Grand Isle County, Vermont

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Grand Isle County
Grand Isle County Courthouse in North Hero
Grand Isle County Courthouse in North Hero
Map of Vermont highlighting Grand Isle County
Location within the U.S. state of Vermont
Map of the United States highlighting Vermont
Vermont's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 44°48′58″N 73°18′00″W / 44.816036°N 73.299889°W / 44.816036; -73.299889
Country United States
State Vermont
Founded1805
Shire TownNorth Hero
Largest townGrand Isle
Area
 • Total195 sq mi (510 km2)
 • Land82 sq mi (210 km2)
 • Water113 sq mi (290 km2)  58%%
Population
 (2010)
 • Total6,970
 • Estimate 
(2018)
7,090
 • Density36/sq mi (14/km2)
Time zoneUTC−5 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EDT)
Congressional districtAt-large

Grand Isle County is a county in the U.S. state of Vermont. As of the 2010 census, the population was 6,970,[1] making it Vermont's second-least populous county. Its shire town (county seat) is North Hero.[2] The county was created in 1802 and organized in 1805.[3][4]

Grand Isle County is part of the Burlington metropolitan area. The county does not have a high school; students choose from a number of high schools in neighboring counties.

History[edit]

Grand Isle County is one of several Vermont counties created from land ceded by the state of New York on January 15, 1777, when Vermont declared itself to be a distinct state from New York.[5][6][7] The land was originally contested by Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New France and New Netherland, but it remained undelineated until July 20, 1764, when King George III established the boundary between New Hampshire and New York along the west bank of the Connecticut River, north of Massachusetts and south of the parallel of 45 degrees north latitude. New York assigned the land gained to Albany County.[8][9] On March 12, 1772, Albany County was partitioned to create Charlotte County,[10] and this situation persisted until Vermont's independence from New York and Britain, which, however, did not end the contest.

On September 3, 1783, as a result of the signing of the Treaty of Paris, the Revolutionary War ended with Great Britain recognizing the independence of the United States. Vermont's border with Quebec was established at 45 degrees north latitude,[11][12] which explains why this county has no dry-land connection to the rest of the United States.

Massachusetts did not formally withdraw its claim to the region, first made in 1629, until December 16, 1786.[13] New York, still not satisfied with the relinquishment of its land to Vermont, asked the U.S. Congress to arbitrate the matter. Congress ruled against New York on March 7, 1788.[14]

Subsequently, when Vermont petitioned for statehood, Congress ordered a joint commission to settle the border between New York and Vermont. This commission ruled before Vermont's admission, which took place on March 4, 1791, but a small change they permitted has never been acted upon.[15][16][17] Grand Isle County was created in 1802 from parts of Franklin and Chittenden Counties.[4]

In the late 19th century the Rutland Railroad ran service from northern New York State by the Canada–U.S. border, along the west side of Vermont to Rutland, Vermont, and south to Chatham, New York. From 1899 a series of causeways provided continuous train service north-south through the Lake Champlain islands, making a direct connection to Burlington. The last service from Alburgh was in 1948.[18]

Geography[edit]

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 195 square miles (510 km2), of which 82 square miles (210 km2) is land and 113 square miles (290 km2) (58%) is water.[19] It has the highest proportion of water coverage of any county in the state. It is the smallest county in Vermont by area, and the second-smallest by population (behind Essex County). Four of its five towns (North Hero, South Hero, Grand Isle and Isle La Motte) are situated entirely on islands in Lake Champlain, while Alburgh is on a peninsula (an exclave known as the Alburgh Tongue) extending south into the lake from Quebec. The highest elevation in the county is only 279 feet on the west side of South Hero. The Lake shoreline elevation is generally 99' above sea level.

