|United States Senator|
|Assumed office |
January 3, 2007
Serving with Patrick Leahy
|Preceded by||Jim Jeffords|
|Chair of the Senate Budget Committee|
|Assumed office |
February 3, 2021
|Preceded by||Mike Enzi|
|Ranking Member of the Senate Budget Committee|
January 3, 2015 – February 3, 2021
|Preceded by||Jeff Sessions|
|Succeeded by||Lindsey Graham|
|Chair of the Senate Veterans' Affairs Committee|
January 3, 2013 – January 3, 2015
|Preceded by||Patty Murray|
|Succeeded by||Johnny Isakson|
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives|
from Vermont's at-large district
January 3, 1991 – January 3, 2007
|Preceded by||Peter Plympton Smith|
|Succeeded by||Peter Welch|
|37th Mayor of Burlington|
April 6, 1981 – April 4, 1989
|Preceded by||Gordon Paquette|
|Succeeded by||Peter Clavelle|
September 8, 1941
Brooklyn, New York City, U.S.
|Political party||Independent[a] (1978–present)|
Democratic (2015–2016, 2019–2020)
Liberty Union (1970–1977)
|Vermont Progressive[b] (1981–present)|
|Relatives||Larry Sanders (brother)|
|Education||University of Chicago (BA)|
Mayor of Burlington
U.S. Representative from
Vermont's at-large district
U.S. Senator from Vermont
Bernard Sanders (born September 8, 1941) is an American politician, activist and political scientist who has served as the junior United States senator from Vermont since 2007 and as U.S. Representative for the state's at-large congressional district from 1991 to 2007. He is the longest-serving independent in U.S. congressional history, although he has a close relationship with the Democratic Party, having caucused with House and Senate Democrats for most of his congressional career. Sanders unsuccessfully sought the Democratic Party nomination for president of the United States in 2016 and 2020, finishing in second place in both campaigns. Before his election to Congress, he was mayor of Burlington, Vermont.
Sanders self-identifies as a democratic socialist and has been credited with influencing a leftward shift in the Democratic Party since his 2016 presidential campaign. An advocate of social democratic and progressive policies, he is known for his opposition to economic inequality and neoliberalism. On domestic policy, he supports labor rights, universal and single-payer healthcare, paid parental leave, tuition-free tertiary education, and an ambitious Green New Deal to create jobs addressing climate change. On foreign policy, he supports reducing military spending, pursuing more diplomacy and international cooperation, and putting greater emphasis on labor rights and environmental concerns when negotiating international trade agreements. Sanders supports workplace democracy, and has praised elements of the Nordic model. Some commentators, such as Noam Chomsky, have described his politics as aligned with the New Deal policies of President Franklin D. Roosevelt and left-wing populism.
Born into a working-class Jewish family and raised in the Brooklyn borough of New York City, Sanders attended Brooklyn College before graduating from the University of Chicago in 1964. While a student, he was a protest organizer for the Congress of Racial Equality and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee during the civil rights movement. After settling in Vermont in 1968, he ran unsuccessful third-party political campaigns in the early to mid-1970s. He was elected mayor of Burlington in 1981 as an independent and was reelected three times. He won election to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1990, representing Vermont's at-large congressional district, later co-founding the Congressional Progressive Caucus. He served as a U.S. Representative for 16 years before being elected to the U.S. Senate in 2006. Sanders was reelected to the Senate in 2012 and 2018. He chaired the Senate Veterans' Affairs Committee from 2013 to 2015. In January 2021, Sanders became chair of the Senate Budget Committee.
Sanders was a major candidate for the Democratic presidential nomination in 2016 and 2020. Despite initially low expectations, his 2016 campaign generated significant grassroots enthusiasm and funding from small-dollar donors, carrying Sanders to victory against eventual nominee Hillary Clinton in 23 primaries and caucuses before he conceded in July. In 2020, Sanders's strong showing in early primaries and caucuses made him the front-runner in a historically large field of Democratic candidates. In April 2020, he conceded the nomination to Joe Biden, who had won a series of decisive victories as the field narrowed. Sanders supported Clinton and Biden in their general election campaigns against Donald Trump while continuing his efforts to move the Democratic Party in a more progressive direction.
Bernard Sanders was born on September 8, 1941, in the Brooklyn borough of New York City. His father, Elias Ben Yehuda Sanders, was born in Słopnice, Galicia, in Austria-Hungary (now part of Poland), to a Jewish working-class family. In 1921, Elias immigrated to the United States, where he became a paint salesman. Bernie's mother, Dorothy Sanders (née Glassberg), was born in New York City to Jewish immigrant parents from Radzyń Podlaski, in modern-day eastern Poland, and with roots in Russia.
Sanders became interested in politics at an early age. He said, "A guy named Adolf Hitler won an election in 1932.[c] He won an election, and 50 million people died as a result of that election in World War II, including six million Jews. So what I learned as a little kid is that politics is, in fact, very important." In the 1940s, many of his relatives in German-occupied Poland were murdered in the Holocaust.
Sanders lived in Midwood, Brooklyn. He attended elementary school at P.S. 197, where he won a borough championship on the basketball team. He attended Hebrew school in the afternoons, and celebrated his bar mitzvah in 1954. His older brother, Larry, said that during their childhood, the family never lacked for food or clothing, but major purchases, "like curtains or a rug," were not affordable.
Sanders attended James Madison High School, where he was captain of the track team and took third place in the New York City indoor one-mile race. In high school, he lost his first election, finishing last out of three candidates for the student body presidency with a campaign that focused on aiding Korean War orphans. Despite the loss he became active in his school's fundraising activities for Korean orphans, including organizing a charity basketball game. Sanders attended high school with economist Walter Block. Not long after his high school graduation, his mother died at the age of 46. His father died a few years later in 1962, at the age of 57.
Sanders studied at Brooklyn College for a year in 1959–1960 before transferring to the University of Chicago and graduating with a Bachelor of Arts degree in political science in 1964. He has described himself as a mediocre college student because the classroom was "boring and irrelevant," while the community was more important to his education.
Sanders later described his time in Chicago as "the major period of intellectual ferment in my life." While there, he joined the Young People's Socialist League (the youth affiliate of the Socialist Party of America) and was active in the civil rights movement as a student for the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). Under his chairmanship, the university chapter of CORE merged with the university chapter of the SNCC. In January 1962, he went to a rally at the University of Chicago administration building to protest university president George Wells Beadle's segregated campus housing policy. At the protest, Sanders said, "We feel it is an intolerable situation when Negro and white students of the university cannot live together in university-owned apartments". He and 32 other students then entered the building and camped outside the president's office. After weeks of sit-ins, Beadle and the university formed a commission to investigate discrimination. After further protests, the University of Chicago ended racial segregation in private university housing in the summer of 1963.
Joan Mahoney, a member of the University of Chicago CORE chapter at the time and a fellow participant in the sit-ins, described Sanders in a 2016 interview as "a swell guy, a nice Jewish boy from Brooklyn, but he wasn't terribly charismatic. One of his strengths, though, was his ability to work with a wide group of people, even those he didn't agree with." He once spent a day putting up fliers protesting police brutality, only to notice later that Chicago police had shadowed him and taken them all down. He attended the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, where Martin Luther King Jr. gave the "I Have a Dream" speech. That summer, Sanders was fined $25 (equivalent to $211 in 2020) for resisting arrest during a demonstration in Englewood against segregation in Chicago's public schools.
In addition to his civil rights activism during the 1960s and 1970s, Sanders was active in several peace and antiwar movements while attending the University of Chicago, becoming a member of the Student Peace Union. He applied for conscientious objector status during the Vietnam War; his application was eventually turned down, by which point he was too old to be drafted. Although he opposed the war, Sanders never criticized those who fought in it, and he has long been a strong supporter of veterans' benefits. He also was briefly an organizer with the United Packinghouse Workers of America while in Chicago. He also worked on the reelection campaign of Leon Despres, a prominent Chicago alderman who was opposed to mayor Richard J. Daley's Democratic Party machine. Throughout his student years, Sanders read the works of many political authors, from Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln, and John Dewey to Karl Marx and Erich Fromm.
Professional history and early years in Vermont
After graduating from college, Sanders returned to New York City, where he worked various jobs, including Head Start teacher, psychiatric aide, and carpenter. In 1968, he moved to Stannard, Vermont, a town small in both area and population (88 residents at the 1970 census) within Vermont's rural Northeast Kingdom region, because he had been "captivated by rural life." While there, he worked as a carpenter, filmmaker, and writer who created and sold "radical film strips" and other educational materials to schools. He also wrote several articles for the alternative publication The Vermont Freeman. He lived in the area for several years before moving to the more populous Chittenden County in the mid-1970s. During his 2018 reelection campaign, he returned to the town to hold an event with voters and other candidates.
Liberty Union campaigns
Sanders began his electoral political career in 1971 as a member of the Liberty Union Party, which originated in the anti-war movement and the People's Party. He ran as the Liberty Union candidate for governor of Vermont in 1972 and 1976 and as a candidate in the special election for U.S. senator in 1972 and in the general election in 1974. In the 1974 senatorial race, he finished third (5,901 votes; 4%), behind 33-year-old Chittenden County state's attorney Patrick Leahy (D; 70,629 votes; 49%) and two-term incumbent U.S. Representative Dick Mallary (R; 66,223 votes; 46%).
The 1976 campaign was the zenith of the Liberty Union's influence, with Sanders collecting 11,317 votes for governor and the party. His strong performance forced the down-ballot races for lieutenant governor and secretary of state to be decided by the state legislature when its vote total prevented either the Republican or Democratic candidate for those offices from garnering a majority of votes. The campaign drained the finances and energy of the Liberty Union, however, and in October 1977, less than a year after the 1976 campaign concluded, he and the Liberty Union candidate for attorney general, Nancy Kaufman, announced their retirement from the party. During the 1980 presidential election Sanders served as one of three electors for the Socialist Workers Party in Vermont.
After his resignation from the Liberty Union Party in 1977, Sanders worked as a writer and as the director of the nonprofit American People's Historical Society (APHS). While with the APHS, he produced a 30-minute documentary about American labor leader Eugene V. Debs, who ran for president five times as the Socialist Party candidate.
Mayor of Burlington, Vermont (1981–1989)
On November 8, 1980, Sanders announced his candidacy for mayor. He formally announced his campaign on December 16 at a City Hall press conference. Sanders selected Linda Niedweske as his campaign manager. The Citizens Party attempted to nominate Greg Guma for mayor, but Guma declined, saying it would be "difficult to run against another progressive candidate". Sanders had been convinced to run for the mayoralty by Richard Sugarman, an Orthodox Jewish scholar at the University of Vermont, who had shown him a ward-by-ward breakdown of the 1976 Vermont gubernatorial election, in which Sanders had run, that showed him receiving 12% of the vote in Burlington despite only getting 6% statewide.
Sanders initially won the mayoral election by 22 votes against Paquette, Bove, and McGrath, but the margin was later reduced to 10 votes. Paquette did not contest the results of the recount.
Paquette's loss was attributed to his own shortcomings, as he did not campaign or promote his candidacy since both Sanders and Independent candidate Richard Bove were not seen as a serious challengers, as Sanders had not previously won an election. Paquette was also considered to have lost because he proposed an unpopular $0.65 per $100 raise in taxes that Sanders opposed. Sanders spent around $4,000 on his campaign.
Sanders castigated the pro-development incumbent as an ally of prominent shopping center developer Antonio Pomerleau, while Paquette warned of ruin for Burlington if Sanders were elected. The Sanders campaign was bolstered by a wave of optimistic volunteers as well as a series of endorsements from university professors, social welfare agencies, and the police union. The result shocked the local political establishment.
Sanders formed a coalition between independents and the Citizens Party. On December 3, 1982, he announced that he would seek reelection. On January 22, 1983, the Citizens Party voted unanimously to endorse Sanders, although Sanders ran as an independent. He was reelected, defeating Judith Stephany and James Gilson.
Sanders initially considered not seeking a third term, but announced on December 5, 1984, that he would run. He formally launched his campaign on December 7, and was reelected. On December 1, 1986, Sanders, who had finished third in the 1986 Vermont gubernatorial election, announced that he would seek reelection to a fourth term as mayor of Burlington, despite close associates stating that he was tired of being mayor. Sanders defeated Democratic nominee Paul Lafayette in the election. He said he would not seek another mayoral term after the 1987 election: "eight years is enough and I think it is time for new leadership, which does exist within the coalition, to come up".
During his mayoralty, Sanders called himself a socialist and was so described in the press. During his first term, his supporters, including the first Citizens Party city councilor Terry Bouricius, formed the Progressive Coalition, the forerunner of the Vermont Progressive Party. The Progressives never held more than six seats on the 13-member city council, but they had enough to keep the council from overriding Sanders's vetoes. Under his leadership, Burlington balanced its city budget; attracted a minor league baseball team, the Vermont Reds, then the Double-A affiliate of the Cincinnati Reds; became the first U.S. city to fund community-trust housing; and successfully sued the local cable television franchise, thereby winning reduced rates for customers.
As mayor, Sanders also led extensive downtown revitalization projects. One of his primary achievements was improving Burlington's Lake Champlain waterfront. In 1981, he campaigned against the unpopular plans by Burlington developer Tony Pomerleau to convert the then-industrial waterfront property owned by the Central Vermont Railway into expensive condominiums, hotels, and offices. He ran under the slogan "Burlington is not for sale" and successfully supported a plan that redeveloped the waterfront area into a mixed-use district featuring housing, parks, and public spaces.
Sanders was a consistent critic of U.S. foreign policy in Latin America throughout the 1980s. In 1985, Burlington City Hall hosted a foreign policy speech by Noam Chomsky. In his introduction, he praised Chomsky as "a very vocal and important voice in the wilderness of intellectual life in America" and said that he was "delighted to welcome a person who I think we're all very proud of."
Sanders hosted and produced a public-access television program, Bernie Speaks with the Community, from 1986 to 1988. He collaborated with 30 Vermont musicians to record a folk album, We Shall Overcome, in 1987. That same year, U.S. News & World Report ranked Sanders one of America's best mayors. As of 2013[update], Burlington was regarded as one of the most livable cities in the United States.
When Sanders left office in 1989, Bouricius, a member of the Burlington city council, said that Sanders had "changed the entire nature of politics in Burlington and also in the state of Vermont".
U.S. House of Representatives (1991–2007)
In 1988, incumbent Republican congressman Jim Jeffords decided to run for the U.S. Senate, vacating the House seat representing Vermont's at-large congressional district. Former Lieutenant Governor Peter P. Smith (R) won the House election with a plurality, securing 41% of the vote. Sanders, who ran as an independent, placed second with 38% of the vote, while Democratic State Representative Paul N. Poirier placed third with 19%. Two years later, he ran for the seat again and defeated Smith by a margin of 56% to 39%.
Sanders was the first independent elected to the U.S. House of Representatives since Frazier Reams of Ohio won his second term in 1952, as well as the first socialist elected to the House since Vito Marcantonio, from the American Labor Party, who won his last term in 1948. Sanders served as a representative from 1991 until he became a senator in 2007, winning reelection by large margins except during the 1994 Republican Revolution, when he won by 3%, with 50% of the vote.
During his first year in the House, Sanders often alienated allies and colleagues with his criticism of both political parties as working primarily on behalf of the wealthy. In 1991, he co-founded the Congressional Progressive Caucus, a group of mostly liberal Democrats that he chaired for its first eight years, while still refusing to join the Democratic Party or caucus.
In 2005, Rolling Stone called Sanders the "amendment king" for his ability to get more roll call amendments passed than any other congressman during the period since 1995, when Congress was entirely under Republican control. Being an independent allowed him to form coalitions across party lines.
In 1999, Sanders voted and advocated against rolling back the Glass–Steagall legislation provisions that kept investment banks and commercial banks separate entities. He was a vocal critic of Federal Reserve Chair Alan Greenspan; in June 2003, during a question-and-answer discussion, Sanders told him he was concerned that Greenspan was "way out of touch" and "that you see your major function in your position as the need to represent the wealthy and large corporations."
Concerned by high breast cancer rates in Vermont, on February 7, 1992, Sanders sponsored the Cancer Registries Amendment Act to establish cancer registries to collect data on cancer. Senator Patrick Leahy introduced a companion bill in the Senate on October 2, 1992. The Senate bill was passed by the House on October 6 and signed into law by President George H. W. Bush on October 24, 1992.
Firearms and criminal justice
In 1993, Sanders voted against the Brady Bill, which mandated federal background checks when buying guns and imposed a waiting period on firearm purchasers in the United States; the bill passed by a vote of 238–187. He voted against the bill four more times in the 1990s, explaining his Vermont constituents saw waiting-period mandates as more appropriately a state than federal matter.
Sanders did vote for other gun-control measures. For example, in 1994, he voted for the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act "because it included the Violence Against Women Act and the ban on certain assault weapons." He was nevertheless critical of the other parts of the bill. Although he acknowledged that "clearly, there are some people in our society who are horribly violent, who are deeply sick and sociopathic, and clearly these people must be put behind bars in order to protect society from them," he maintained that governmental policies played a large part in "dooming tens of millions of young people to a future of bitterness, misery, hopelessness, drugs, crime, and violence" and argued that the repressive policies introduced by the bill were not addressing the causes of violence, saying, "we can create meaningful jobs, rebuilding our society, or we can build more jails."
Sanders has at times favored stronger law enforcement and sentencing. In 1996, he voted against a bill that would have prohibited police from purchasing tanks and armored carriers. In 1998, he voted for a bill that would have increased minimum sentencing for possessing a gun while committing a federal crime to ten years in prison, including nonviolent crimes such as marijuana possession.
