Defunct Scout and Scout-like organizations in the United States
There were other Scouting and Scout-like organizations that arose over the years in the United States.
Girl Scouts of America
|Girl Scouts of America|
|Headquarters||Des Moines, Iowa|
|Founder||Clara A. Lisetor-Lane|
Girl Scouts of America (GSA) was an early USA girl Scouting organization that operated starting in 1910.
The Girl Scouts of America was established in Des Moines, Iowa by Clara A. Lisetor-Lane. In 1911, the GSA and the Girl Guides (Spokane, Washington) planned to merge with the Camp Fire Girls to form the Girl Pioneers of America, but relationships fractured and the merger failed.
Juliette Gordon Low attempted in 1913 to merge her organization with the GSA. With the groups similarities, Low thought this would be easy, but Lisetor-Lane felt Low copycatted her organization and threatened a lawsuit. With Low's group's growth, Lisetor-Lane thought that Low used underhanded tactics to lure troops away. The GSA never grew beyond a few troops as Lisetor-Lane had limited social connections and no financial resources to grow the organization on a national level. The GSA eventually died out.
Boy Scouts of the United States
|Boy Scouts of the United States|
|Owner||National Highway Protective Association|
|Founded||May 5, 1910|
Peter S. Bomus
|Chief Scout||Peter S. Bomus|
Boy Scouts of the United States (BSUS) was a boys Scouting organization that operated in 1910.
Boy Scouts of the United States was formed by the National Highway Protective Association on May 5, 1910 by E.S. Cornell and Peter S. Bomus. Troops were to be operational by mid-summer 1910 on a small scale. The BSUS soon merged with the Boy Scouts of America with Bomus becoming a member of the National Council and National Scout Commissioner.
In addition to the Boy Scout program of Baden-Powell, the BSUS troops were to advocate for good roads, drilled in a military style and study the nation's topography.
|Owner||The Salvation Army|
The LifeSaving Guards-Boys, or the Life Saving Scouts of the World, was a Boy Scouting organization that operated starting in 1910.
Salvation Army founder William Booth met with Baden-Powell for discussion about a possible Salvationist Scouting program. The Salvation Army thus began its Life Saving Scouts of the World in 1913 for boys and in 1915 a parallel organisation, Life-Saving Guards, for girls. After the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the BSA's rights to the "Scouting" service mark, several scouting organizations were forced to change their names. In 1918, the Life Saving Scouts changed its name to LifeSaving Guards-Boys which led to many Life Saving units transferring to the BSA. LifeSaving Guards-Boys leader began to press for affiliation with the BSA. In 1929, a special charter was granted to the Life Saving Guards-Boys from the BSA to join the two organizations together.
Medical Cadet Corps
|Medical Cadet Corps|
Uniform Patches - 1950s
|Owner||Seventh-day Adventist Church|
Medical Cadet Corps (MCC) was Seventh-day Adventist Church college age program that prepared Adventist for noncombat military services. The program had spread to the Far East, Caribbean, Central America, South America, and Lebanon.
The College Medical Corps was founded by Everett N. Dick at Union College in 1934 as a way to train males for noncombatant medic military service. The Medical Cadet Corps was founded for students of the College for Medical Evangelist in 1936 by Cyril B. Courville. In 1937, Dick present his program to other Adventist educators which led to other college adopting the program. In 1937 in Glendale, California, a new Pathfinder group was founded which also added military drills from the MCC. With other Adventist colleges following suit by installing similar programs, the Fall Council of the General Conference Executive Committee in 1939 gave it official sanction and centralization under the name of Medical Cadet Corps. In various places, a Women's Cadet Corps also existed. The GC appointed Dick as the denominational program director and recommended that all Adventist colleges start a MCC program. With the end of World War II, the program ended. The Corps was reactivated in 1950 in response to the reestablishment of the draft continuing in parallel with the draft with its end in 1972 in the US. In other countries with mandatory military service or a draft, their similar program still operates.
The corps had a national annual camp held in Grand Ledge, Michigan.
- American Boy Scouts, main competing organization to the Boy Scouts of America in the 1910s
- Woodcraft Indians, a precursor organization to Boy Scouts
- Sons of Daniel Boone, a precursor organization to Boy Scouts
- Boy Rangers of America, a younger boys organization that merged with the BSA to become Cub Scouting
- Lone Scouts of America
- Rhode Island Boy Scouts, state charter alternative to the BSA
- New England Boy Scouts, a regional offshoot of the American Boy Scouts
- Miller, Susan A. (2007). Growing Girls: The Natural Origins of Girls' Organizations in America. Rutgers.
- Lane, Joseph J., ed. (July 1911). "Now Come the Girl Scouts to Emulate the Boy Scouts". Boys' Life. George S. Barton & Co. 1 (5): 30. ISSN 0006-8608.
- Chirhart, Ann Short; Wood, Betty (2007). Georgia Women: Their Lives and Times. University of Georgia Press. p. 381.
- "Ask Mayor to Clear Streets of Children; Highways Protective Association Joins the Movement to Obtain Playgrounds for Them". The New York Times. May 6, 1910.
- Richardson, Norman Egbert; Loomi, Ormond Eros (1915). The Boy Scout Movement Applied by the Church. C. Scribner's sons. p. 9.
- Sloan, Bill. "Partners in Service". Scouting (September 2001).
- "Medical Cadet Corps". Library Heritage Collections. Union College. Retrieved January 31, 2014.
- Land, Gary (January 1, 2005). Historical Dictionary of Seventh-Day Adventists. Scarecrow Press. p. 189.
- Land 2005, p. 81
- Land 2005, p. 228
- Land 2005, p. 215