Adjacent counties[edit]

Major highways[edit]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
18103,445
18203,5272.4%
18303,6964.8%
18403,8835.1%
18504,1456.7%
18604,2763.2%
18704,082−4.5%
18804,1241.0%
18903,843−6.8%
19004,46216.1%
19103,761−15.7%
19203,7840.6%
19303,9444.2%
19403,802−3.6%
19503,406−10.4%
19602,927−14.1%
19703,57422.1%
19804,61329.1%
19905,31815.3%
20006,90129.8%
20106,9701.0%
Est. 20187,090[20]1.7%
U.S. Decennial Census[21]
1790–1960[22] 1900–1990[23]
1990–2000[24] 2010–2018[1]

2000 census[edit]

As of the census[25] of 2000, there were 6,901 people, 2,761 households, and 1,954 families residing in the county. The population density was 84 people per square mile (32/km²). There were 4,663 housing units at an average density of 56 per square mile (22/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 97.41% White, 0.14% Black or African American, 0.87% Native American, 0.23% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.03% from other races, and 1.28% from two or more races. 0.42% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 18.8% were of French, 14.6% French Canadian, 14.3% English, 10.6% American, 8.9% Irish and 7.4% German ancestry. 95.0% spoke English and 3.8% French as their first language.

There were 2,761 households out of which 31.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.10% were married couples living together, 7.10% had a female householder with no husband present, and 29.20% were non-families. 22.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.20% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 2.93.

In the county, the population was spread out with 24.80% under the age of 18, 5.60% from 18 to 24, 28.70% from 25 to 44, 28.50% from 45 to 64, and 12.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.90 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $43,033, and the median income for a family was $48,878. Males had a median income of $35,539 versus $26,278 for females. The per capita income for the county was $22,207. About 5.90% of families and 7.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.20% of those under age 18 and 7.90% of those age 65 or over.

2010 census[edit]

As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 6,970 people, 2,902 households, and 2,027 families residing in the county.[26] The population density was 85.2 inhabitants per square mile (32.9/km2). There were 5,048 housing units at an average density of 61.7 per square mile (23.8/km2).[27] The racial makeup of the county was 95.3% white, 0.9% American Indian, 0.4% black or African American, 0.3% Asian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 0.3% from other races, and 2.8% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.1% of the population.[26] In terms of ancestry, 18.0% were English, 14.2% were Irish, 10.6% were French Canadian, 10.3% were German, 10.3% were American, and 6.9% were Scottish.[28]

Of the 2,902 households, 28.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.2% were married couples living together, 8.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.2% were non-families, and 22.5% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 2.79. The median age was 45.5 years.[26]

The median income for a household in the county was $57,436 and the median income for a family was $66,686. Males had a median income of $46,569 versus $36,514 for females. The per capita income for the county was $30,499. About 6.1% of families and 6.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.9% of those under age 18 and 3.7% of those age 65 or over.[29]

Politics[edit]

In 1828, Grand Isle County was won by National Republican Party candidate John Quincy Adams and in 1832 was won by Henry Clay.

From William Henry Harrison in 1836 to Winfield Scott in 1852, the county voted for Whig Party candidates.

From John C. Frémont in 1856 to William Howard Taft in 1908, the Republican Party had a 52-year winning streak in the county.

In 1912, Democratic Party candidate Woodrow Wilson won the county, making him the first Democratic presidential candidate to win the county and the first since Lewis Cass in 1848 to win any Vermont county. Wilson also won the county in 1916.

Republican candidates Warren Harding, Calvin Coolidge and Herbert Hoover won the county in 1920, 1924 and 1928, respectively.

Democratic candidate Franklin D. Roosevelt won Grand Isle County in all four of his presidential runs, from 1932 to 1944. During that time, Grand Isle, Chittenden and Franklin Counties became Democratic enclaves in an otherwise Republican-voting Vermont. The county was also won by Harry S. Truman in 1948.

Dwight D. Eisenhower won back Franklin County for the Republicans in the 1952 and 1956 elections.

The county went to Democratic candidates John F. Kennedy in 1960 and Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964.

Richard Nixon carried the county in 1968 and in 1972, as did Gerald Ford in 1976.