In 2005, Sanders voted for the Protection of Lawful Commerce in Arms Act. The purpose of the act was to prevent firearms manufacturers and dealers from being held liable for negligence when crimes have been committed with their products. As of 2016[update], he said that he has since changed his position and would vote for legislation to defeat this bill.
Opposition to the Patriot Act
Sanders was a consistent critic of the Patriot Act. As a member of Congress, he voted against the original Patriot Act legislation. After its 357–66 passage in the House, he sponsored and voted for several subsequent amendments and acts attempting to curtail its effects and voted against each reauthorization. In June 2005, he proposed an amendment to limit Patriot Act provisions that allow the government to obtain individuals' library and book-buying records. The amendment passed the House by a bipartisan majority, but was removed on November 4 of that year in House–Senate negotiations and never became law.
Opposition to the War in Iraq
Sanders voted against the resolutions authorizing the use of force against Iraq in 1991 and 2002, and he opposed the 2003 invasion of Iraq. He voted for the 2001 Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Terrorists that has been cited as the legal justification for controversial military actions since the September 11 attacks. He voted for a non-binding resolution expressing support for troops at the outset of the invasion of Iraq, but gave a floor speech criticizing the partisan nature of the vote and the Bush administration's actions in the run-up to the war. Regarding the leak of CIA agent Valerie Plame's identity by a State Department official, he stated: "The revelation that the President authorized the release of classified information in order to discredit an Iraq war critic should tell every member of Congress that the time is now for a serious investigation of how we got into the war in Iraq and why Congress can no longer act as a rubber stamp for the President."
In February 2005, Sanders introduced a bill that would have withdrawn the permanent normal trade relations (PNTR) status that had been extended to China in October 2000. He said to the House, "Anyone who takes an objective look at our trade policy with China must conclude that it is an absolute failure and needs to be fundamentally overhauled", citing the American jobs being lost to overseas competitors. His bill received 71 co-sponsors but was not sent to the floor for a vote.
U.S. Senate (2007–present)
Sanders entered the race for the U.S. Senate on April 21, 2005, after Senator Jim Jeffords announced that he would not seek a fourth term. Chuck Schumer, chairman of the Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee, endorsed Sanders, a critical move that meant no Democrat running against him could expect financial help from the party. He was also endorsed by Senate Minority Leader Harry Reid and Democratic National Committee chairman and former Vermont governor Howard Dean. Dean said in May 2005 that he considered Sanders an ally who "votes with the Democrats 98% of the time." Then-Senator Barack Obama also campaigned for him in Vermont in March 2006. Sanders entered into an agreement with the Democratic Party, much as he had as a congressman, to be listed in their primary but to decline the nomination should he win, which he did.
In the most expensive political campaign in Vermont's history, Sanders defeated businessman Rich Tarrant by an almost 2-to-1 margin. Many national media outlets projected him as the winner just after the polls closed, before any returns came in. He was reelected in 2012 with 71% of the vote, and in 2018 with 67% of the vote.
While a member of Congress, Sanders sponsored 15 concurrent resolutions and 15 Senate resolutions. Of those he co-sponsored, 218 became law. While he has consistently advocated for progressive causes, Politico wrote that he has "rarely forged actual legislation or left a significant imprint on it." According to The New York Times, "Big legislation largely eludes Mr. Sanders because his ideas are usually far to the left of the majority of the Senate… Mr. Sanders has largely found ways to press his agenda through appending small provisions to the larger bills of others." During his time in the Senate, he had lower legislative effectiveness than the average senator, as measured by the number of sponsored bills that passed and successful amendments made. Nevertheless, he has sponsored over 500 amendments to bills, many of which became law. The results of these amendments include a ban on imported goods made by child labor; $100 million in funding for community health centers; $10 million for an outreach program for servicemembers suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder, traumatic brain injury, depression, panic attacks, and other mental disorders; a public database of senior Department of Defense officials seeking employment with defense contractors; and including autism treatment in the military healthcare program.
Finance and monetary policy
In 2008 and 2009, Sanders voted against the Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP), a program to purchase toxic banking assets and provide loans to banks that were in free-fall. On February 4, 2009, he sponsored an amendment to ensure that TARP funds would not displace U.S. workers. The amendment passed and was added to the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. Among his proposed financial reforms is auditing the Federal Reserve, which would reduce its independence in monetary policy deliberations; Federal Reserve officials say that "Audit the Fed" legislation would expose the Federal Reserve to undue political pressure from lawmakers who do not like its decisions.
On December 10, 2010, Sanders delivered an 8+1⁄2–hour speech against the Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010,[d] which proposed extending the Bush-era tax rates. He argued that the legislation would favor the wealthiest Americans. "Enough is enough!… How many homes can you own?" he asked. Nevertheless, the bill passed the Senate with a strong majority and was signed into law a week later. In February 2011, Nation Books published the speech as The Speech: A Historic Filibuster on Corporate Greed and the Decline of Our Middle Class, with authorial proceeds going to Vermont nonprofit charitable organizations.
On June 12, 2017, U.S. senators agreed to legislation imposing new sanctions on Russia and Iran. The bill was opposed only by Sanders and Republican Rand Paul. He supported the sanctions on Russia, but voted against the bill because he believed the sanctions could endanger the Iran nuclear deal.
In 2018, Sanders sponsored a bill and was joined by Senators Chris Murphy (D–CT) and Mike Lee (R–UT) to invoke the 1973 War Powers Resolution to end U.S. support for the Saudi-led military intervention in Yemen, which has resulted in hundreds of thousands of civilian casualties and "millions more suffering from starvation and disease". After the assassination of Jamal Khashoggi in October 2018 (which was ordered by Saudi Arabian Crown Prince Mohammad bin Salman, according to multiple intelligence agencies), his bill attracted bipartisan co-sponsors and support, and the Senate passed it by a vote of 56–41. The bill passed the House in February 2019 by a 247–175 vote and President Trump vetoed it in March, saying: "This resolution is an unnecessary, dangerous attempt to weaken my constitutional authorities, endangering the lives of American citizens and brave service members, both today and in the future."
In mid-December 2009, Sanders successfully added a provision to the Affordable Care Act to fund $11 billion to community health centers, especially those in rural areas. The provision brought together Democrats on the left with Democrats from conservative, rural areas, helping to secure the 60 votes needed for passage. On May 4, 2017, in response to the House vote to repeal and replace the Affordable Care Act, he predicted "thousands of Americans would die" from no longer having access to health care. PolitiFact rated his statement "mostly true."
In September 2017, Sanders along with 15 Senate co-sponsors submitted the Medicare for All bill, a single-payer healthcare plan. The bill covers vision and dental care, unlike Medicare. Some Republicans have called the bill "Berniecare" and "the latest Democratic push for socialized medicine and higher taxes." He responded that the Republican Party has no credibility on the issue of health care after voting for legislation that would take health insurance away from 32 million Americans under the Affordable Care Act.
As chairman of the Senate Subcommittee on Primary Health and Aging, Sanders has introduced legislation to reauthorize and strengthen the Older Americans Act, which supports Meals on Wheels and other programs for seniors.
In 2007, Sanders helped kill a bill introducing comprehensive immigration reform, arguing that its guest-worker program would depress wages for American workers. In 2010, he supported the DREAM Act, which would have provided a path to citizenship for undocumented immigrants who had been brought to the United States as minors. In 2013, he supported the Gang of Eight's comprehensive immigration reform bill after securing a $1.5 billion youth jobs program provision, which he argued would offset the harm of labor market competition with immigrants.
Income and wealth distribution
In April 2017, Sanders introduced a bill that would raise the minimum wage for federal contract workers to $15 an hour, an increase over an earlier Democratic $12 an hour proposal. On May 9, 2018, he introduced the Workplace Democracy Act, a bill that would expand labor rights by making it easier for workers to join a union, ban right-to-work laws and some anti-union provisions of the Taft–Hartley Act, and outlaw some union-busting tactics. Announcing the legislation, he said, "If we are serious about reducing income and wealth inequality and rebuilding the middle class, we have got to substantially increase the number of union jobs in this country."
Sanders opposed the 2018 United States federal budget proposed by the Trump administration, calling it "a budget for the billionaire class, for Wall Street, for corporate CEOs, and for the wealthiest people in this country… nothing less than a massive transfer of wealth from working families, the elderly, children, the sick and the poor to the top 1%."
After the November 2017 revelations from the Paradise Papers and a recent report from the Institute for Policy Studies which says just three people (Jeff Bezos, Bill Gates, and Warren Buffett) own more wealth than the bottom half of the U.S. population, Sanders stated that "we must end global oligarchy" and that "we need, in the United States and throughout the world, a tax system which is fair, progressive and transparent."
On September 5, 2018, Sanders partnered with Ro Khanna to introduce the Stop Bad Employers by Zeroing Out Subsidies (Stop BEZOS) Act, which would require large corporations to pay for the food stamps and Medicaid benefits that their employees receive, relieving the burden on taxpayers.
On June 9, 2014, Sanders sponsored the Veterans' Access to Care through Choice, Accountability, and Transparency Act of 2014 to reform the Department of Veterans Affairs in the wake of the Veterans Health Administration scandal of 2014. He worked with Senator John McCain, who co-sponsored the bill. His bill was incorporated into the House version of the bill, which passed both chambers on July 31, 2014, and was signed into law by President Obama on August 7, 2014.
Supreme Court nominees
On March 17, 2016, Sanders said he would support Merrick Garland's nomination to the Supreme Court, though he added, "there are some more progressive judges out there." He opposed Neil Gorsuch's nomination to the Court, saying that Gorsuch had "refused to answer legitimate questions." He also objected to Senate Republicans using the nuclear option to "choke off debate and ram the nomination through the Senate." He voted against Gorsuch's confirmation as an associate justice.
As an independent, Sanders worked out a deal with the Senate Democratic leadership in which he agreed to vote with the Democrats on all procedural matters unless the Democratic whip, Dick Durbin, agreed that he need not (a request rarely made or granted). In return he was allowed to keep his seniority and received the committee seats that would have been available to him as a Democrat; in 2013–14 he was chairman of the United States Senate Committee on Veterans' Affairs (during the Veterans Health Administration scandal).
Sanders became the ranking minority member on the Senate Budget Committee in 2015 and the chair in 2021; he previously chaired the Senate Veterans' Affairs Committee for two years. Since 2017, he has been chair of the Senate Democratic Outreach Committee. He appointed economics professor Stephanie Kelton, a modern monetary theory scholar, as the chief economic adviser for the committee's Democratic minority and presented a report about helping "rebuild the disappearing middle class" that included proposals to raise the minimum wage, boost infrastructure spending, and increase Social Security payments.
- Committee on the Budget (Chairman)
- Committee on Environment and Public Works
- Committee on Energy and Natural Resources
- Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions
- Committee on Veterans' Affairs (former Chair)
Sanders was only the third senator from Vermont to caucus with the Democrats, after Jeffords and Leahy. His caucusing with the Democrats gave them a 51–49 majority in the Senate during the 110th Congress in 2007–08. The Democrats needed 51 seats to control the Senate because Vice President Dick Cheney would likely have broken any tie in favor of the Republicans. He is a member of the following caucuses:
- Congressional Progressive Caucus
- Democratic Caucus of the United States Senate
- United States Senate Afterschool Caucus
Polling conducted in August 2011 by Public Policy Polling found that Sanders's approval rating was 67% and his disapproval rating 28%, making him then the third-most popular U.S. senator. Both the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) and the NHLA (National Hispanic Leadership Agenda) have given him 100% voting scores during his tenure in the Senate. In 2015, he was named one of the Top 5 of The Forward 50. In a November 2015 Morning Consult poll, he reached an 83% approval rating among his constituents, making him the most popular U.S. senator. Fox News found him to have the highest net favorability at +28 points of any prominent politician included in its March 2017 poll. He ranked third in 2014 and first in both 2015 and 2016.
In April 2017, a nationwide Harvard-Harris Poll found that Sanders had the highest favorability rating among all the political figures included in the poll, a standing confirmed by subsequent polling.
2016 presidential campaign
During the 2012 Democratic presidential primaries, Sanders—dissatisfied with President Obama's "attempts to trade Social Security cuts for tax hikes"—reportedly considered running against him in the primaries. Sanders had previously suggested in 2011 that it was "a good idea" for someone to challenge Obama, and "got so close to running a primary challenge… that Senator Harry Reid had to intervene to stop him." In November 2013, Sanders suggested that Senator Elizabeth Warren could be president and that she might earn his backing if she ran. He added that if no progressive candidate ran, he might feel compelled to do so himself. In December 2014, Warren said she was not running.
Sanders announced his intention to seek the Democratic Party's nomination for president on April 30, 2015. His campaign was officially launched on May 26 in Burlington. In his announcement Sanders said, "I don't believe that the men and women who defended American democracy fought to create a situation where billionaires own the political process," and made this a central idea throughout his campaign.
Initially considered a long shot, Sanders won 23 primaries and caucuses and around 46% of pledged delegates to Hillary Clinton's 54%. His campaign was noted for its supporters' enthusiasm, as well as for rejecting large donations from corporations, the financial industry, and any associated Super PAC. Some of the Democratic National Committee (DNC) emails leaked to the public in June and July 2016 showed that the committee leadership had favored Clinton over him and had worked to help Clinton win the nomination.
On July 12, 2016, Sanders formally endorsed Clinton in her unsuccessful general election campaign against Republican Donald Trump, while urging his supporters to continue the "political revolution" his campaign had begun.
Unlike the other major candidates, Sanders did not pursue funding through a Super PAC or by wealthy donors, instead focusing on small-dollar donations. His presidential campaign raised $1.5 million within 24 hours of his official announcement. At the end of the year, the campaign had raised a total of $73 million from more than one million people, making 2.5 million donations, with an average donation of $27.16. The campaign reached 3.25 million donations by the end of January 2016, raising $20 million in that month alone.
Sanders used social media to help his campaign gain momentum, posting content to online platforms such as Twitter and Facebook and answering questions on Reddit. He gained a large grassroots organizational following online. A July 29, 2015, meetup organized online brought 100,000 supporters to more than 3,500 simultaneous events nationwide.
To his surprise, Sanders's June 2015 campaign events drew overflow crowds across the country. When Clinton and Sanders made public appearances within days of each other in Des Moines, Iowa, he drew larger crowds, even though he had already made many stops around the state and Clinton's visit was her first in 2015. On July 1, 2015, his campaign stop in Madison, Wisconsin, drew the largest crowd of any 2016 presidential candidate to that date, with an estimated turnout of 10,000. Over the following weeks, he drew even larger crowds: 11,000 in Phoenix; 15,000 in Seattle; and 28,000 in Portland, Oregon.
The Democratic National Committee (DNC) announced in May 2015 that there would be six debates. Critics alleged that the small number of debates and the schedule, with half of the debates on Saturday or Sunday nights, were part of the DNC's deliberate attempt to protect Clinton, who was perceived as the front-runner. In February 2016, both the Clinton and Sanders campaigns agreed in principle to holding four more debates for a total of ten. Clinton dropped out of the tenth debate, scheduled to take place just before the California primary, citing a need to devote her time to making direct contact with California voters and preparing for the general election. Sanders expressed disappointment that Clinton canceled the debate before what he believed would be "the largest and most important primary in the presidential nominating process."
Polls and news coverage
Some supporters raised concerns that publications such as The New York Times minimized coverage of the Sanders campaign in favor of other candidates, especially Trump and Clinton. The Times' ombudsman reviewed her paper's coverage of the Sanders campaign and found that as of September 2015[update] the Times "hasn't always taken it very seriously. The tone of some stories is regrettably dismissive, even mocking at times. Some of that is focused on the candidate's age, appearance and style, rather than what he has to say." She also found that the Times's coverage of Sanders's campaign was much scanter than its coverage of Trump's, though Trump's was also initially considered a long shot at that time, with 63 articles covering the Trump campaign and 14 covering Sanders's. A December 2015 report found that the three major networks—CBS, NBC, and ABC—had spent 234 minutes reporting on Trump and 10 minutes on Sanders, despite their similar polling results. The report noted that ABC World News Tonight had spent 81 minutes on Trump and less than one minute on Sanders during 2015.
A study of media coverage in the 2016 election concluded that while Sanders received less coverage than his rival Hillary Clinton, the amount of coverage of Sanders during the election was largely consistent with his polling performance, except during 2015 when Sanders received coverage that far exceeded his standing in the polls. Studies concluded that the tone of media coverage of Sanders was more favorable than that of any other candidate, whereas his main opponent in the democratic primary, Hillary Clinton, received the most negative coverage of any candidate. All 2016 candidates received vastly less media coverage than Donald Trump, and the Democratic primary received substantially less coverage than the Republican primary.
Amy Goodman of Democracy Now! noted that on March 15, Super Tuesday III, the speeches of Trump, Clinton, Marco Rubio, and Ted Cruz were broadcast in full. Sanders was in Phoenix, Arizona, on that date, speaking to a rally larger than any of the others, yet his speech was not mentioned, let alone broadcast. However, political scientist Rachel Bitecofer wrote in her 2018 book about the 2016 election that the Democratic primary was effectively over in terms of delegate count by mid-March 2016, but that the media promoted the narrative that the contest between Sanders and Clinton was "heating up" at that time.
