Apple's corporate font from 1984 until replacement with Myriad. Publishers using it included O'Reilly Media and French publisher Actes Sud.
An extremely slender open-source adaptation of Garamond intended for display sizes, designed by Christian Thalmann. It features unusual alternate designs such as an upright italic and unicase styles and exaggerated, highly slanting accents. It was co-released with Google Fonts.
Printer ink usage
It has been claimed that Garamond uses much less ink than Times New Roman at a similar point size, so changing to Garamond could be a cost-saver for large organizations that print large numbers of documents, especially if using inkjet printers. Garamond, along with Times New Roman and Century Gothic, has been identified by the GSA as a "toner-efficient" font.
However, this claim has been criticised as a mis-interpretation of how typefaces are actually measured. Monotype Garamond, the version bundled with Windows, has a generally smaller design at the same notional point size compared to Times New Roman and quite spindly strokes, giving it a more elegant but less readable appearance. To make letters, especially the lower-case, as high as in an equivalent setting of Times New Roman, the text size must be increased, counterbalancing any cost savings. Thomas Phinney, an expert on digital fonts, noted that the effect of simply swapping Garamond in would be compromised legibility: "any of those changes, swapping to a font that sets smaller at the same nominal point size, or actually reducing the point size, or picking a thinner typeface, will reduce the legibility of the text. That seems like a bad idea, as the percentage of Americans with poor eyesight is skyrocketing." Professional font designer Jackson Cavanaugh commented "If we're actually interested in reducing waste, just printing less – using less paper – is obviously more efficient."
In popular culture
- In Umberto Eco's novel Il pendolo di Foucault, the protagonists work for a pair of related publishing companies, Garamond and Manuzio, both owned by a Mister Garamond.
- Garamond is the name of a character in the Wii game Super Paper Mario. He appears in the world of Flopside (the mirror-image of Flipside, where the game begins). He is a prolific and highly successful author, unlike his Flipside counterpart, Helvetica (a probable recognition of the relative suitability of the two fonts for use in book typesetting).
- For many years the masthead of British newspaper The Guardian used "The" in Garamond and "Guardian" in bold Helvetica.
- A condensed variant of ITC Garamond was adopted by Apple in 1984 upon the release of the Macintosh, known as Apple Garamond. This was a proprietary font not publicly available, less condensed than the publicly released ITC Garamond Condensed.
- One of the initial goals of the literary journal Timothy McSweeney's Quarterly Concern was to use only a single font: Garamond 3. The editor of the journal, Dave Eggers, has stated that it is his favorite font, "because it looked good in so many permutations—italics, small caps, all caps, tracked out, justified or not."
- In Robin Sloan's fantasy novel Mr. Penumbra's 24-Hour Bookstore several character names derive from historical figures associated with the Garamond typeface.
Type in a book by Jacques Dubois and printed in 1531 by Robert Estienne, a printer who was later a colleague of Garamond. Vervliet suggests that this type was not cut by Garamond himself but may have influenced him.
Monotype Garamond (based on Jannon) compared to the more geometric transitional serif and Didone type that replaced old-style type in the eighteenth century.
The Plantin-Moretus Museum, which preserves original type by Garamond.
A composition case (not showing Garamond) used to cast metal type on a Monotype machine. The machine-engraved matrices of the period could cast type by control of a keyboard, much more cleanly than from original hand-made matrices formed by stamping with a steel punch.
A sample image of František Štorm's revival of Jannon's type and his sans-serif derivative. Štorm added a bold, which did not exist in Jannon's time.
- Arabic numerals in Garamond's time were written as what are now called text figures, styled with variable height like lower-case letters.
- Mosley reports that he is unable to find books printed by the Imprimerie that use more than a few specific sizes of italic, although "it is not easy to prove a negative".
- Warde's article was published pseudonymously as the work of 'Paul Beaujon', a persona Warde later said she imagined to have "[a] long grey beard, four grandchildren, a great interest in antique furniture and a rather vague address in Montparesse." She also noted that her readers were surprised to see a Frenchman quoting The Hunting of the Snark.
- Linotype's British version, Granjon, was an original creation. The American branch's version, Garamond No. 3, was licensed from American Type Founders, while there and in Germany Linotype also licensed that of Stempel. These versions are discussed separately below under these names.
- The comment was made in a journal during a public dispute with a fellow printer who preferred to remain anonymous and may have been his younger brother.