In 1980, the county was narrowly won by Democrat Jimmy Carter; in 1984, the county was won by Ronald Reagan, the last Republican presidential candidate to win Grand Isle County.

Since Michael Dukakis in 1988, the county has been won by Democratic candidates.

In the 2004, Grand Isle County chose John Kerry over George W. Bush by 12 points, with Kerry carrying all six municipalities.[30]

In 2008, Barack Obama carried the county by a 28.2% margin over John McCain, with Obama winning by 37% statewide.[31]

Presidential elections results
Presidential elections results[32]
Year Republican Democratic Third parties
2016 36.2% 1,487 51.0% 2,094 12.9% 528
2012 36.1% 1,471 62.1% 2,531 1.8% 73
2008 34.9% 1,490 63.1% 2,694 2.0% 85
2004 43.0% 1,754 55.1% 2,246 1.9% 77
2000 42.6% 1,550 50.4% 1,835 7.0% 253
1996 31.5% 958 51.1% 1,555 17.4% 528
1992 30.0% 1,012 42.7% 1,444 27.3% 923
1988 48.2% 1,316 50.2% 1,369 1.6% 43
1984 60.3% 1,537 38.4% 980 1.3% 33
1980 42.3% 947 44.6% 999 13.1% 294
1976 52.6% 1,004 45.4% 866 2.0% 39
1972 62.4% 1,259 36.8% 743 0.8% 16
1968 48.4% 754 46.8% 730 4.8% 75
1964 33.7% 506 66.3% 996 0.1% 1
1960 49.4% 798 50.7% 819
1956 61.8% 978 38.2% 604
1952 59.2% 976 40.3% 665 0.6% 9
1948 46.3% 724 52.6% 822 1.1% 17
1944 45.4% 667 54.6% 801
1940 41.7% 716 58.1% 998 0.3% 5
1936 45.4% 712 54.3% 852 0.3% 4
1932 43.9% 649 54.9% 811 1.2% 17
1928 50.6% 830 48.8% 801 0.7% 11
1924 65.2% 861 26.0% 343 8.8% 116
1920 71.6% 928 27.3% 354 1.1% 14
1916 48.2% 407 51.4% 434 0.5% 4
1912 31.0% 193 33.8% 210 35.2% 219[33]
1908 64.3% 364 33.2% 188 2.5% 14
1904 73.6% 343 23.4% 109 3.0% 14
1900 68.9% 356 28.2% 146 2.9% 15
1896 69.0% 426 25.6% 158 5.4% 33
1892 64.8% 349 32.8% 177 2.4% 13
1888 71.8% 465 27.8% 180 0.5% 3
1884 62.8% 407 31.9% 207 5.3% 34
1880 60.8% 397 36.6% 239 2.6% 17

Communities[edit]

Towns[edit]

Village[edit]

Notable people[edit]