An NBC/Wall Street Journal poll conducted in May 2016 found Clinton and Trump (by then the presumptive Republican nominee) in a "dead heat," but the same poll found that if Sanders were the Democratic nominee, 53% of voters would support him to 39% for Trump. Clinton and Trump were the least popular likely candidates ever polled, while Sanders received a 43% positive, 36% negative rating. Polls showed that Democratic voters older than 50 preferred Clinton by a large margin but that those under 50 overwhelmingly favored Sanders. A 2017 analysis in Newsweek found that 12% of those who voted for Sanders in the Democratic primary voted for Trump in the general election, a lower proportion than that of Clinton supporters in 2008 who voted for John McCain.
DNC email leak
In July 2016, a leak of the Democratic National Committee's emails appeared to show DNC officials favoring Clinton over Sanders. Staff repeatedly discussed making his irreligious tendencies a potential campaign issue in southern states and questioned his party loyalty. DNC chair Debbie Wasserman Schultz called his campaign manager "an ASS" and "a damn liar." Speaking with Jake Tapper on CNN, Sanders responded to the leak, saying, "it is an outrage and sad that you would have people in important positions in the DNC trying to undermine my campaign. It goes without saying: the function of the DNC is to represent all of the candidates—to be fair and even-minded. But again, we discussed this many, many months ago, on this show, so what is revealed now is not a shock to me."
Primary loss and endorsement of Hillary Clinton
After the final primary election, Clinton became the presumptive Democratic nominee. On July 12, Sanders formally endorsed Clinton. He said he would continue to work with the Democratic National Convention organizers to implement progressive positions. Sanders refused to formally concede before the convention. He spoke at the 2016 Democratic National Convention on July 25, during which he gave Clinton his full support. Some of his supporters attempted to protest Clinton's nomination and booed when Sanders called for party unity. He responded, "Our job is to do two things: to defeat Donald Trump and to elect Hillary Clinton … It is easy to boo, but it is harder to look your kids in the face if we are living under a Trump presidency."
On November 8, in the general election, Sanders received almost 6% of the vote in Vermont, even though he was no longer a candidate. This was the highest share of a statewide presidential vote for a write-in draft campaign in American history. He also received more votes in Vermont than Gary Johnson, the Libertarian candidate, and Jill Stein, the Green candidate, combined. It was possible to vote for Sanders as a write-in candidate in 12 states, and exact totals of write-in votes for him were published in three of them: California, New Hampshire, and Vermont. In those three states, he received 111,850 write-in votes, about 15% of the write-in votes nationwide, and less than 1% of total nationwide vote.
In November 2016, Sanders's book Our Revolution: A Future to Believe In was released; upon its release, it was number three on The New York Times Best Seller list. The audiobook later received a Grammy nomination for Best Spoken Word Album. In February 2017, he began webcasting The Bernie Sanders Show on Facebook live streaming. As of April 2, 2017[update], guests had included William Barber, Josh Fox, Jane Mayer, and Bill Nye. Polls taken in 2017 found him to be the most popular politician in the United States.
In February 2018, Special Counsel Robert Mueller's investigation into Russian interference in the 2016 U.S. elections concluded that Russians had communicated false information during the primary campaigns to help Sanders and Stein and harm Clinton. Sanders rejected the investigation's conclusion, saying that he had seen no evidence that Russians had helped his campaign. Furthermore, he blamed the Clinton campaign for not doing more to prevent Russian interference. He later said that his campaign had taken action to prevent Russian meddling in the election and that a campaign staffer had alerted the Clinton campaign. Politico noted that a Sanders campaign volunteer contacted a political action committee (PAC) that supported the Clinton campaign to report suspicious activities but that the Sanders campaign did not contact the Clinton campaign as such.
In November 2018, the Sanders Institute and Yanis Varoufakis, co-founder of DiEM25, launched Progressive International, an international organization uniting progressive activists and organizations "to mobilize people around the world to transform the global order and the institutions that shape it."
Influence on the Democratic Party
Analysts have suggested that Sanders's campaign shifted both the Clinton campaign and the Democratic Party politically leftward. A new political organization, Brand New Congress, was formed in April 2016 by former campaign staffers. It works to elect congressional representatives with platforms in line with Sanders. In August 2016, he formed Our Revolution, a political organization dedicated to educating voters about issues, getting people involved in the political process, and electing progressive candidates for local, state, and national office. Speaking on the PBS Newshour about the upcoming 2018 elections and discussing the main principles of the two major parties, Susan Page described the Republican Party as "Trump's party" and the Democratic Party as "Bernie Sanders's party," saying that "Sanders and his more progressive stance has really taken hold." Noting the increasing acceptance of his national single-payer health-care program, his $15-an-hour minimum wage stance, free college tuition and many of the other campaign platform issues he introduced, an April 2018 opinion article in The Week suggested, "Quietly but steadily, the Democratic Party is admitting that Sanders was right." In July 2016, a Slate article called the Democratic platform draft "a monument to his campaign," noting not only his call for a $15 minimum wage, but other campaign issues, such as Social Security expansion, a carbon tax, Wall Street reform, opposition to the death penalty, and a "reasoned pathway for future legalization" of marijuana.
2020 presidential campaign
On February 19, 2019, Sanders announced that he would seek the Democratic Party's 2020 nomination for president. He had declined the Vermont Democratic Party nomination for U.S. Senate in 2006, 2012, and 2018, which caused an unsuccessful legal challenge to his candidacy for the Democratic presidential nomination in 2016. Along with his 2019 campaign announcement, he said he would abide by a new Democratic Party rule for presidential candidates and that he would affirm his membership in that party. On March 5, 2019, he signed a formal statement, known as a "loyalty pledge," that he is a member of the Democratic Party and will serve as a Democrat if elected. News reports noted that the day before, he had signed paperwork to run as an independent for reelection to his Senate seat in 2024.
Sanders's campaign manager was Faiz Shakir. The campaign's national co-chairs were Ben & Jerry's co-founder Ben Cohen, Representative Ro Khanna, Our Revolution President Nina Turner, and San Juan mayor Carmen Yulín Cruz.
Given the high national profile that Sanders maintained since his 2016 campaign, NPR described him as "no longer an underdog" when he announced his 2020 campaign. Using the large email list it built during the 2016 campaign, the 2020 campaign recruited more than one million volunteers within weeks of its launch. It enlisted several former NowThis News employees to produce professional videos for wide social media distribution, live-streamed various forums to its millions of social media followers, and launched a podcast and smartphone app for grassroots organizing.
Sanders's 2020 campaign employed many of the same methods as its 2016 counterpart, eschewing a Super PAC and relying predominantly on small-dollar contributions. According to Federal Election Commission filings, the Sanders campaign had raised the most money in the 2020 Democratic field as of June 2019, including money left over from his 2018 Senate and 2016 presidential races. In September 2019, the Sanders campaign became the fastest in U.S. history to reach one million donors. On October 1, 2019, the campaign announced it had raised $25.3 million in the year's third quarter, with an average donation of $18. It was the largest quarterly sum raised by any Democratic candidate. The campaign raised $34.5 million during the fourth quarter of 2019.
Polls and news coverage
Sanders steadily polled between 15 and 20% on most national surveys between May and September 2019, according to the RealClearPolitics average. This placed him in a decisive second-place behind Joe Biden until Elizabeth Warren and Kamala Harris caught up in July. From mid-February 2020 to the start of March, Sanders polled in first place in the Democratic primary ahead of Joe Biden and was described by the press as the party's presidential front-runner.
According to a RealClearPolitics analysis, Sanders received the third-most mentions on CNN, Fox News, and MSNBC between January and August 2019, trailing only Joe Biden and Kamala Harris. Biden, however, received twice as many mentions as Sanders and Harris. Mentions of Sanders on ABC World News Tonight found him in second place, though also trailing Biden by a large margin. Online mentions "reflect a slightly more balanced picture," with both Sanders and Elizabeth Warren running "neck-and-neck" with Biden.
Forums and other appearances
On April 6, 2019, Sanders participated in a Fox News town hall that attracted more than 2.55 million viewers. His decision to appear on Fox was controversial given the Democratic National Committee's decision not to allow Fox to host any of its debates. His appearance saw an increase of Fox News viewers by 24% overall and 40% in the 25-to-54-year-old demographic, surpassing the ratings of all other Democratic presidential candidate town halls that year. As of September 2019, the town hall had received more than 1.5 million views on YouTube.
On August 6, Sanders appeared on The Joe Rogan Experience podcast. Some praised Rogan for "hosting a pragmatic discussion" while others "seemed rather stunned by Sanders's decision to appear on the show at all." After the podcast, Rogan became a top-trending Twitter topic. After interviewing him, Rogan said, "I am not right-wing… I've interviewed right-wing people. I am 100% left-wing… Bernie Sanders made a ton of sense to me and I would 100% vote for him." As of October 2019, the podcast had received more than ten million views on YouTube.
In December 2018, the Democratic National Committee (DNC) announced the preliminary schedule for 12 official DNC-sanctioned debates, set to begin in June 2019, with six in 2019 and the remaining six during the first four months of 2020. During the July and September debates, commentators described Sanders and Elizabeth Warren as having a "non-aggression pact," staking out similar progressive positions in contrast to the more conservative candidates. In the October 15 debate, his first appearance since his heart attack, debate coach Todd Graham gave Sanders's performance an A, his highest rating of all the candidates.
CNN hosted the first 2020 debate in January with six candidates remaining. Co-moderator Abby Phillip questioned Sanders and Warren about an allegation Warren had made that he had privately told her that a woman could not defeat Donald Trump. Phillip asked Sanders, "Senator Sanders, CNN reported yesterday, and Senator Warren confirmed in a statement, that in 2018 you told her that you did not believe that a woman could win the election. Why did you say that?" Ignoring Sanders's strong denial, Phillip asked Warren, "What did you think when Bernie Sanders told you that a woman couldn't become president?" In an interview after the debate, Sanders called it ludicrous to believe that he would doubt a woman's ability to win the presidency and noted that a woman already had won the national popular vote, saying, "After all, Hillary Clinton beat Donald Trump by 3 million votes in 2016."
Suspension of campaign
Sanders announced that he was suspending his campaign on April 8, 2020. He stated that he would remain on the ballot in the remaining states and continue to accumulate delegates with the goal of influencing the Democratic Party's platform. On April 14 Sanders endorsed Biden. Biden responded, "I think that your endorsement means a great deal. It means a great deal to me. I think people are going to be surprised that we are apart on some issues but we're awfully close on a whole bunch of others. I'm going to need you—not just to win the campaign, but to govern."
|Part of a series on|
the United States
|Part of a series on|
A self-described "democratic socialist", Sanders is a progressive who admires the Nordic model of social democracy and has been a proponent of workplace democracy. He advocates for universal and single-payer healthcare, paid parental leave, as well as tuition-free tertiary education. He supports lowering the cost of drugs by reforming patent laws to allow cheaper generic versions to be sold in the U.S. He supported the Affordable Care Act, though he said it did not go far enough. In November 2015, he gave a speech at Georgetown University about his view of democratic socialism, including its place in the policies of presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt and Lyndon B. Johnson. In defining what democratic socialism means to him, Sanders said: "I don't believe government should take over the grocery store down the street or own the means of production, but I do believe that the middle class and the working families who produce the wealth of America deserve a decent standard of living and that their incomes should go up, not down. I do believe in private companies that thrive and invest and grow in America, companies that create jobs here, rather than companies that are shutting down in America and increasing their profits by exploiting low-wage labor abroad."
Based on his positions and votes throughout his career, many commentators consider his political platform based on tax-funded social benefits and not on social ownership of the means of production. Some have described Sanders's political philosophy as "welfarism" or "social democracy" but not democratic socialism defined as "an attempt to create a property-free, socialist society." Some members of various U.S. socialist parties and organizations have said that Sanders is a reformer of capitalism, not a socialist. Others distinguish among socialism, social democracy, and democratic socialism, and describe his philosophy as extending from such existing liberal programs in the U.S. as Social Security and Medicare, and more consistent with the social democracy found in much of Europe, especially the Nordic countries. Noam Chomsky and Thomas Frank have described Sanders as "a New Dealer."[e] Other observers, such as Lane Kenworthy and Bhaskar Sunkara, suggest that his views are more closely related to those of social democrats.
Sanders views global warming as a serious problem, and advocates bold action to reverse its effects. He calls for substantial investment in infrastructure, with energy efficiency, sustainability, and job creation as prominent goals. He considers climate change the greatest threat to national security. He said that family planning can help fight climate change. He opposed the construction of the Dakota Access Pipeline on the grounds that, like the Keystone XL Pipeline, it "will have a significant impact on our climate." In 2019, he announced his support for Green New Deal legislation, and joined Representatives Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez and Earl Blumenauer in proposing legislation that would declare climate change a national and international emergency.
Sanders focuses on economic issues such as income and wealth inequality, poverty, raising the minimum wage, universal healthcare, cancelling all student debt, making public colleges and universities tuition-free by taxing financial transactions, and expanding Social Security benefits by eliminating the cap on the payroll tax on all incomes above $250,000. He has become a prominent supporter of laws requiring companies to give their workers parental leave, sick leave, and vacation time, noting that such laws have been adopted by nearly all other developed countries. He also supports legislation that would make it easier for workers to join or form a trade union. He was against the Troubled Asset Relief Program, and has called for comprehensive financial reforms, such as breaking up "too big to fail" financial institutions, restoring Glass–Steagall legislation, reforming the Federal Reserve Bank, and allowing the Post Office to offer basic financial services in economically marginalized communities.
Believing greater emphasis is needed on labor rights and environmental concerns when negotiating international trade agreements, Sanders voted against and has long spoken against NAFTA, CAFTA, and PNTR with China. He has called them a "disaster for the American worker," saying that they have resulted in American corporations moving abroad. He also opposes the Trans-Pacific Partnership, which he says was "written by corporate America and the pharmaceutical industry and Wall Street." On May 1, 2019, he tweeted: "Since the China trade deal I voted against, America has lost over three million manufacturing jobs. It's wrong to pretend that China isn't one of our major economic competitors."
On foreign policy, Sanders supports reducing military spending while pursuing more diplomacy and international cooperation. He opposed funding Nicaraguan rebels, known as contras, in the CIA's covert war against Nicaragua's leftist government. He opposed the U.S. invasion of Iraq and has criticized a number of policies instituted during the War on Terror, particularly that of mass surveillance and the USA Patriot Act. He criticized Israel's bellicose actions during the 2014 Gaza war and U.S. involvement in the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen. On November 15, 2015, in response to the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL)'s attacks in Paris, he cautioned against Islamophobia and said, "We gotta be tough, not stupid" in the war against ISIL, adding that the U.S. should continue to welcome Syrian refugees. He criticized the January 2020 drone assassination of Iranian general Qasem Soleimani, calling it a dangerous escalation of tensions that could lead to an expensive war.
Sanders supports Palestinians' rights and has criticized Israel on several occasions. In 2020, he described the American Israel Public Affairs Committee as a platform for bigotry and said he would not attend its conference. He condemned Trump's decision to recognize Jerusalem as Israel's capital, saying, "It would dramatically undermine the prospects for an Israeli-Palestinian peace agreement, and severely, perhaps irreparably, damage the United States' ability to broker that peace."
Addressing Westminster College in a September 2017 speech, Sanders laid out a foreign policy plan for greater international collaboration, adherence to U.S.-led international agreements such as the Paris Agreement and the Iran nuclear deal framework, and promoting human rights and democratic ideals. He emphasized the consequences associated with global economic inequality and climate change, and urged reining in the use of U.S. military power, saying it "must always be a last resort." He also criticized U.S. support for "murderous regimes" during the Cold War, such as those in Iran, Chile and El Salvador, and said that those actions continue to make the U.S. less safe. He also spoke critically of Russian interference in the 2016 U.S. elections and the way President Trump has handled the crisis. He does not consider Turkey a U.S. ally, and condemned the Turkish military offensive against U.S.-aligned Kurdish forces in northeastern Syria.
Sanders supports closing the "gun show loophole," banning assault weapons, and passing and enforcing universal federal background checks for gun purchases. In 1990, he was supported by the National Rifle Association in his bid to become a U.S. Representative in exchange for opposing both the competing campaign of Peter Smith, who had reversed his stance on firearm restrictions, and waiting periods for handgun purchases. In 1993, while a U.S. Representative, he voted against the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act (which established background checks and wait periods), and in 2005 voted for legislation that gave gun manufacturers legal immunity against claims of negligence, but as of 2016[update] he has since said that he would support repealing that law. In 1996, he voted against additional funding to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for research on issues related to firearms, but in 2016, he called for an increase in CDC funding for the study of gun violence.
On social issues, Sanders has long taken liberal stances. He considers himself a feminist, is pro-choice on abortion, and opposes defunding Planned Parenthood. He has denounced institutional racism and called for criminal justice reform to reduce the number of people in prison, advocates a crackdown on police brutality, and supports abolishing private, for-profit prisons and the death penalty. He supports Black Lives Matter. He also supports legalizing marijuana at the federal level. He has advocated for greater democratic participation by citizens, campaign finance reform, and a constitutional amendment or judicial decision that would overturn Citizens United v. FEC.
He advocated for LGBT rights as Burlington mayor in 1983 and voted against the 1996 Defense of Marriage Act. In 2006, he indicated that the time was not right for legalizing same-sex marriage nationally, describing the issue as one that should be handled at the state level; but then in 2009, he supported the legalizing same-sex marriage in Vermont, which was enacted that year. In 2014, he signed a letter to then-FDA commissioner Sylvia Burwell requesting that the FDA revise its policy banning donation of corneas and other tissues by men who have had sex with another man in the preceding 5 years.