- The font was included in GhostScript since Stempel Garamond is included as a system font in some implementations of the PostScript standard.
- An accessible comparison is Warde, p. 166.
- Monotype's well-known executive Stanley Morison wrote in his memoir that the italic was based on Granjon's work, but as Carter's annotations of it note, this seems to be a mistake.
- Mosley, James. "Garamond or Garamont". Type Foundry blog. Retrieved 3 December 2015.
- Mosley, James (2006). "Garamond, Griffo and Others: The Price of Celebrity". Bibiologia: 17–41. Retrieved 3 December 2015.
- Dearden, James (1973). Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science: Claude Garamond. New York u.a.: Dekker. pp. 196–199. ISBN 978-0-8247-2109-1. Retrieved 11 December 2015.
- "Just what makes a Garamond a Garamond?". Linotype. Retrieved 11 December 2015.
- Haley, Allan. "Bold type in text". Monotype. Retrieved 11 August 2015.
- Lawson, Alexander. "To the Editor (letter)". New York Times. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
- Hendrik D. L. Vervliet (2008). The Palaeotypography of the French Renaissance: Selected Papers on Sixteenth-century Typefaces. BRILL. p. 223. ISBN 90-04-16982-2.
- Lamesle, Claude (1742). Épreuves générales des caracteres qui se trouvent chez Claude Lamesle. Rue Galande, Paris: Claude Lamesle. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
- "Blackletter typefaces". French Ministry of Culture. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
- "The first Parisian workshops". French Ministry of Culture. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
- "Italian typefaces". French Ministry of Culture. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
- "Aldus Manutius and his innovations". French Ministry of Culture. Retrieved 3 December 2015.
- "The Italics". French Ministry of Culture. Retrieved 3 December 2015.
- Nesbitt, Alexander (1998). The history and technique of lettering. Mineola, N.Y.: Dover Publications. p. 100. ISBN 978-0-486-40281-9.
It is generally acknowledged that Garamond did not cut a good italic: he does not seem to have been interested in this type form. The two italics he cut for his own venture into the publishing field were poor imitations of the Aldine letter.
- Warde, Beatrice (1926). "The 'Garamond' Types". The Fleuron: 131–179.
- The Aldine Press: catalogue of the Ahmanson-Murphy collection of books by or relating to the press in the Library of the University of California, LosAngeles : incorporating works recorded elsewhere. Berkeley [u.a.]: Univ. of California Press. 2001. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-520-22993-8.
- Hendrik D. L. Vervliet (2008). The Palaeotypography of the French Renaissance: Selected Papers on Sixteenth-century Typefaces. BRILL. pp. 88, 110, 156, 165, 171. ISBN 90-04-16982-2.
The Bembo-M was current, even inevitable, in Paris between 1530 and 1550 [although] Simon de Colines avoided such an 'M'. As for Garamont, the Bembo-M must have seemed normal to him in his early work.
- Hendrik D. L. Vervliet (2008). The Palaeotypography of the French Renaissance: Selected Papers on Sixteenth-century Typefaces. BRILL. p. 172. ISBN 90-04-16982-2.
- "The Career of a Punch-Cutter". French Ministry of Culture. Retrieved 3 December 2015.
- "The spread of Garamond". French Ministry of Culture. Retrieved 3 December 2015.
- "Garamont the bookseller". French Ministry of Culture. Retrieved 3 December 2015.
- "Garamont's will". French Ministry of Culture. Retrieved 3 December 2015.
- Valerie R. Hotchkiss, Charles C. Ryrie (1998). "Formatting the Word of God: An Exhibition at Bridwell Library".
- "Garamont's early career: the grecs du roi". French Ministry of Culture. Retrieved 3 December 2015.
- "The Greek Typefaces". French Ministry of Culture. Retrieved 3 December 2015.
- Mosley, James. "Porson’s Greek type design". Type Foundry. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
- Elizabeth Armstrong (28 April 2011). Robert Estienne, Royal Printer: An Historical Study of the Elder Stephanus. Cambridge University Press. p. 52. ISBN 978-0-521-17066-6.
- "Claude Garamond". linotype.com. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
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- Carter, Harry; Morison, Stanley (1967). Sixteenth-century French Typefounders: The Le Bé memorandum. Private printing for A. Jammes.