  • Bernie Sanders, former Mayor of Burlington (1981–1989), U.S. Senator from Vermont since 2007, and 2016 and 2020 Democratic presidential candidate[34]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on June 6, 2011. Retrieved December 30, 2013.
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  3. ^ "Vermont: Individual County Chronologies". Vermont Atlas of Historical County Boundaries. The Newberry Library. 2008. Retrieved June 30, 2015.
  4. ^ a b Aldrich, Lewis Cass (1891). History of Franklin and Grand Isle counties, Vermont. Syracuse, NY: D. Mason & Co. Retrieved June 30, 2015.
  5. ^ Slade, William, Jr., comp. Vermont State Papers: Being a collection of Records and Documents Connected with the Assumption and Establishment of Government by the People of Vermont, Together with the Journal of the Council of Safety, the First Constitution, the Early Journals of the General Assembly, and the Laws from the Year 1779 to 1786, Inclusive. Middlebury, 1823. pp. 70–73.
  6. ^ Van Zandt, Franklin K. Boundaries of the United States and the Several States. Geological Survey Professional Paper 909. Washington, DC; Government Printing Office, 1976. The Standard Compilation for its subject. P. 64.
  7. ^ Williamson, Chilton. Vermont in Quandary: 1763–1825. Growth of Vermont series, Number 4.Montperler: Vermont Historical Series, 1949. PP. 82–84; map facing 95, 100–102, 112–113.
  8. ^ Slade, William, Jr., comp. Vermont State Papers: Being a collection of Records and Documents Connected with the Assumption and Establishment of Government by the People of Vermont, Together with the Journal of the Council of Safety, the First Constitution, the Early Journals of the General Assembly, and the Laws from the Year 1779 to 1786, Inclusive. Middlebury, 1823. pp. 13–19.
  9. ^ Van Zandt, Franklin K. Boundaries of the United States and the Several States. Geological Survey Professional Paper 909. Washington, DC; Government Printing Office, 1976. The Standard Compilation for its subject. P. 63.
  10. ^ New York Colonial Laws, Chapter 1534; Section 5; Paragraph 321)
  11. ^ Van Zandt, Franklin K. Boundaries of the United States and the Several States. Geological Survey Professional Paper 909. Washington, DC; Government Printing Office, 1976. The Standard Compilation for its subject. P. 12.
  12. ^ Parry, Clive, ed. Consolidated Treaty Series. 231 Volumes. Dobbs Ferry, New York; Oceana Publications, 1969–1981. Volume 48; pp. 481; 487; 491–492.
  13. ^ Van Zandt, Franklin K. Boundaries of the United States and the Several States. Geological Survey Professional Paper 909. Washington, DC; Government Printing Office, 1976. The Standard Compilation for its subject. P. 75.
  14. ^ New York Laws, 1788, 11th Session, Chapter 63, pp. 746–747.
  15. ^ United States. Statutes at Large of the United States of America, 1789–1873. volume 1, Chapter 7 (1791); Page 191.
  16. ^ Slade, William, Jr., comp. Vermont State Papers: Being a collection of Records and Documents Connected with the Assumption and Establishment of Government by the People of Vermont, Together with the Journal of the Council of Safety, the First Constitution, the Early Journals of the General Assembly, and the Laws from the Year 1779 to 1786, Inclusive. Middlebury, 1823. P. 193.
  17. ^ Thorne, Kathryn Ford, Compiler & Long, John H., Editor: New York Atlas of Historical County Boundaries; The Newbury Library; 1993.
  18. ^ "Rutland Railroad" http://www.r2parks.net/RUT.html
  19. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Retrieved June 29, 2015.
  20. ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved May 21, 2019.
  21. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on April 26, 2015. Retrieved June 29, 2015.
  22. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved June 29, 2015.
  23. ^ Forstall, Richard L., ed. (March 27, 1995). "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 29, 2015.
  24. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. April 2, 2001. Retrieved June 29, 2015.
  25. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on September 11, 2013. Retrieved May 14, 2011.
  26. ^ a b c "DP-1 Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 20, 2016.
  27. ^ "Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - County". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 20, 2016.
  28. ^ "DP02 SELECTED SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS IN THE UNITED STATES – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 20, 2016.
  29. ^ "DP03 SELECTED ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 20, 2016.
  30. ^ http://www.uselectionatlas.org/RESULTS/statesub.php?year=2004&fips=50013&f=0&off=0&elect=0
  31. ^ http://www.uselectionatlas.org/RESULTS/state.php?year=2008&fips=50&f=0&off=0&elect=0
  32. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved 13 April 2018.
  33. ^ The leading "other" candidate, Progressive Theodore Roosevelt, received 204 votes, while Socialist candidate Eugene Debs received 9 votes, Prohibition candidate Eugene Chafin received 6 votes.
  34. ^ Nguyen, Tina. "BERNIE SANDERS BUYS HIS THIRD HOUSE". Vanity Fair. Retrieved 21 March 2019.

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 44°48′N 73°17′W / 44.80°N 73.29°W / 44.80; -73.29