Sanders criticized President Trump for appointing multiple billionaires to his cabinet. He criticized Trump's rolling back President Obama's Clean Power Plan, noting the scientifically reported effect on climate change of human activity and citing Trump's calling those reports a hoax. He called for caution on the Syrian Civil War, saying, "It's easier to get into a war than out of one." In 2017, he promised to defeat "Trump and Trumpism and the Republican right-wing ideology".
Sanders gave an online reply to Trump's January 2018 State of the Union address in which he called Trump "compulsively dishonest" and criticized him for initiating "a looming immigration crisis" by ending the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals program. He voiced concern about Trump's failure to mention the finding that Russia had interfered in the 2016 election and "will likely interfere in the 2018 midterms we will be holding… Unless you have a very special relationship with Mr. Putin."
On January 6, 2021, Trump supporters stormed the United States Capitol. Sanders commented: "[Trump] has made it clear that he will do anything to remain in power – including insurrection and inciting violence [and he] will go down in history as the worst and most dangerous president in history."
Sanders voted to convict Trump on both articles of his first impeachment trial in 2020 (for pressuring a foreign leader to investigate Joe Biden), and again on the sole article of his second impeachment trial in 2021 (for inciting the storming of the Capitol).
After Biden was elected president, Sanders became the subject of speculation over a potential appointment as Labor Secretary, which was supported by several progressive groups, such as the Sunrise Movement. For his part, Sanders said that he would accept Biden's nomination if it was offered. But Biden chose Boston mayor Marty Walsh for the position instead. When announcing Walsh's nomination, Biden confirmed that he had discussed the position with Sanders, but the two agreed that Sanders's resignation from the Senate and the ensuing special election would have put the Democrats' slim Senate majority at risk.
On February 23, 2021, Sanders became the first senator in the Democratic caucus to oppose one of Biden's cabinet picks when he voted against Tom Vilsack's confirmation as Agriculture Secretary, citing concerns about Vilsack's past work as a lobbyist and ties to large corporations.
Sanders strongly supported Senate Democrats' decision to use budget reconciliation (a procedure used to avoid filibusters) to pass the American Rescue Plan Act of 2021, despite having criticized Republicans' use of reconciliation to pass their 2017 tax cuts. The bill passed the Senate by a 50-49 vote and was signed into law by Biden on March 11, 2021.
Born into a Democratic-voting family, Sanders was first introduced to political activism when his brother Larry joined the Young Democrats of America and campaigned for Adlai Stevenson II in 1956. Sanders joined Vermont's Liberty Union Party in 1971 and was a candidate for several offices, never coming close to winning election. He became party chairman, but quit in 1977 to become an independent. In 1980, he served as an elector for the Socialist Workers Party. In 1981, Sanders ran as an independent for mayor of Burlington, Vermont, and defeated the Democratic incumbent; he was reelected three times. Although an independent, he endorsed Democratic presidential candidates Walter Mondale in 1984 and Jesse Jackson in 1988. His endorsement of Mondale was lukewarm (telling reporters that "if you go around saying that Mondale would be a great president, you would be a liar and a hypocrite"), but he supported Jackson enthusiastically. The Washington Post reported that the Jackson campaign helped inspire Sanders to work more closely with the Democratic Party.
Sanders first ran for the U.S. House of Representatives in 1988 and for the U.S. Senate in 2006, each time adopting a strategy of winning the Democratic Party primary, thereby eliminating Democratic challengers, and then running as an independent in the general election. He continued this strategy through his reelection in the 2018 United States Senate election in Vermont. Throughout his tenure in Congress, he has been listed as an independent. He caucused with Democrats in the House while refusing to join the party, and continues to caucus with Democrats in the Senate. Some conservative southern House Democrats initially barred him from the caucus as they believed that allowing a self-described socialist to join would harm their electoral prospects. He soon came to work constructively with Democrats, voting with the party over 90% of the time during his tenure in Congress.
Starting with his 2016 presidential campaign, Sanders's announcements suggested that not only was he running as a Democrat, but that he would run as a Democrat in future elections. When challenged by Clinton about his party commitment, he said, "Of course I am a Democrat and running for the Democratic nomination." Since he remained a senator elected as an independent, his U.S. Senate website and press materials continued to refer to him as an independent during the campaign and upon his return to the Senate. In October 2017, Sanders said he would run for reelection as an independent in 2018 despite pressure to run as a Democrat. His party status became ambiguous again in March 2019 when he signed a formal "loyalty pledge" to the Democratic Party stating that he was a member of the party and would serve as a Democrat if elected president. He signed the pledge the day after he signed paperwork to run as an independent for reelection to the Senate in 2024.
After Trump's victory in the 2016 elections, Sanders suggested the Democratic Party undergo a series of reforms and that it "break loose from its corporate establishment ties and, once again, become a grass-roots party of working people, the elderly and the poor." He drew parallels between his campaign and that of the Labour Party in the 2017 UK general election. He wrote in The New York Times that "the British elections should be a lesson for the Democratic Party" and urged the Democrats to stop holding on to an "overly cautious, centrist ideology," arguing that "momentum shifted to Labour after it released a very progressive manifesto that generated much enthusiasm among young people and workers." He had earlier praised Jeremy Corbyn's stance on class issues.
In 1963, Sanders and Deborah Shiling Messing, whom he met in college, volunteered for several months on the Israeli kibbutz Sha'ar HaAmakim. They married in 1964 and bought a summer home in Vermont; they had no children and divorced in 1966. His son (and only biological child), Levi Sanders, was born in 1969 to then-girlfriend Susan Campbell Mott.
On May 28, 1988, Sanders married Jane O'Meara Driscoll (née Mary Jane O'Meara), who later became president of Burlington College, in Burlington, Vermont. The day after their wedding, the couple visited the Soviet Union as part of an official delegation in his capacity as mayor. They own a row house in Capitol Hill, a house in Burlington's New North End neighborhood, and a lakefront summer home in North Hero. He considers Jane's three children—Dave Driscoll (born 1975), Carina Driscoll (born 1974), and Heather Titus (née Driscoll; 1971)—to be his own. He also has seven grandchildren, three (including one who was adopted) through his son Levi and four through his stepchildren.
Sanders's elder brother, Larry, lives in England; he was a Green Party county councillor, representing the East Oxford division on Oxfordshire County Council, until he retired from the council in 2013. Larry ran as a Green Party candidate for Oxford West and Abingdon in the 2015 British general election and came in fifth. Bernie Sanders told CNN, "I owe my brother an enormous amount. It was my brother who actually introduced me to a lot of my ideas."
On October 1, 2019, Sanders was hospitalized after experiencing chest pains at a campaign event in Las Vegas. His campaign announced the next day that a blockage had been found in one coronary artery and two stents inserted. Scheduled campaign events and appearances were canceled until further notice. Two days later his campaign released a statement that he had been diagnosed with a heart attack. He was released from the hospital the same day. The statement included the following from Sanders's doctors:
After presenting to an outside facility with chest pain, Sen. Sanders was diagnosed with a myocardial infarction. He was immediately transferred to Desert Springs Hospital Medical Center. The senator was stable upon arrival and taken immediately to the cardiac catheterization laboratory, at which time two stents were placed in a blocked coronary artery in a timely fashion. All other arteries were normal. His hospital course was uneventful with good expected progress. He was discharged with instructions to follow up with his personal physician.
A few days after returning home, Sanders addressed media outside his home and said he had experienced fatigue and chest discomfort for a month or two before the incident; he expressed regret for not seeking medical assessment sooner: "I was dumb."
Sanders made his first national appearance after his heart attack on October 15 at the Democratic debate, at which he said, "I'm healthy, I'm feeling great." When asked how he would reassure voters about his health and ability to take on the duties of the presidency, he said, "We are going to be mounting a vigorous campaign all over this country. That is how I think I can reassure the American people." It was noted that he was "lively and sharp at the debate."
In December 2019, three months after the heart attack, Sanders released letters from three physicians, Attending Physician of Congress Brian P. Monahan and two cardiologists, who declared Sanders healthy and recovered from his heart condition.
Honors and awards
On December 4, 2015, Sanders won Time's 2015 Person of the Year readers' poll with 10.2% of the vote but did not receive the editorial board's award. On March 20, 2016, he was given an honorary Coast Salish name, dxʷshudičup,[f] by Deborah Parker in Seattle to honor his focus on Native American issues during his presidential campaign.
Religion, heritage, and values
As Sanders described his upbringing as an American Jew in a 2016 speech: his father generally attended synagogue only on Yom Kippur; he attended public schools while his mother "chafed" at his yeshiva Sunday schooling at a Hebrew school; and their religious observances were mostly limited to Passover seders with their neighbors. Larry Sanders said of their parents, "They were very pleased to be Jews, but didn't have a strong belief in God." Bernie had a bar mitzvah at the historic Kingsway Jewish Center in Midwood, Brooklyn, where he grew up.
In 1963, in cooperation with the Labor Zionist youth movement Hashomer Hatzair, Sanders and his first wife volunteered at Sha'ar HaAmakim, a kibbutz in northern Israel. His motivation for the trip was as much socialistic as it was Zionistic.
As mayor of Burlington, Sanders allowed a Chabad public menorah to be placed at city hall, an action the ACLU contested. He publicly inaugurated the Hanukkah menorah and performed the Jewish religious ritual of blessing Hanukkah candles. His early and strong support played a significant role in the now widespread public menorah celebrations around the globe. When asked about his Jewish heritage, Sanders has said that he is "proud to be Jewish."
Sanders rarely speaks about religion. He describes himself as "not particularly religious" and "not actively involved" with organized religion. A press package issued by his office states his religion as Jewish. He has said he believes in God, but not necessarily in a traditional way: "I think everyone believes in God in their own ways," he said. "To me, it means that all of us are connected, all of life is connected, and that we are all tied together." In October 2015, on the late-night talk show Jimmy Kimmel Live!, Kimmel asked him, "You say you are culturally Jewish and you don't feel religious; do you believe in God and do you think that's important to the people of the United States?" Sanders replied:
I am who I am, and what I believe in and what my spirituality is about is that we're all in this together. That I think it is not a good thing to believe as human beings we can turn our backs on the suffering of other people… and this is not Judaism, this is what Pope Francis is talking about, that we can't just worship billionaires and the making of more and more money. Life is more than that.
In 2016, he disclosed that he had "very strong religious and spiritual feelings," adding, "My spirituality is that we are all in this together and that when children go hungry, when veterans sleep out on the street, it impacts me."
Sanders does not regularly attend synagogue, and he does not refrain from working on Rosh Hashanah, as observant Jews do. He has attended yahrzeit observances in memory of the deceased, for the father of a friend, and in 2015 attended a Tashlikh, an atonement ceremony, with the mayor of Lynchburg on the afternoon of Rosh Hashanah. According to his close friend Richard Sugarman, a professor of religious studies at the University of Vermont, Sanders's Jewish identity is "certainly more ethnic and cultural than religious." Deborah Dash Moore, a Judaic scholar at the University of Michigan, has said that Sanders has a particular type of "ethnic Jewishness that is out of style these days among American Jews." His wife is Roman Catholic, and he has often expressed admiration for Pope Francis, saying that "the leader of the Catholic Church is raising profound issues. It is important that we listen to what he has said." He has said he feels very close to Francis's economic teachings, describing him as "incredibly smart and brave." In April 2016, he accepted an invitation from Marcelo Sánchez Sorondo, an aide close to Francis, to speak at a Vatican conference on economic and environmental issues. While at the Vatican, he met briefly with Francis.
In popular culture
In December 1987, during his tenure as mayor of Burlington, Sanders recorded a folk album, We Shall Overcome, with 30 Vermont musicians. As he was not a skilled singer, he performed his vocals in a talking blues style. He appeared in a cameo role in the 1988 comedy-drama film Sweet Hearts Dance, playing a man who distributes candy to young trick-or-treaters. In 1999, he acted in the film My X-Girlfriend's Wedding Reception, playing Rabbi Manny Shevitz. In this role he mourned the Brooklyn Dodgers' move to Los Angeles, reflecting Sanders's own upbringing in Brooklyn. On February 6, 2016, he was a guest star alongside Larry David on Saturday Night Live, playing a Polish immigrant on a steamship that was sinking near the Statue of Liberty.
Owing to his two high-profile campaigns in the 2016 and 2020 Democratic primaries, Sanders and his campaigns have generated many Internet memes and other online content. The Facebook group Bernie Sanders' Dank Meme Stash, where users can submit memes focused around Sanders, received significant attention in the 2016 primary season due to the at-the-time unique idea of a meme community focused entirely on a politician. During the 2020 primary season, a still from a fundraising video in which Sanders tells the viewers "I am once again asking for your financial support" went viral online, with numerous edits made of the frame. The day before Super Tuesday 2020, a video of the Twitch streamer Neekolul wearing a Bernie 2020 shirt and lip-syncing the song "Oki Doki Boomer" also went viral. In 2021, a frame from the inauguration of Joe Biden showing Sanders seated in a folding chair wearing patterned mittens and a jacket reminiscent of the one in the "I am once again asking" meme went viral, with the image captioned or edited into other images, most commonly popular movie scenes.
- With Huck Gutman, Outsider in the White House. London: Verso Books. 2015 . ISBN 978-1-78478-418-8. OCLC 918986570.
- In Robert McChesney; Russell Newman; Ben Scott, eds. (2005). "Why Americans Should Take Back the Media". The Future of Media: Resistance and Reform in the 21st Century. Seven Stories Press. ISBN 978-1-58322-679-7. OCLC 57574152.
- The Speech: A Historic Filibuster on Corporate Greed and the Decline of Our Middle Class. New York: Bold Type Books. 2015 . ISBN 978-1-56858-554-3. LCCN 2011920256. OCLC 927456901. OL 25090387M.
- Our Revolution: A Future to Believe In. Thomas Dunne Books. 2016. ISBN 978-1-250-13292-5. OCLC 1026148801.
- Bernie Sanders Guide to Political Revolution. Henry Holt and Company. 2017. ISBN 978-1-250-13890-3. OCLC 999379791.
- Where We Go from Here: Two Years in the Resistance. Gale. 2018. ISBN 978-1-432-86916-8. OCLC 1126540640.
- American Left
- History of the socialist movement in the United States
- List of elected socialist mayors in the United States
- List of Jewish members of the United States Congress
- List of people who received an electoral vote in the United States Electoral College
- Spintharus berniesandersi
- Third-party members of the United States House of Representatives
- Electoral history of Bernie Sanders
- Congressional affiliation
- Affiliated non-member
- Although Hitler lost the election for the presidency of Germany on March 13, 1932, when Hindenburg received 49.6% of the vote to Hitler's 30.1%, the Nazi Party which was led by Hitler won a plurality in the July 1932 election for the Reichstag, Germany's lower house of parliament. The Nazi Party retained its status as the largest party thereafter.
- A long speech such as this is commonly known as a filibuster, but because it did not block action, it was not technically a filibuster under Senate rules.
- Thomas Frank's comments are mentioned in the following book review: Lozada, Carlos (March 11, 2016). "The liberal war over the Obama legacy has already begun". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 17, 2016.
- IPA: [ˌduːh.s.ˈhwuː.diː.ˌtʃuːp], lit. 'the one lighting the fires for change and unity' in Lushootseed
- McCrummen, Stephanie (February 5, 2016). "His Most Radical Move". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 21, 2017.
- Rosenmann, Alexandra (February 12, 2016). "Noam Chomsky: Bernie isn't the socialist he proclaims". Salon. Retrieved August 29, 2021.
- Gambino, Lauren (March 10, 2019). "'Not the billionaires': why small-dollar donors are Democrats' new powerhouse". The Guardian. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 25, 2020.
- Ember, Sydney (April 8, 2020). "Bernie Sanders Is Dropping Out of 2020 Democratic Race for President". The New York Times. Retrieved April 8, 2020.
- Epstein, Kayla (April 8, 2020). "Bernie Sanders vows to stay on upcoming ballots and continue to gather delegates so he can 'exert significant influence over the party platform'". Business Insider. Retrieved April 10, 2020.
- Grumbach, Gary (April 13, 2020). "Sanders' campaign raises over $2 million for coronavirus charities". NBC News. Retrieved April 14, 2020.
- Ember, Sydney; Glueck, Katie (April 13, 2020). "Bernie Sanders Endorses Joe Biden for President". The New York Times. Retrieved April 13, 2020.
- Horowitz, Jason (July 24, 2015). "Bernie Sanders's '100% Brooklyn' Roots Are as Unshakable as His Accent". The New York Times. Retrieved February 18, 2016.
- "Bernie Sanders". Jewish Virtual Library. American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. Retrieved February 18, 2016.
- "Bernie Sanders Biography". Biography.com. A&E Television Networks, LLC. Retrieved February 18, 2016.
- "Sanders, Bernard (1941 – )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Office of the Clerk of the United States House of Representatives' Office of History and Preservation and the Office of the Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved February 18, 2016.
- "Season 4, Episode 1: The Impression". Finding Your Roots. October 3, 2017. Retrieved February 9, 2020.
- "Bernie Sanders' ancestral town in Poland kvells over his Iowa performance". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. February 2, 2016. Retrieved February 3, 2016.
- "Eli Sanders". Geni.com. Retrieved January 23, 2016.
- New York Passenger Lists, 1820–1957 immigration record: Eliasz Gitman, sailing from Antwerp, mother Jetti Gutman, citizenship in 1927 as Elias Sanders.
- Chana, Jas (August 20, 2015). "Straight Outta Brooklyn, by Way of Vermont: The Bernie Sanders Story". Tablet. Retrieved January 20, 2016.