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Van den Keere's romans are open and unadorned; although building on the French Renaissance style of Claude Garamond they are heavier and slightly more condensed.
- Updike, Daniel Berkeley (1922). "French Types, 1500–1800". Printing Types: Their History, Forms and Uses: Volume 2. Harvard University Press. Retrieved 18 December 2015.
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- Andrew Pettegree; Malcolm Walsby (14 October 2011). French Books III & IV: Books published in France before 1601 in Latin and Languages other than French. BRILL. pp. 11–12. ISBN 978-90-04-21500-9.
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- "Adobe Garamond Pro specimen book" (PDF). Adobe Systems. Retrieved 9 March 2014.
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- Slimbach; Lane. Garamond Premier Pro: A Contemporary Adaptation. Adobe Systems (private distribution).
a single set of digital matrices compelled to represent the font in every size. Slimbach himself admits that what he produced then reflected commercial pressures and the limitations of type technology in the late 1980s.
- Phinney; Prehn. "Adobe last news".
Garamond Premier Pro had its genesis in 1988, when Adobe senior type designer Robert Slimbach visited the Plantin-Moretus Museum in Antwerp, Belgium, to study their collection of Claude Garamond's metal punches and type designs ... While fine-tuning Adobe Garamond as a useful design suited to modern publishing, Slimbach started planning an entirely new interpretation of Garamond's designs based on the range of unique sizes he'd seen at the Plantin-Moretus, and on comparable italics cut by Garamond's contemporary, Robert Granjon.
- Phinney, Thomas. "Comments on Typophile thread".
Robert does acknowledge a major outside influence on his new Garamond ... an optical size experiment Stephen Harvard put together in 1989 ... with a lower-case Garamond "a" interpolating from a small size to a display size. Rob thought this was very interesting. But the temporal and technical constraints Rob was working with made it impractical to do anything with this idea at the time.
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I made no attempt to eliminate the mannerisms or deficiencies of his famous type, realising that they came not by intention, but rather through the punch-cutter's handling, to his lack of tools of precision and his crude materials, for he worked by eye and not by rule.
I did find it impossible to eliminate, in my own rendition of the letter, that subtle something we call 'personality' that something made up of items so intangible as practically to be imperceptible when individual types are compared, yet clearly manifest when the page they form is viewed as a whole. The subtleties ... I couldn't neglect, yet I did not consciously include them in my own drawings, and these are the touches that mark my face as belonging to the present and not to the sixteenth century.
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This issue of Monotype is set in a trial font of a new version of Garamond's design ... the type ornaments, modelled on 16th century ones, will also be available.
- "LTC Garamont". MyFonts. LTC. Retrieved 3 December 2015.
- "Jannon Pro". MyFonts. Storm Type. Retrieved 11 December 2015.
- Storm, František. "Storm Jannon specimen". Storm Type. Retrieved 11 December 2015.
- Storm, František. "Jannon Sans". Storm Type. Retrieved 11 December 2015.
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- "Cormorant". Behance. Catharsis Fonts. Retrieved 19 August 2015.
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- Stix, Madeleine (March 28, 2014). Teen to gov't: change your typeface, save millions. CNN via KOCO-TV. Retrieved March 28, 2014.
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- Plantin, Christophe. "Le Bonheur de ce Monde (with translation)". Poems of Leiden project. Retrieved 31 January 2016.
- Garamond at culture.fr: extensive website by the French Ministry of Culture
- Just what makes a "Garamond" a Garamond? - includes high-resolution image of the Egelhoff-Berner specimen.
- Garamond v Garamond: Physiology of a typeface (Peter Gabor, translated Barney Carroll)
- Illuminating Letters #1: Garamond
- Garamond discussion on Typophile
- ATF Garamond poster
- Monotype Garamond at Microsoft Typography
- Garamond - Luc Devroye. A large assemblage of commentary on Garamond.
- Garamond No. 8 - a modern ttf release with small caps.
- EB Garamond - specimen, specification and background.
- EB Garamond download site
- 1742 Specimen of Claude Lamesle A specimen by a French commercial typefounder, showing the old-style French printing tradition towards the end of its 250-year span. The sample is notable for its printing quality. Mosley: 'the most spectacular view that was published during the 18th century of the types of the 16th-century masters, newly cast from original matrices.' Vervliet attempts to provide attributions for many of the types in the book; many are by Granjon. PDF download available.