Soltys told them that at the time the Nazis invaded Poland, Romek was the leader of Slopnice's Jewish community. "Which of course," Larry said, "meant he was one of the first to be killed."
- Gaudiano, Nicole (April 28, 2015). "OnPolitics: 6 things to know about Bernie Sanders". USA Today. Archived from the original on July 27, 2015. Retrieved July 19, 2015.
- Leibovich, Mark (January 21, 2007). "The Socialist Senator". The New York Times. Retrieved July 18, 2015.
- Kelly, Amita (April 29, 2015). "5 Things You Should Know About Bernie Sanders". NPR. Retrieved July 19, 2015.
- McCaskill, Nolan D (March 6, 2016). "Sanders: 'My father's family was wiped out by Hitler'". Politico. Retrieved April 15, 2017.
- "Bessie Glassberg (Goldberg)". Geni.com. Retrieved January 27, 2016.
- "Benjamin Glassberg". Geni.com. Retrieved January 27, 2016.
Birthplace: Radzyn Podlaski, Radzyń Podlaski County, Lublin Voivodeship, Poland
- Kessler, Glenn (August 28, 2015). "Why you shouldn't retweet Sanders's claim that Hitler 'won an election'". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 26, 2016.
- Matthews, Dylan (August 28, 2015). "Sanders Gets History Right on Hitler's Rise to Power". Vox via Sen. Bernie Sanders's Official Website. Retrieved March 26, 2016.
- Sathish, Madhuri (August 28, 2015). "Bernie Sanders' Quote About Hitler Winning An Election Is Powerful. It's Also Misleading". Bustle. Archived from the original on January 21, 2016.
- Feldmann, Linda (June 11, 2015). "Bernie Sanders: 'I'm Proud to be Jewish'". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved June 13, 2015.
'I'm proud to be Jewish,' the Independent from Vermont – and candidate for the Democratic presidential nomination – responded Thursday at a press breakfast hosted by the Monitor. Though, he added, 'I'm not particularly religious.' As a child, Sanders said, being Jewish taught him 'in a very deep way what politics is about. A guy named Adolf Hitler won an election in 1932,' the senator said. 'He won an election, and 50 million people died as a result of that election in World War II, including 6 million Jews. So what I learned as a little kid is that politics is, in fact, very important.'
- Keith, Tamara (November 2, 2015). "Sanders Could Be The First Jewish President, But He Doesn't Like To Talk About It". NPR. Retrieved February 9, 2020.
- Stone, Kurt F. (2010). The Jews of Capitol Hill: A Compendium of Jewish Congressional Members. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. p. 483. ISBN 9780810857315. OCLC 755001191.
- Bump, Philip (January 29, 2016). "The untold story of Bernie Sanders, high school track star". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 29, 2016.
- Felsenthal, Carol (May 4, 2015). "Bernie Sanders Found Socialism at the University of Chicago". Chicago magazine. Retrieved July 18, 2015.
He graduated from Brooklyn's P.S. 197 and James Madison High School where he was captain of his high school track team.
- Smith, Nicola (January 17, 2016). "Bernie ropes in British brother for showdown with Clinton". Sunday Times (London). ProQuest 1757568267.
- Hamm, Theodore (July 7, 2020). "In Bernie's Brooklyn, Political Revolution Was Mainstream". Jacobin (magazine). Retrieved July 25, 2020.
- Chana, Jas. "Straight Outta Brooklyn, by Way of Vermont: The Bernie Sanders Story". Tablet Magazine. Nextbook Inc. Retrieved March 15, 2021.
- "Bernie Sanders Fast Facts". CNN. August 20, 2015. Retrieved October 13, 2015.
- Talbot, Margaret (October 12, 2015). "The Populist Prophet". The New Yorker. Retrieved February 9, 2020.
- Kampf-Lassin, Miles (March 3, 2019). "What Chicago Taught Bernie". Jacobin. Retrieved March 4, 2019.
- Kruse, Michael (July 9, 2015). "Bernie Sanders Has a Secret: Vermont, his son and the hungry early years that made him the surging socialist he is today". Politico. Retrieved July 18, 2015.
After he graduated from James Madison High School in 1959, he went to Brooklyn College for a year before transferring to the University of Chicago, where he joined the Congress of Racial Equality, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), the Student Peace Union, and the Young People's Socialist League.
- Nichols, John (July 6, 2015). "Bernie Sanders Speaks". The Nation. Retrieved July 19, 2015.
- Murphy, Tim (February 11, 2016). "Here's What Bernie Sanders Actually Did in the Civil Rights Movement". Mother Jones. Retrieved February 11, 2016.
- Frizell, Sam (May 26, 2015). "The Radical Education of Bernie Sanders". Time. Retrieved February 9, 2020.
- Perlstein, Rick (January 2015). "A political education". The University of Chicago Magazine. Retrieved September 10, 2015.
- Craven, Jasper (August 26, 2015). "Can Sanders' civil rights experience at U. of C. translate on campaign trail?". Chicago Tribune. ISSN 1085-6706. Archived from the original on January 8, 2016. Retrieved February 9, 2020.
- Booth, Hannah (September 16, 2016). "'He wasn't terribly charismatic': Bernie Sanders leads a civil rights protest in 1962". The Guardian. Retrieved September 16, 2016.
- Sanders, Bernie (August 25, 2013). "News August 25". Senate.gov. Retrieved June 17, 2015.
- Skiba, Katherine (February 22, 2016). "Arrest photo of young activist Bernie Sanders emerges from Tribune archives". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved May 28, 2018.
- Murphy, Tim (August 26, 2015). "Read 21-Year-Old Bernie Sanders' Manifesto on Sexual Freedom". Mother Jones. Retrieved September 10, 2015.
- Vogel, Steve (April 14, 2013). "Bernie Sanders on frontline for veterans". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 30, 2015.
- Parks, Mary Alice (August 31, 2015). "Bernie Sanders Applied for 'Conscientious Objector' Status During Vietnam, Campaign Confirms". ABC News. Retrieved September 30, 2015.
- Schwarz, Hunter (April 30, 2015). "Bernie Sanders: From hippie migrant to would-be president". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 9, 2020.
- Seitz-Wald, Alex (May 28, 2015). "The 25 best things we learned from Bernie Sanders' book". MSNBC. Retrieved February 9, 2020.
- Sanders, Bernard (March 29, 1969). "Cuba: the Other Side of the Story" (PDF). Vermont Freeman. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 10, 2016. Retrieved March 10, 2016.
- Sanders, Bernie [@BernieSanders] (November 3, 2018). "I moved to Stannard when I first came to Vermont. I've visited 13 states in the last 3 weeks but coming home to Stannard was very special to me. pic.twitter.com/muk1Ps4mzh" (Tweet). Retrieved December 17, 2019 – via Twitter.
- "Sen. Bernard Sanders (I-Vt.)". Roll Call. Retrieved August 19, 2015.
- "Election Results Search: 1974 Election Results". sec.state.vt.us. Retrieved May 2, 2015.
Citation for votes (total for Leahy and percentages calculated from spreadsheet)
- Nelson, Garrison (September 14, 2014). "Jim Jeffords: Reluctant Rebel. Section: 1974: Changing the Congressional Guard". VTDigger. Retrieved May 2, 2015.
- Guma, Greg (1989). The People's Republic: Vermont and the Sanders Revolution. South Burlington, Vermont: New England Press. pp. 19–42. ISBN 9780933050785.
- Siegel, Lou (June 27, 1978). "Vermont's Third Party: No Longer Just a Fan Club". Vanguard Press. Retrieved March 1, 2016 – via Seven Days.
- "Socialists Launch Campaign to Get Candidates on Ballot". Rutland Herald. July 11, 1980. p. 9. Archived from the original on November 29, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Arena Profile: Sen. Bernie Sanders". Politico. Archived from the original on July 23, 2016. Retrieved August 19, 2015.
- Bernard Sanders (1979). Eugene V. Debs: Trade Unionist, Socialist, Revolutionary, 1855–1926 – Introduction (Video). Retrieved July 13, 2015.
- "Liberty Unionite to Run For Mayor of Burlington". The Burlington Free Press. November 9, 1980. p. 19. Archived from the original on November 29, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
- "UVM Pair to Work for Independent Coalition". The Burlington Free Press. December 13, 1980. p. 3. Archived from the original on November 29, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Sanders Opens Campaign Office". The Burlington Free Press. February 18, 1981. p. 14. Archived from the original on November 30, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Citizens Party Fails To Nominate Candidate". The Burlington Free Press. January 16, 1981. p. 2. Archived from the original on November 30, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Bernie's Red Vermont". The New Republic. June 13, 2019. Archived from the original on March 9, 2020.
- "Board to Conduct Mayoral Recount Friday". The Burlington Free Press. March 10, 1981. p. 11. Archived from the original on December 3, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
- "IT'S NEW POLITICS VS. OLD IN VERMONT AS MAYOR STRIVES TO OUST ALDERMAN". March 2, 1982. Archived from the original on July 9, 2018.
- Margolis, Jon (March 15, 1983). "Bernie of Burlington". The New Republic. Archived from the original on September 2, 2019.
- "Gilson Rejects Campaign Fund Limit". The Burlington Free Press. February 2, 1983. p. 17. Archived from the original on December 5, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Sanders will make it official". Bennington Banner. December 3, 1982. p. 16. Archived from the original on December 5, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Sanders Announces He's Running Again". Barre Montpelier Times Argus. December 3, 1982. p. 1. Archived from the original on December 5, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Citizens Party Endorses Sanders". The Burlington Free Press. January 23, 1983. p. 14. Archived from the original on December 5, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Massive Turnout Keeps Mayor Sanders in Office". The Burlington Free Press. March 2, 1983. p. 3. Archived from the original on December 5, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Mayor Sanders to run again". Brattleboro Reformer. December 7, 1984. p. 2. Archived from the original on December 5, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Sanders Makes It Official". Rutland Herald. December 8, 1984. p. 6. Archived from the original on December 5, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
- "City Elections At-a-glance". The Burlington Free Press. March 6, 1985. p. 2. Archived from the original on December 5, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Sanders Announces for Fourth Term, Says He Has 'Energy and Enthusiasm'". Rutland Herald. December 2, 1986. p. 1. Archived from the original on December 5, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
- "1987 election results". The Burlington Free Press. March 4, 1985. p. 11. Archived from the original on December 5, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Sanders Proclaims '87 Race Will Be His Last Mayoral Bid". The Burlington Free Press. December 7, 1987. p. 21. Archived from the original on December 8, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
- "WSJ Sanders Profile". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on March 7, 2014. Retrieved January 18, 2013.
- Banks, Russell (October 5, 2015). "Bernie Sanders, the Socialist Mayor". The Atlantic. Retrieved January 21, 2016.
- "Self-Styled Socialist Takes Oath as Mayor of Burlington, Vermont". Boston Globe. Associated Press. April 7, 1981.
- Daybell, Morgan (July 1, 2009). "Senator Bernie Sanders". Vermont Progressive Party. Archived from the original on April 7, 2020. Retrieved June 8, 2015.
- Dreier, Peter; Clavel, Pierre (June 4, 2015). "Bernie's Burlington: What Kind of Mayor Was Bernie Sanders?". Huffington Post. Archived from the original on April 3, 2019. Retrieved August 6, 2015.
- Gram, Dave; Thomas, Ken (May 26, 2015). "Bernie Sanders kicks off 2016 bid from Clinton's left". The Bellingham Herald. Associated Press. Archived from the original on February 8, 2016. Retrieved December 9, 2015.
- Reynolds, David (1997). Democracy Unbound: Progressive Challenges to the Two Party System. South End Press. p. 162. ISBN 9780896085633.
- "Third Political Parties in America". C-SPAN. February 3, 1989. 34:27 minutes in. Retrieved November 16, 2018.
- Markus, Bethania Palma (August 11, 2015). "The Bernie effect: Noam Chomsky says Sanders will push the Democratic Party to the left". The Raw Story. Retrieved August 21, 2015.
- "Chomsky Speech at Burlington City Hall – 1985". Retrieved August 21, 2015 – via YouTube.
- "Bernie Speaks with the Community". Center for Media and Democracy. September 27, 2011. Retrieved February 10, 2016.
- Murphy, Tim (November 10, 2015). "I Can't Stop Watching These Old Clips of Bernie Sanders' Cable-Access Show". Mother Jones. Retrieved February 10, 2016.
- Davis, Mark (September 17, 2014). "Bernie Sanders Recorded a Folk Album. No Punchline Required". Seven Days. Retrieved February 10, 2016.
- Kaczynski, Andrew (June 25, 2015). "Watch This 1980s Bernie Sanders Public Access Show On Recording His Folk Album". BuzzFeed. Retrieved February 10, 2016.
- McCarthy, Colman (April 1, 1989). "BERNIE SANDERS' SOCIALISM" – via www.washingtonpost.com.
- "Press Release - 'He's a Rock' | The American Presidency Project". www.presidency.ucsb.edu. Retrieved February 18, 2020.
- "10 Great Places to Live, 2013". kiplinger.com. July 25, 2013.
- Cillizza, Chris (August 20, 2015). "Bernie Sanders: The 'Uncola' of American politics". The Washington Post.
- "Friends honor Sanders as he says goodbye". The Burlington Free Press. April 4, 1989. p. 1. Archived from the original on December 6, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
- "VT At-Large Race, November 8, 1988". ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved February 17, 2013.
- "Vermont State archives – General Election Results" (PDF). Retrieved March 31, 2016.
- Pertman, Adam (November 11, 1990). "'The Times Caught Up' To Vermont Socialist". Boston Globe. Archived from the original on November 12, 2013. Retrieved February 14, 2020.
- Daly, Christopher B. (November 11, 1990). "For Vermont's Sanders, Victory Followed Long Path; First Socialist Elected to House in Decades Gets Attention With Frank Talk of Class Conflict". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
- Carle, Robin H., ed. (May 12, 1995). "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 8, 1994". Archived from the original on November 14, 2015.
- Qiu, Linda (February 23, 2016). "Is Bernie Sanders a Democrat?". PolitiFact. Retrieved October 17, 2016.
- Taibbi, Matt (August 25, 2005). "Inside the Horror Show That Is Congress". Rolling Stone. Retrieved February 14, 2020.
- "Who should pay?". Brattleboro Reformer. September 23, 2008. Archived from the original on May 29, 2015.
- "Statement of Congressman Sanders on 7/16/2003 regarding: Congressman Sanders' Questioning of Federal Reserve Chairman Greenspan". July 16, 2003. Archived from the original on September 26, 2006. Retrieved August 29, 2010 – via Web.archive.org.
- Bernie Sanders, Alan Greenspan (July 15, 2003). Monetary Policy Report (Motion Picture). House Financial Services Committee: C-SPAN. Event occurs at 1:29:12. Retrieved December 18, 2019.
- Andrews, Edmund L. (October 23, 2008). "Greenspan Concedes Error on Regulation". The New York Times. Retrieved February 14, 2020.
- Naylor, Brian (October 24, 2008). "Greenspan Admits Free Market Ideology Flawed". NPR. Retrieved January 18, 2016.
- Reynolds, Tom (May 6, 1992). "Cancer Data Bases Expanding". Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 84 (9): 839–841. doi:10.1093/jnci/84.11.839. PMID 1593651. Retrieved January 22, 2020.
- "Legislative Search Results". February 28, 1992. Retrieved January 22, 2020.
- "Legislative Search Results". October 24, 1992. Retrieved January 22, 2020.
- Qiu, Linda (July 10, 2015). "Did Bernie Sanders vote against background checks and waiting periods for gun purchases?". PolitiFact. Retrieved August 31, 2015.
- "Final Vote Results for Roll Call 614". US House of Representatives. Office of the Clerk of the U.S. House of Representatives. Retrieved November 17, 2014.
- Qiu, Linda (July 10, 2015). "Did Bernie Sanders vote against background checks and waiting periods for gun purchases?". PolitiFact. Retrieved May 4, 2020.
- Clinton, Hillary (2017). What Happened. Simon & Schuster. p. 186. ISBN 978-1-5011-7556-5.
- Capehart, Jonathan (February 25, 2016). "Hillary Clinton on 'superpredator' remarks: 'I shouldn't have used those words'". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 14, 2020.
- Cabaniss, Will (September 2, 2015). "Where do Hillary Clinton and Bernie Sanders stand on the death penalty?". PolitiFact. Retrieved February 26, 2016.
- "Congressional Record, Volume 140 Issue 39 (Wednesday, April 13, 1994)". Congressional Record, Volume 140, Number 39. Government Publishing Office. April 13, 1994. Retrieved December 18, 2019.
- Kristian, Bonnie (February 9, 2016). "Bernie Sanders is not nearly as progressive as you think he is". The Week. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
- "H.R. 728 (104th): Local Government Law Enforcement Block Grants Act of 1995". govtrack.us. Civic Impulse. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
- "HR 424 - Minimum Sentences for Gun Crimes - National Key Vote". votesmart.org. Vote Smart. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
- "Final Vote Results for Roll Call 534". Office of the Clerk of the U.S. House of Representatives. Retrieved July 18, 2007.
- Bradner, Eric (July 5, 2015). "Bernie Sanders wants to 'bring us to the middle' on guns". CNN. Retrieved July 6, 2015.
- Lee, Michelle Ye Hee (January 26, 2016). "Analysis | Everything you wanted to know about Bernie Sanders's record on guns". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved June 4, 2018.
- Tau, Byron (May 7, 2015). "Rand Paul, Bernie Sanders Revel in NSA Ruling". The Guardian. Retrieved August 19, 2015.
- "Final Vote Results for Roll Call 398". Office of the Clerk of the U.S. House of Representatives. Retrieved May 19, 2015.
- Hudson, David L., Jr. (May 25, 2004). "Patriot Act". Libraries and First Amendment. First Amendment Center. Retrieved May 19, 2015.
- Sanders, Bernie (May 7, 2015). "Bernie Sanders: It's Time To End Orwellian Surveillance of Every American". Time. Retrieved July 19, 2015.
- "Sanders' Freedom to Read Language Dropped from Spending Bill". American Library Association Washington Office Newsline. 14 (107). November 4, 2005. Archived from the original on June 4, 2006.
- "Final Vote Results for Roll Call 342". Office of the Clerk of the U.S. House of Representatives. Retrieved October 13, 2014.
- Johnsen, Gregory D. (January 16, 2014). "60 Words And A War Without End: The Untold Story Of The Most Dangerous Sentence In U.S. History". Buzzfeed. Retrieved October 13, 2014.
- Yost, Pete (April 7, 2006). "Libby: Bush, Cheney OK'd leak campaign". Bennington Banner. Associated Press. Archived from the original on December 9, 2015.
- Kusumi, John (2008). Monster Versus Monster: the Democratic Race. Nolanchart.
- "H.R.728 - To withdraw normal trade relations treatment from the products of the People's Republic of China". congress.gov. Retrieved February 26, 2020.
- "Transcript for May 22: Guest: Howard Dean, Chairman of the Democratic Party". Meet the Press. NBC News. May 22, 2005. Retrieved August 1, 2011.
- Krieg, Gregory (July 9, 2015). "Watch Young Senator Barack Obama Campaign for Bernie Sanders in 2006". mic.com. Retrieved July 20, 2015.
Back in March 2006, the future president traveled to Vermont to headline a rally and fundraiser for then-Rep. Bernie Sanders, an independent running for Senate, and Pete Welch, a Democrat seeking election to Sanders's House seat.
- Taylor, Jessica (June 24, 2015). "This Quirky New Hampshire Law Might Keep Bernie Sanders Off The Ballot". NPR. Retrieved July 20, 2015.
He did appear on the Democratic primary ballot in Vermont for the Senate in both 2006 and 2012, winning their primary, but he declined the nomination both times so he could run as an independent.
- Nichols, John (May 26, 2015). "'Don't Underestimate Me': Bernie Sanders Knows a Thing or Two About Winning". The Nation. Retrieved July 20, 2015.
When Vermont Senator Jim Jeffords, a Republican who turned independent in his last term, announced that he was stepping down in 2006, Sanders jumped into a race that a number of Democrats would have liked to run. He won the Democratic primary and then declined the nomination, mounting an audacious independent run that was not supposed to be easy.
- Ring, Wilson (November 7, 2006). "Sanders, Welch are winners in Vermont". Boston Globe. Associated Press. Retrieved January 25, 2007.
- "Vermont Election Results". Decision 2012. NBC News. December 2, 2011. Retrieved April 21, 2013.
- Vermont Secretary of State (November 2018). "Vermont electoral results, 2018" (PDF). State of Vermont.
- "Legislative Search Results". Retrieved January 21, 2020.
- "Legislative Search Results". Retrieved January 21, 2020.
- "Legislative Search Results". Retrieved January 21, 2020.
- Dovere, Edward-Isaac (March 12, 2016). "Sanders had big ideas but little impact on Capitol Hill". Politico. Retrieved June 4, 2018.
- Steinhauer, Jennifer (March 14, 2016). "Via Legislative Side Doors, Bernie Sanders Won Modest Victories". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 4, 2018.
- Lazarus, Jeffrey (April 7, 2016). "Hillary Clinton was a more effective lawmaker than Bernie Sanders". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved June 4, 2018.
- "Legislative Search Results". Retrieved January 22, 2020.
- Levitz, Eric (January 21, 2020). "Hillary Clinton Won't Commit to Endorsing Sanders If He Wins Nomination". New York. Vox Media. Retrieved January 22, 2020.
- Kiely, Eugene (March 7, 2016). "Clinton-Sanders Bailout Brawl - FactCheck.org". FactCheck.org. Retrieved June 4, 2018.
- Carroll, Lauren (March 7, 2016). "In Michigan, Hillary Clinton says Bernie Sanders 'was against the auto bailout'". PolitiFact. Retrieved June 4, 2018.
- "Legislative Search Results". February 6, 2009. Retrieved January 22, 2020.
- Robb, Greg (January 12, 2016). "'Audit the Fed' bill fails despite support from Paul, Sanders". MarketWatch. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- Nelson, Steven (January 12, 2016). "Democrats Kill Rand Paul's Audit the Fed Bill, Though Sanders Votes Yes". U.S. News & World Report. Archived from the original on January 12, 2016. Retrieved February 9, 2020.
- Schroeder, Peter (January 12, 2016). "Sanders to vote for Paul's 'Audit the Fed' bill". TheHill. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- "Senator Sanders Filibuster". C-SPAN. December 10, 2010. Retrieved June 1, 2015.
- Memoli, Michael A. (December 10, 2010). "Sen. Bernie Sanders ends filibuster". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 1, 2011.
- Burleigh, Nina (October 25, 2011). "Bernie Sanders' war on the banks". Salon. Retrieved July 19, 2015.
- Condon, Stephanie (December 10, 2010). "Bernie Sanders Holds Old-School Filibuster Against Obama-GOP Tax Cut Deal". Retrieved May 14, 2018.
- Beutler, Brian (December 16, 2010). "House Passes Tax Cut Plan, Obama To Sign |". Talking Points Memo. Retrieved December 17, 2010.
- Bedard, Paul (March 15, 2011). "Sanders's 8.5 Hour Tax Cut Filibuster Gets a Book". US News. Retrieved May 15, 2016.
- Adibi, Ida (July 30, 2017). "Bernie's Vote On Sanctions Was About Protecting The Iran Deal From Trump". HuffPost.
- "US bill on Russia sanctions prompts German, Austrian outcry". Deutsche Welle. June 15, 2017.
- Sanders, Bernie (June 15, 2017). "Sanders Statement on Iran and Russia Sanctions" (Press release). Washington, D.C.: United States Senate. Retrieved August 27, 2019.
- Detrow, Scott (December 13, 2018). "Senate votes to end U.S. support for war in Yemen, rebuking Trump and Saudi Arabia". NPR. Retrieved January 1, 2019.
- Caldwell, Leigh Ann (November 28, 2018). "Senate advances bill to end U.S. involvement in Yemen war after 'inadequate' briefing on Saudi Arabia". NBC News. Retrieved January 1, 2019.
- Ward, Alex (November 28, 2018). "The Senate is moving closer to ending US support for the war in Yemen". Vox. Retrieved January 1, 2019.
- "Senate Joint Resolution 54 of the 115th Congress: A joint resolution to direct the removal of United States Armed Forces from hostilities in the Republic of Yemen that have not been authorized by Congress". Congress.gov. December 19, 2018. Retrieved January 1, 2019.
- Davis, Julie Hirschfeld; Schmitt, Eric (December 13, 2018). "Senate votes to end aid for Yemen fight over Khashoggi killing and Saudis' war aims". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 1, 2019.
- "Roll Call Vote 115th Congress - 2nd Session". Senate.gov. December 13, 2018. Retrieved December 20, 2019.
Vote Number 266
- Sonmez, Felicia; Dawsey, Josh; Demirjian, Karoun (April 16, 2019). "Trump vetoes resolution to end U.S. participation in Yemen's civil war". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 21, 2020.
- Vales, Leinz (May 4, 2017). "Thousands will die if House bill becomes law, Bernie Sanders says". CNN.
- Jacobson, Louis (June 27, 2017). "Bernie Sanders' projection of 'thousands' of deaths from lost health coverage is well-supported". PolitiFact. Retrieved June 29, 2017.
- Kurtzleben, Danielle (September 14, 2017). "Here's What's In Bernie Sanders' 'Medicare For All' Bill". NPR. Retrieved September 17, 2017.
- "Older Americans Act". Sanders.Senate.gov. May 23, 2015. Retrieved July 4, 2015.
- Kim, Seung Min (June 19, 2015). "Sanders and immigration? It's complicated". Politico. Retrieved June 4, 2018.
- Lachman, Samantha (July 22, 2015). "Bernie Sanders Introduces $15 Minimum Wage Bill As Federal Contract Workers Strike". HuffPost. Retrieved August 18, 2015.
- Kampf-Lassin, Miles (May 9, 2018). "Bernie Sanders Has a Sweeping Plan to Expand Union Rights and Workplace Democracy". In These Times. Retrieved May 12, 2018.
- Sanders, Bernie (May 24, 2017). "Bernie Sanders: Trump's budget is immoral". CNN. Retrieved October 25, 2017.
- Sanders, Bernie (November 13, 2017). "Bernie Sanders: We must end global oligarchy". CNN. Retrieved November 13, 2017.
- Stewart, Emily (September 5, 2018). "Bernie Sanders's BEZOS bill takes aim at how Amazon pays workers". Vox. Retrieved September 14, 2018.
- Santus, Rex (October 2, 2018). "Jeff Bezos just caved to activists and Bernie Sanders and raised Amazon's minimum wage to $15". Vice. Retrieved October 4, 2018.
What Mr. Bezos today has done is not only enormously important for Amazon's hundreds of thousands of employees. It could well be, and I think it will be, a shot heard around the world.
- Herb, Jeramy (June 5, 2014). "Sanders, McCain strike VA deal". Politico. Retrieved January 22, 2020.
- "Legislative Search Results". Congress of the United States. Retrieved January 22, 2020.
- "Legislative Search Results". Congress of the United States. Retrieved January 22, 2020.
- Trudo, Hanna; Gass, Nick (March 17, 2016). "Sanders: I wouldn't have picked Garland for Supreme Court". Politico.
- Carney, Jordain (March 23, 2017). "Sanders to oppose Gorsuch's nomination". The Hill.
- Carlsen, Audrey (April 7, 2017). "How Senators Voted on the Gorsuch Confirmation". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 14, 2018.
- Cooper, Anderson (October 15, 2015). "Bernie Sanders criticized for leadership in VA committee". Anderson Cooper 360°. CNN. Retrieved December 18, 2019.
- Needham, Vicki (December 12, 2014). "Senate Democrats lock in key committee memberships". The Hill. Retrieved July 19, 2015.
- Resnikoff, Ned (February 19, 2015). "Bernie Sanders, mulling presidential run, adopts novel stance on deficit". Al Jazeera. Retrieved March 25, 2015.
- Staff. "Committee Assignments". sanders.senate.gov. US Senate. Retrieved February 11, 2021.
- Rebuild the Dream. Nation Books. April 3, 2012. p. 27. ISBN 9781568587158.
- "Caucus Members". Congressional Progressive Caucus. Retrieved March 29, 2021.
- "Members". Afterschool Alliance. Retrieved April 17, 2018.
- Easley, Jason (August 2, 2011). "Americans Love Socialism: Bernie Sanders Is The 3rd Most Popular US Senator". Politics USA. Archived from the original on December 29, 2014. Retrieved July 18, 2015.
- Ackerman, Seth (June 29, 2015). "Give the People What They Want: Bernie Sanders' signature issues aren't 'white' issues". Jacobin. ISSN 2158-2602. Archived from the original on July 21, 2015.
- "Forward 50 2015". The Forward. November 11, 2015. Retrieved November 11, 2015.
- Wofford, Taylor (November 24, 2015). "Bernie Sanders Is America's Most Popular Senator, New Survey Says". Newsweek. Retrieved December 18, 2019.
- Timm, Trevor (March 17, 2017). "Everyone loves Bernie Sanders. Except, it seems, the Democratic party". The Guardian. Retrieved December 18, 2019.
- Wofford, Taylor (April 28, 2016). "Bernie Sanders is America's Most Popular Senator, Mitch McConnell its Least". Newsweek. Retrieved September 17, 2016.
- Easley, Jonathan (April 18, 2017). "Poll: Bernie Sanders country's most popular active politician". The Hill. Retrieved April 20, 2017.
- Easley, Jonathan (August 24, 2017). "Poll: McConnell the country's least popular politician". The Hill.
- Levitz, Eric (February 19, 2020). "Sanders Considered Primarying Obama in 2012: Report". New York. Retrieved February 23, 2020.
- Joseph, Cameron (November 18, 2013). "Bernie Sanders won't rule out presidential bid, touts Elizabeth Warren". The Hill. News Communications. Retrieved January 25, 2020.
- Eidelson, Josh (November 27, 2013). "Bernie Sanders: Why I might run in 2016". Salon. Retrieved January 25, 2020.
- Inskeep, Steve (December 15, 2014). "'Warning Shot': Sen. Warren On Fighting Banks, And Her Political Future". 90.9 WBUR News. NPR. Retrieved January 25, 2020.
- "A Look Back at Bernie Sanders' Campaign One Year Later". ABC News.
- Kane, Paul; Rucker, Philip (April 30, 2015). "An unlikely contender, Sanders takes on 'billionaire class' in 2016 bid". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 30, 2015.
- Rappeport, Alan (April 29, 2015). "Bernie Sanders Announces He Is Running for President". The New York Times. Retrieved April 30, 2015.
- Cogan, Marin (April 30, 2015). "Daily Intelligencer: Bernie Sanders Is Officially Running for President – That Doesn't Mean You Can Ask Him About Hillary Clinton". New York. Retrieved July 18, 2015.
- Pointdujour, Prisca (May 2, 2015). "Elizabeth Warren praises Bernie Sanders prez bid". Boston Herald. Retrieved May 3, 2015.
- Kamisar, Ben (June 19, 2015). "Ready for Warren Endorses Sanders". The Hill. Retrieved February 24, 2016.
- Blake, Aaron (July 24, 2016). "Here are the latest, most damaging things in the DNC's leaked emails". The Washington Post.
- Lee, MJ; Merica, Dan; Zeleny, Jeff (July 12, 2016). "Bernie Sanders endorses Hillary Clinton". CNN. Retrieved May 15, 2018.
- Bradner, Eric (April 30, 2015). "Sanders doesn't want billionaires' backing". CNN. Retrieved May 4, 2015.
- Thomas, Ken (May 1, 2015). "Sanders raises $1.5M after announcing presidential bid". Yahoo News. Associated Press. Archived from the original on July 22, 2015. Retrieved July 19, 2015.
- "Sanders raises $33M in final quarter, $73M total for 2015". Politico. January 2, 2016. Retrieved January 2, 2016.
- Blumenthal, Paul (January 31, 2015). "Bernie Sanders' Small Donor Fundraising Continues To Set Records". HuffPost.
- Corasaniti, Nick (May 18, 2015). "Seeking the Presidency, Bernie Sanders Becomes Facebook Royalty Through Quirky Sharing". The New York Times. Retrieved May 21, 2015.
- Lerer, Lisa (July 30, 2015). "More than 100,000 people participated in a mega-grassroots Bernie Sanders event". Business Insider. Retrieved August 19, 2015.
- Tesfaye, Sofia (June 16, 2015). "America is feeling the Bern: Bernie Sanders draws overflow crowds – and surges in the polls". Salon.com. Retrieved June 16, 2015.
- Wagner, John (June 15, 2015). "Meet the people coming to see Bernie Sanders in Iowa". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 16, 2015.
- Keith, Tamara (June 15, 2015). "Bernie Sanders 'Stunned' By Large Crowds Showing Up For Him". NPR. Retrieved June 16, 2015.
- Jacobs, Ben (June 25, 2015). "Bernie Sanders closes on Hillary Clinton in New Hampshire Democrats poll". The Guardian. Retrieved July 2, 2015.
- Seitz-Wald, Alex (July 1, 2015). "Bernie Sanders draws biggest crowd of any 2016 candidate yet". MSNBC. Retrieved July 2, 2015.
- Reilly, Mollie (July 1, 2015). "Bernie Sanders Draws His Biggest Crowd Yet In Progressive Stronghold". HuffPost. Retrieved July 2, 2015.
- Wagner, John (July 19, 2015). "Bernie Sanders draws his biggest crowd yet – in Arizona of all places". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 21, 2015.
- Connelly, Joel (August 8, 2015). "Bernie Sanders draws 15,000 people at UW, state's biggest political crowd since 2010 Obama visit". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Retrieved August 9, 2015.
- Cillizza, Chris (August 10, 2015). "This Bernie Sanders crowd shot should make Hillary Clinton a little jittery". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 10, 2015.
- Mataconis, Doug (December 22, 2015). "How Saturday debates protect Hillary Clinton". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved December 23, 2015.
- Sargent, Greg (February 3, 2016). "It's on: Looks like we're getting four more Democratic debates". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 30, 2016.
- Yen, Hope (June 7, 2016). "Delegate math: Clinton wins, and how AP counts delegates". Associated Press. Retrieved June 4, 2018.
- Merica, Dan; Stelter, Brian (May 24, 2016). "Clinton declines to debate Sanders in California". CNN. Retrieved November 16, 2016.
- Sullivan, Margaret (September 9, 2015). "Public Editor's Journal: Has The Times Dismissed Bernie Sanders?". The New York Times. Archived from the original on September 23, 2015.
- Debenedetti, Gabriel; Gass, Nick (September 10, 2015). "Bernie Sanders overtakes Hillary Clinton in Iowa". Politico. Retrieved September 11, 2015.
- "Report: Top News Shows Give Trump 234 Minutes, Sanders 10 Minutes". Democracy Now. December 15, 2015. 6:06. Archived from the original on December 16, 2015. Retrieved December 15, 2015.
- John Sides; Michael Tesler; Lynn Vavreck (2018). Identity Crisis. Princeton University Press. pp. 8, 99, 104–107. ISBN 978-0-691-17419-8. Archived from the original on November 14, 2019. Retrieved December 8, 2019.
Sanders’s media coverage and polling numbers were strongly correlated… At this point in time , Sanders’s share of news coverage far exceeded his share in national polls.
- Thomas E. Patterson, Pre-Primary News Coverage of the 2016 Presidential Race: Trump's Rise, Sanders' Emergence, Clinton's Struggle, archived from the original on November 27, 2019, retrieved December 1, 2019
- Bitecofer, Rachel (2018). The Unprecedented 2016 Presidential Election. Palgrave. pp. 36–38, 48. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-61976-7. ISBN 978-3-319-61975-0.
- Goodman, Amy (November 29, 2016). "Bernie Sanders: "I Was Stunned" by Corporate Media Blackout During Democratic Primary". Democracy Now. Retrieved December 18, 2019.
- Murray, Mark (May 23, 2016). "Meet the Press". NBC. Retrieved May 23, 2016.
- Todd, Chuck; Murray, Mark; Dann, Carrie (May 23, 2016). "First Read: Clinton's Challenge Is Winning Over Sanders Voters". NBC. Retrieved May 23, 2016.
- Decker, Cathleen (April 19, 2016). "Why young voters are flocking to Sanders and older ones to Clinton". Retrieved September 6, 2016.
- Le Miere, Jason (August 23, 2017). "Bernie Sanders Voters Helped Trump and Here's Proof". Newsweek. Retrieved May 25, 2018.
- Newport, Frank. "If McCain vs. Obama, 28% of Clinton Backers Go for McCain". Gallup. Retrieved July 2, 2021.
- Vaughn, Ververs. "Who Were Those Clinton-McCain Crossover Voters?". CBS News. Retrieved July 2, 2021.
- Shear, Michael D.; Rosenberg, Matthew (July 22, 2016). "Released Emails Suggest the D.N.C. Derided the Sanders Campaign". The New York Times. Retrieved February 9, 2020.
- Zeleny, Jeff; Lee, MJ; Bradner, Eric (July 22, 2016). "Emails released by Wikileaks raise questions of DNC's impartiality". CNN. Retrieved February 9, 2020.
- Alcindor, Yamiche (June 16, 2016). "Bernie Sanders, Still Running, Pledges to 'Make Certain' Donald Trump Is Defeated". The New York Times. Retrieved June 18, 2016.
- Alcindor, Yamiche (June 12, 2016). "Bernie Sanders Refuses to Concede Nomination to Hillary Clinton". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 2, 2020.
- Collinson, Stephen (July 26, 2016). "Bernie Sanders: 'I am proud to stand with her'". CNN. Retrieved July 26, 2016.
- Warner, Claire (October 19, 2016). "Ralph Nader Got The Most Write-In Votes For President Ever, But Election Write-Ins Have A Long History". Retrieved September 6, 2017.
- "Vermont Election Night Results". vtelectionresults.sec.state.vt.us. Retrieved September 6, 2017.
- Dwilson, Stephanie Dube (November 16, 2016). "How Many Write-In Votes Did Bernie Sanders Get in the Election?". Heavy.com. Retrieved September 6, 2017.
- "Presidential election results in California, 2016" (PDF). sos.ca.gov. Retrieved September 6, 2017.
- "President of the United States – 2016 General Election – NHSOS". sos.nh.gov. Retrieved September 6, 2017.
- O'Connor, Kevin (November 15, 2016). "Sanders' Book 'Our Revolution' Arriving with New Significance". VTDigger. Retrieved November 21, 2016.
…the candidate who had been anointed by the entire establishment, was winning, but at the same time was losing state after state by huge margins.
- Johnson, Ted (November 27, 2017). "Bernie Sanders Earns Grammy Nomination". Variety. Retrieved November 27, 2017.
- Seitz-Wald, Alex (April 2, 2017). "The Sanders Show: Welcome to 'Bernie TV'". NBC News. Retrieved April 4, 2017.
- May, Charlie (April 3, 2017). "Forget Trump TV. Bernie Sanders has struck gold with his new Facebook Live show". Retrieved April 4, 2017.
- Schwartz, Drew (August 24, 2017). "Bernie Sanders Is the Most Popular Politician in America, Poll Says". Vice. Retrieved August 25, 2017.
- Collins, Michael (February 17, 2018). "Indictment: Russians also tried to help Bernie Sanders, Jill Stein presidential campaigns". USA Today. Retrieved February 24, 2018.
- Dovere, Edward-Isaac (February 21, 2018). "Bernie blames Hillary for allowing Russian interference". Politico. Retrieved February 24, 2018.
- Dovere, Edward-Isaac (February 24, 2018). "Bernie Sanders promoted false story on reporting Russian trolls". Politico. Retrieved February 24, 2018.
- Wegel, David (December 1, 2018). "Bernie Sanders turns focus to the White House and the world". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 2, 2018.
- "An Open Call to All Progressive Forces". Progressive International. November 30, 2018. Retrieved December 2, 2018.
- Sanders, Bernie (September 13, 2018). "A new authoritarian axis demands an international progressive front". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved October 27, 2018.
- Lachman, Samantha (April 27, 2016). "Former Bernie Sanders Staffers Seek To Elect A 'Brand New Congress'". HuffPost. Retrieved November 20, 2016.
- Guadiano, Nicole (July 15, 2016). "Bernie Sanders will launch organizations to spread progressive message". USA Today. Retrieved July 27, 2016.
- Harper, Jennifer (August 18, 2016). "Bernie Sanders: Still percolating". The Washington Times. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
Election days come and go, but the struggle for economic, social, racial and environmental justice must continue. We have the guts and the energy to take on the special interests, win critical battles on the most important issues of our time, and redefine what's possible in this country. Now it's time for all of us to get to work.
- beginning at minute 14:25. "PBS NewsHour full episode May 28, 2018". PBS Newshour. Retrieved June 3, 2018.
- Zurcher, Anthony (June 20, 2019). "Bernie Sanders: What's different this time around?". BBC News. London, England: BBC. Retrieved August 23, 2019.
- Cassidy, John (February 2, 2016). "Bernie Sanders Just Changed the Democratic Party". The New Yorker. Retrieved August 23, 2019.
- Spross, Jeff (April 24, 2018). "Bernie Sanders has Conquered the Democratic Party". The Week. Retrieved August 23, 2019.
- Bouie, Jamelle (July 11, 2016). "What Bernie Sanders Has Won". Slate.com. Retrieved June 3, 2018.
- McGreal, Chris (September 2, 2017). "'The S-word': how young Americans fell in love with socialism". The Guardian. Retrieved June 19, 2021.
- Kinzel, Bob (February 19, 2019). "He's In For 2020: Bernie Sanders Is Running For President Again". www.vpr.org. Retrieved February 19, 2019.
- DiStaso, John (February 22, 2019). "Independent Bernie Sanders to put in writing that he's a 'bona fide' Democrat". WMUR.
- Seitz-Wald, Alex (March 5, 2019). "Bernie Sanders signs DNC loyalty pledge: 'I am a member of the Democratic Party'". NBC News. Retrieved March 7, 2019.
- Resnick, Gideon; Ackerman, Spencer; Stein, Sam (February 19, 2019). "Bernie Sanders Hires Top Progressive Advocate, Faiz Shakir, as Campaign Manager". Daily Beast. Retrieved October 16, 2019.
- Gamboa, Suzanne (February 22, 2019). "San Juan Mayor Carmen Yulín Cruz to co-chair Bernie Sanders 2020 campaign". NBC News. Retrieved October 16, 2019.
- Detrow, Scott; Taylor, Jessica (February 19, 2019). "Bernie Sanders Enters 2020 Presidential Campaign, No Longer An Underdog". NPR. Archived from the original on February 20, 2019. Retrieved February 19, 2019.
- Stewart, Emily (July 5, 2019). "Bernie Sanders is winning the internet. Will it win him the White House?". Vox. Retrieved September 21, 2019.
- "2020 Presidential Race". Open Secrets. Retrieved September 21, 2019.
- "Summary data for Bernie Sanders". Open Secrets. Retrieved September 21, 2019.
- Jin, Beatrice; Severns, Maggie (October 15, 2019). "The Money". Politico. Retrieved December 18, 2019.
- Korte, Cara (September 19, 2019). "Bernie Sanders has 1 million donors". CBS News. Retrieved September 21, 2019.
- Krieg, Gregory; Nobles, Ryan (October 1, 2019). "Bernie Sanders scores massive $25.3 million third quarter fundraising haul". CNN on MSN. Retrieved October 2, 2019.
- Lee, Michelle Ye Hee; Sullivan, Sean; Wang, Amy B. (October 2, 2019). "Sanders raised $25.3 million in third quarter, campaign says". Washington Post. Retrieved October 2, 2019.
- Smith, Allan (January 2, 2020). "Trump brings in $46M in 4th quarter, as Sanders, Yang smash their previous records". NBC News. Retrieved January 2, 2020.
- "2020 Democratic Presidential Nomination". RealClearPolitics. Retrieved September 21, 2019.
- Mehta, Aaron Bycoffe, Ritchie King and Dhrumil (June 28, 2018). "National President: Democratic primary Polls". FiveThirtyEight. Retrieved March 15, 2020.
- "RealClearPolitics - Election 2020 - 2020 Democratic Presidential Nomination". www.realclearpolitics.com. Retrieved March 15, 2020.
- Burns, Alexander; Martin, Jonathan (February 19, 2020). "Warren Leads an Onslaught of Attacks, Zeroing In on Bloomberg". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 20, 2020.
- Kapur, Sahil; Brewster, Shaquille (February 12, 2020). "Bernie Sanders is now the front-runner. And moderates may be too divided to stop him". NBC. Retrieved February 20, 2020.
- Krieg, Gregory; Nobles, Ryan; Grayer, Annie (February 18, 2020). "How Bernie Sanders became the Democratic primary's early front-runner". CNN. Retrieved February 20, 2020.
- Ward, Myah (February 18, 2020). "Sanders surges to double-digit lead in new nationwide poll". Politico. Retrieved February 20, 2020.
- Leetaru, Kalev (August 22, 2019). "Ranking the 2020 Democratic Candidates by Media Coverage". RealClearPolitics. Retrieved September 21, 2019.
- Concha, Joe (April 16, 2019). "Bernie Sanders Fox News town hall draws more than 2.55 million". The Hill. Archived from the original on April 16, 2019. Retrieved April 16, 2019.
- Sunkara, Bhaskar (April 16, 2019). "How wide is Bernie Sanders's appeal? This cheering Fox News audience is a clue". The Guardian. Archived from the original on April 17, 2019. Retrieved April 18, 2019.
- Re, Gregg (April 15, 2019). "Bernie Sanders, at combative Fox News town hall, makes no apologies for making millions". Fox News. Retrieved September 21, 2019.
- Fearnow, Benjamin (April 3, 2019). "Democrats Ridicule Bernie Sanders Over Fox News Town Hall Plans, Conservatives and Moderates Offer Rare Praise". Newsweek. Retrieved September 21, 2019.
- "Town hall with Bernie Sanders". YouTube. Retrieved September 21, 2019.
- Prokos, Hayley (August 7, 2019). "Joe Rogan Praised by Twitter After Bernie Sanders Appears On Podcast to Debate Health Care, Gun Laws and Aliens". Newsweek. Retrieved August 10, 2019.
- "Joe Rogan Experience #1334 - Fahim Anwar". YouTube. Retrieved September 21, 2019.
- "Joe Rogan Experience #1330 - Bernie Sanders". YouTube. Retrieved August 10, 2019.
- "Democratic debate: The winners and losers". BBC News. September 13, 2019. Retrieved September 21, 2019.
- Light, John; Taintor, David (September 12, 2019). "Here's How Each Candidate Stood Out During The Debate". Talking Points Memo. Retrieved September 21, 2019.
- Graham, Todd (October 16, 2019). "Debate coach: A star emerged from the Democratic debate". CNN. Retrieved October 16, 2019.
- Derysh, Igor. "Elizabeth Warren: Bernie Sanders "disagreed" with me that a "woman could win" the presidency". Salon. Retrieved February 19, 2020.
- Ember, Sydney (April 8, 2020). "Bernie Sanders Drops Out of 2020 Democratic Race for President". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 8, 2020.
- Krieg, Gregory; Nobles, Ryan; Grayer, Annie (April 8, 2020). "Bernie Sanders drops out of the 2020 race, clearing Joe Biden's path to the Democratic nomination". CNN. Retrieved April 10, 2020.
- Pramuk, Jacob (April 8, 2020). "Bernie Sanders drops out of the presidential race". CNBC. Retrieved April 10, 2020.
- Mitchell, Andrea (April 8, 2020). "Sanders drops out, remains on ballot to press issues important to political agenda". MSNBC. Retrieved April 9, 2020.
- "Bernie Sanders endorses Joe Biden for president". CNN. Retrieved June 21, 2020.
- Sanders, Bernie (May 26, 2013). "What Can We Learn From Denmark?". HuffPost. Retrieved August 19, 2013.
- Issenberg, Sasha (January 9, 2010). "Sanders a growing force on the far, far left". Boston Globe. Retrieved August 24, 2013.
You go to Scandinavia, and you will find that people have a much higher standard of living, in terms of education, health care, and decent paying jobs.
- Topaz, Jonathan; Schreckinger, Ben (July 6, 2015). "The socialist surge". Politico. Retrieved August 18, 2015.
'I believe that, in the long run, major industries in this state and nation should be publicly owned and controlled by the workers themselves,' he wrote in 1976.
- Lynch, Conor (October 8, 2015). "Bernie Sanders is Ayn Rand's worst nightmare: He's changing how we view socialism – and exposing free market parasites". Salon.com. Retrieved February 14, 2020.
- McMurry, Evan (May 3, 2015). "Bernie Sanders: America Should Look More Like Scandinavia". Mediaite. Archived from the original on May 4, 2015. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
- Jaffe, Sarah (July 14, 2009). "Sanders Schools McCain on Public Healthcare". The Nation. Retrieved October 16, 2013.
Senator Bernie Sanders is one of the Senate's fiercest advocates for real healthcare reform that puts Americans, not private insurance companies, first. Recently, Sanders told The Nation's Katrina vanden Heuvel, '[I]f you are serious about real healthcare reform, the only way to go is single-payer.'
- Carter, Zach (May 19, 2012). "Bernie Sanders Offers Plan To Cut Prescription Drug Prices". HuffPost. Retrieved August 16, 2014.
- Koenig, Bryan (September 24, 2013). "Bernie Sanders: Obamacare is a 'good Republican program'". CNN.
- "Senator Bernie Sanders on Democratic Socialism in the United States". BernieSanders.com. November 19, 2015. Archived from the original on July 20, 2017.
- "Bernie Sanders has had consistent message for 4 decades". The Seattle Times. Associated Press. May 11, 2015. ISSN 0745-9696. Archived from the original on November 11, 2015.
- Maddow, Rachel (August 13, 2015). "Bernie Sanders' track record distinguished by consistency". MSNBC. Retrieved October 13, 2015.
- Harris, Malcolm (October 19, 2015). "Is Bernie Sanders Really a Socialist?". Al Jazeera America. Retrieved February 3, 2021.
- Marshall-Genzer, Nancy (November 18, 2015). "Explaining "democratic socialism"". Marketplace Elections. Retrieved November 19, 2015.
- Murphy, Patricia (October 10, 2015). "Real socialists think Bernie is a sellout". The Daily Beast. Retrieved February 3, 2016.
- "#WeNeedBernie, Democratic Socialists of America". Dsausa.org. Archived from the original on July 9, 2018. Retrieved July 27, 2016.
- Davis, Mark (July 19, 2015). "A Former Ally Says Bernie Sanders Has Changed". The Daily Beast. Retrieved February 3, 2016.
- Benson, Thor (April 30, 2015). "Stop Calling Bernie Sanders a Socialist". The New Republic. Retrieved July 18, 2018.
- Worstall, Tim (May 17, 2016). "Bernie's Democratic Socialism Isn't Socialism, It's Social Democracy". Forbes. Retrieved July 18, 2018.
- McArdle, Megan (June 13, 2019). "Bernie Sanders's brand of socialism is hard to pin down". The Washington Post.
- Tupy, Marian (March 1, 2016). "Bernie Is Not a Socialist and America Is Not Capitalist". The Atlantic. Retrieved January 14, 2020.
- Totten, Shay (January 15, 2007). "Sanders to push global warming legislation in Senate". Vermont Guardian. Archived from the original on May 8, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2009.
Sen. Bernie Sanders, I-VT, said Monday he was making good on at least one of a handful of campaign promises — introducing a bill designed to cut U.S. contributions to global greenhouse gas emissions in the next decade. … Sanders added that construction of new power plants is "extraordinarily expensive" and he would prefer to see federal funding support used to expand the development of sustainable energy, as well as biofuels.
- Goodman, Amy (September 22, 2014). "Bernie Sanders at People's Climate March: To Stop Global Warming, Get Dirty Money Out of Politics". Democracy now!. Retrieved February 14, 2020.
- Halsey, Ashley, III (January 27, 2015). "Bernie Sanders wants to spend $1 trillion on infrastruture". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 18, 2015.
- Easley, Jonathan (November 14, 2015). "Sanders: Climate change still greatest threat to national security". The Hill. Retrieved December 19, 2019.
- "Bernie Sanders in climate change 'population control' uproar". BBC News. September 5, 2019. Retrieved February 14, 2020.
- Sammon, Alexander (October 13, 2016). "Bernie Sanders Just Asked President Obama to Halt the Dakota Access Pipeline". Mother Jones. Retrieved February 14, 2020.
- Olivia, Rosane (February 19, 2019). "Bernie Sanders Enters 2020 Race, Promises Own Version of Green New Deal". EcoWatch. Archived from the original on April 19, 2019. Retrieved April 19, 2019.
- Day, Meagan (July 10, 2019). "The US Government Should Declare Climate Emergency". Jacobin. Retrieved July 10, 2019.
- "On the Issues: Income and Wealth Inequality". BernieSanders.com. Archived from the original on June 20, 2016. Retrieved August 19, 2015.
- Pilkington, Ed (December 15, 2017). "Trump turning US into 'world champion of extreme inequality', UN envoy warns". The Guardian. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
We are moving into 2018 – we should not be living in a country with 41 million people living in poverty and so many more in extreme poverty, and nobody even talks about it. – Bernie Sanders
- Nobles, Ryan; Krieg, Gregory (June 23, 2019). "Bernie Sanders to unveil plan to cancel all $1.6 trillion of student loan debt". CNN. Retrieved June 24, 2019.
- Resnikoff, Ned (May 19, 2015). "Bernie Sanders unveils plan for tuition-free public colleges". Al Jazeera. Retrieved August 18, 2015.
- "Sanders Files Bill to Strengthen, Expand Social Security". Sanders.Senate.gov (Press release). March 12, 2015. Retrieved February 9, 2020.
- Woo, Nicole; Jones, Janelle; Schmitt, John (September 2011). "Who's Above the Social Security Payroll Tax Cap?". Center for Economic and Policy Research. Archived from the original on November 16, 2011. Retrieved September 7, 2015.
- "Family values agenda: paid family leave, paid sick leave, paid vacation" (PDF). Senate office of Bernard Sanders. Retrieved August 18, 2015.
- Sanders, Bernie (December 1, 2014). "An Economic Agenda for America: 12 Steps Forward". HuffPost. Retrieved June 27, 2015.
- Resnikoff, Ned (October 6, 2015). "Bernie Sanders proposes sweeping labor law reforms". Al Jazeera. Retrieved October 6, 2015.
- "(Video) Bailout Petition Statement". Senate.gov. September 24, 2008. Archived from the original on October 14, 2008. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
- Sanders, Bernie (January 5, 2016). "Text of Bernie Sanders' Wall Street and economy speech". MarketWatch. Retrieved January 6, 2016.
- Sanders, Bernie (May 7, 2015). "Break Up Big Banks". HuffPost. Retrieved August 18, 2015.
- Everett, Burgess (July 17, 2015). "Bernie Sanders backs big bank breakups, in contrast with Hillary Clinton". Politico. Retrieved August 18, 2015.
- Sanders, Bernie (December 23, 2015). "Bernie Sanders: To Rein In Wall Street, Fix the Fed". The New York Times. Retrieved December 23, 2015.
- Pinsker, Joe (October 20, 2015). "Bernie Sanders's Highly Sensible Plan to Turn Post Offices Into Banks". The Atlantic. Retrieved January 6, 2016.
- Sanders, Bernie (May 21, 2015). "The TPP Must Be Defeated". HuffPost. Retrieved August 18, 2015.
- "Bernie Sanders on Free Trade". On the Issues. Retrieved January 20, 2016.
- "The Democratic candidates on foreign policy". Foreign Policy.
- Katz, Jonathan M. (May 30, 2019). "Who Was Naive About Bernie Sanders Meeting the Sandinistas?". Mother Jones.
- "Flashback: Rep. Bernie Sanders Opposes Iraq War". Sanders.Senate.gov.
- Krieg, Gregory (May 7, 2015). "Bernie Sanders Rips NSA Spying and Pushes for End to Mass Surveillance". Mic.com. Retrieved August 18, 2015.
- "Statement on NSA Surveillance". Sen. Bernie Sanders. Retrieved October 13, 2015.
- "House Session". C-SPAN. October 9, 2002. p. 13:00:50. Retrieved February 14, 2020.
- "Bernie Sanders accuses Netanyahu of overreacting in Gaza war". The Times of Israel. November 19, 2015. Retrieved February 14, 2020.
- Fang, Lee; Emmons, Alex (February 28, 2018). "Bernie Sanders Wants Congress to End U.S. Support for Yemen War. Saudi Lobbyists Fought Similar Measures Last Year". The Intercept. Retrieved February 14, 2020.
- LoBianco, Tom (November 17, 2015). "Bernie Sanders on ISIS: U.S. needs to be "tough" not "stupid"". CNN. Retrieved February 9, 2020.
- Choi, Matthew (January 3, 2020). "2020 Dems warn of escalation in Middle East after Soleimani killing". Politico. Archived from the original on January 3, 2020. Retrieved February 14, 2020.
- Siddiqui, Usaid (February 24, 2020). "Sanders accuses pro-Israel group of giving platform to 'bigotry'". Al Jazeera. Retrieved February 24, 2020.
- Cortellessa, Eric (December 6, 2017). "Liberal US Jews blast Trump's expected Jerusalem declaration". The Times of Israel. Retrieved February 14, 2020.
- Sanders, Bernie (December 5, 2017). "Sanders Statement on Trump's Plan to Recognize Jerusalem as the Capital of Israel". Senate.gov. Retrieved February 28, 2020.
- Hancock, Jason (September 21, 2017). "Bernie Sanders, in Missouri speech, takes aim at 'outrageous' inequalities". The Kansas City Star. Retrieved September 24, 2017.
- Detrow, Scott (September 21, 2017). "Bernie Sanders Lays Out His Foreign Policy Vision". NPR. Retrieved September 24, 2017.
- Berman, Paul (November 18, 2018). "The Foreign Policy of the American Left". Tablet Magazine. Retrieved November 27, 2018.
- Mortazavi, Negar (October 16, 2019). "Democratic debate: Military veterans Tulsi Gabbard and Pete Buttigieg clash over Syria". The Independent. Retrieved February 9, 2020.
- Ben, Kamisar (February 28, 2018). "Gun control push complicates Sanders's 2020 ambitions". The Hill. Retrieved March 25, 2018.
- Willis, Derek; McCartney, Allison; Merrill, Jeremy B. (April 17, 2013). "Represent: Senate Vote 97: Defeats Manchin–Toomey Background Checks Proposal". ProPublica. Retrieved May 28, 2018.
- "Bernie Sanders on Gun Control". Ontheissues.org. Retrieved July 27, 2016.
- Fahrenthold, David A. (July 19, 2015). "How the National Rifle Association helped get Bernie Sanders elected". Washington Post. Retrieved July 16, 2018.
- Seitz-Wald, Alex (November 19, 2015). "Bernie Sanders explains democratic socialism". MSNBC. Archived from the original on March 1, 2019. Retrieved March 3, 2019.
- Tumulty, Karen (September 24, 2015). "Hey Bernie Sanders, are you a feminist?". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 10, 2016.
- Lavender, Paige (July 29, 2015). "Bernie Sanders: GOP Efforts To Defund Planned Parenthood 'An Attack On Women's Health'". HuffPost. Retrieved October 5, 2015.
- Thomas, Ken (August 16, 2015). "Bernie Sanders Vows To Better Address Racism". HuffPost. Associated Press. Archived from the original on April 5, 2016.
- "Issues: Racial Justice". BernieSanders.com. Retrieved August 18, 2015.[non-primary source needed]
- Tesfaye, Sophia (September 17, 2015). "Bernie Sanders declares war on the prison-industrial complex with major new bill". Salon.com. Retrieved February 14, 2020.
- Sanders, Bernie (September 22, 2015). "We Must End For-Profit Prisons". HuffPost. Retrieved September 23, 2015.
- Schwartz, Drew (October 29, 2015). "Bernie Sanders Wants to Abolish the Death Penalty". Vice. Retrieved August 3, 2016.
Democratic presidential candidate Bernie Sanders called for an end to the death penalty on Thursday, laying out his case in a Senate floor speech just one day after Hillary Clinton – the party's 2016 frontrunner and Sanders' main rival for the nomination – said she was opposed to abolishing the practice.
- Workneh, Lilly (April 7, 2016). "Bernie Sanders Tells Spike Lee What Black Lives Matter Means To Him". HuffPost. Retrieved October 6, 2016.
- Zhang, Mona (October 24, 2019). "How Bernie Sanders would legalize marijuana". Politico.
- "Legislation: Campaign Finance". Bernie Sanders: U.S. Senator for Vermont. Senate.gov. Retrieved February 17, 2013.
- "Saving American Democracy Amendment". Sanders.Senate.Gov. December 8, 2011. Retrieved December 18, 2019.
- Sanders, Bernie (March 22, 2015). "If We Don't Overturn Citizens United, The Congress Will Become Paid Employees of the Billionaire Class". HuffPost. Retrieved July 18, 2015.
- Frizell, Sam (October 28, 2015). "How Bernie Sanders Evolved on Gay Marriage". Time. Retrieved August 14, 2017.
- "Congress of the United States" (PDF). senate.gov. September 8, 2014. Retrieved September 7, 2021.
- Bradner, Eric (February 6, 2017). "Sanders on Trump: 'This guy is a fraud'". CNN. Retrieved February 14, 2020.
Shelbourne, Mallory (February 5, 2017). "Sanders: Trump is a 'fraud'". The Hill. Retrieved February 14, 2020.
- Ernst, Douglas (March 30, 2017). "Sanders: Prioritizing jobs over climate change is 'stupid and dangerous'". The Washington Times. Retrieved February 14, 2020.
- Pignataro, Juliana Rose (April 7, 2017). "Bernie Sanders Slams Trump's Airstrike On Syria". International Business Times.
- Panzer, Javier (February 21, 2017). "Bernie Sanders in Los Angeles: 'The truth is that Trump is a pathological liar'". Los Angeles Times.
- Diaz, Daniella (January 31, 2018). "Bernie Sanders holds his own SOTU speech on-line". CNN. Retrieved February 4, 2018.
- Haltiwanger, John. "Bernie Sanders skewers the president over Capitol siege: 'The man directly responsible for the chaos of today is Donald Trump'". Business Insider. Retrieved January 8, 2021.
- "Leahy, Sanders vote to convict Trump of inciting insurrection » Senator Bernie Sanders". Senator Bernie Sanders. Retrieved April 23, 2021.
- BERARDELLI, JEFF (October 5, 2020). "How Joe Biden's climate plan compares to the Green New Deal". CBC News. Retrieved February 2, 2021.
- "Climate Mandate - The Team We Need to Combat the Climate Crisis". Climate Mandate. Retrieved April 23, 2021.
- "Here's Why Biden Didn't Pick Sen. Bernie Sanders for Labor Secretary". NECN. Retrieved April 23, 2021.
- Homan, Timothy R. (February 23, 2021). "Sanders votes against Biden USDA nominee Vilsack". TheHill. Retrieved April 23, 2021.
- Hooper, Kelly. "Bernie Sanders: Dems will use reconciliation to pass Covid relief 'as soon as we possibly can'". POLITICO. Retrieved April 23, 2021.
- Kate Sullivan. "Biden signs historic $1.9 trillion Covid-19 relief law". CNN. Retrieved April 23, 2021.
- Sanders 2016, p. 9. sfn error: multiple targets (3×): CITEREFSanders2016 (help)
- Burbank, April; Donoghue, Mike (May 26, 2015). "Sanders: 'We begin a political revolution'". Burlington Free Press. Retrieved March 12, 2019.
- "Liberty Union Party Chief in Vermon Quits Position". Nashua Telegraph. AP. October 12, 1977. Retrieved March 1, 2016.
- Phillips, Amber (November 19, 2015). "Bernie Sanders: A somewhat reluctant socialist". Washington Post. Retrieved June 7, 2020.
- Alterman, Eric (April 15, 2019). "The case against Bernie". The Nation. ISSN 0027-8378.
- Murphy, Tim (December 17, 2015). "This Is the Campaign That Explains Bernie Sanders". Mother Jones. Retrieved January 22, 2017.
- "In Speech from 1983, Sanders Rails Against the Establishment". WNYC. April 13, 2016. Archived from the original on December 8, 2020.
- Blake, Aaron (May 21, 2018). "Bernie Sanders is still borrowing the Democratic Party". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 12, 2019.
- Dovere, Edward-Isaac (May 21, 2018). "Sanders to run as a Democrat — but not accept nomination". POLITICO. Retrieved March 12, 2019.
- Ronayne, Kathleen (November 5, 2015). "Sanders declares as Democrat in NH primary". Burlington Free Press.
Sanders says he'll run as a Democrat in future elections. He says, 'I am running as a Democrat obviously, I am a Democrat now.'
- Blomquist, Dan; Way, Robert (November 5, 2015). "Bernie Sanders files for Democratic ballot in N.H. primary". Boston Globe. Retrieved December 20, 2019.
When a reporter asked Sanders his party allegiance after he filed, Sanders responded, 'I'm a Democrat.' He then called on Buckley, the Democratic chairman, who confirmed the senator's party allegiance. Sanders added that he would run as a Democrat in any future elections.
- Seitz-Wald, Alex; Koenig, Kailani (November 5, 2015). "Sanders Files for New Hampshire State Ballot Without Incident". NBC News.
Sanders declared himself a Democrat Thursday, and said he will run as a Democrat in future elections, and that was good enough for Gardner.
- Lee, MJ (February 5, 2016). "Clinton, Sanders clash over what it means to be progressive". CNN. Retrieved December 20, 2019.
- See search results for "Sanders (I-VT)" at www.senate.gov.
- Nicholas, Peter (July 26, 2016). "Bernie Sanders to Return to Senate as an Independent". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved August 6, 2016.
- Thomsen, Jacqueline (October 22, 2017). "Sanders to run as an independent in 2018". The Hill. Retrieved November 12, 2017.
- Sanders, Bernie (November 11, 2016). "Bernie Sanders: Where the Democrats Go From Here". The New York Times.
- Roberts, Dan; Asthana, Anushka (June 2, 2017). "'There's a real similarity': Corbyn gets rousing support from Bernie Sanders". The Guardian. Retrieved July 15, 2017.
- Kentish, Ben (June 2, 2017). "Bernie Sanders praises 'courageous' Jeremy Corbyn for 'revitalising democracy'". The Independent. Retrieved July 15, 2017.
- Sanders, Bernie (June 13, 2017). "Bernie Sanders: How Democrats Can Stop Losing Elections". The New York Times. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
- Hasan, Mehdhi (June 26, 2017). "Prime Minister Jeremy Corbyn sitting down with President Bernie Sanders no longer sounds so outlandish". New Statesman. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
- Wilkinson, Michael (August 23, 2016). "Bernie Sanders 'backs Jeremy Corbyn' in Labour leadership race". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved July 15, 2017.
- Wisloski, Jess; Galloway, Anne (July 9, 2015). "Bernie Sanders' Early Days in Vermont: His Life, Loves and Circuitous Route to Politics". VTDigger. Montpelier, Vermont. Retrieved May 23, 2017.
- Aderet, Ofer (February 4, 2016). "Mystery Solved? Haaretz Archive Reveals Which Kibbutz Bernie Sanders Volunteered On". Haaretz. Retrieved February 5, 2016.
- Greenhouse, Emily (May 12, 2015). "Getting to Know Jane Sanders, Wife of Bernie". Bloomberg. Retrieved August 19, 2015.
- Cabaniss, Will (August 12, 2015). "George Will describes Bernie Sanders' Soviet Union honeymoon". PolitiFact.
- Bershidsky, Leonid (February 11, 2016). "How Bernie Sanders Spent His Soviet 'Honeymoon'". Bloomberg View.
- Goldstein, Sasha (August 8, 2016). "Bernie Sanders Buys a Summer Home in North Hero". Seven Days.
- Nguyen, Tina (August 9, 2016). "Bernie Sanders Buys His Third House". Vanity Fair - The Hive. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
- Marcin, Tim (April 21, 2017). "Bernie Sanders tweeted about billionaires' greed, then some Twitter users brought up his three homes". Newsweek. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
- Andrews-Dyer, Helena (August 10, 2016). "Bernie Sanders buys a $575,000 vacation home and the Internet cries hypocrisy". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 5, 2019.
- Westfall, Sandra Sobieraj (January 23, 2016). "Bernie Sanders Is 'Fun Grandpa': 5 Things We Learned at His Home". People.
- "Does Bernie Sanders have grandchildren?". Considerable.com. February 10, 2016.
- "The Sanders brothers: A tale of two underdogs". BBC News.
- "Election results for East Oxford". Oxfordshire County Council. June 4, 2009. Retrieved May 19, 2014.
- "Green County Councillor Retires". Oxfordshire Green Party. June 8, 2013. Retrieved July 18, 2015.
- Hansen, Lauren (May 8, 2015). "Bernie Sanders' brother lost his longshot bid for British Parliament". The Week. Retrieved May 8, 2015.
- Collinson, Stephen (May 7, 2015). "Bernie Sanders' brotherly love". CNN. Retrieved May 8, 2015.
- Choi, Matthew; Otterbein, Holly (October 4, 2019). "Bernie Sanders suffered heart attack, has been discharged from hospital". Politico. Retrieved October 4, 2019.
- Parks, Maryalice; Margolin, Josh; Karson, Kendall (October 2, 2019). "Bernie Sanders hospitalized with chest pain, campaign events canceled". ABC News. Retrieved October 2, 2019.
- Pearce, Matt (October 4, 2019). "Bernie Sanders suffered a heart attack, campaign reveals". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
- Krieg, Gregory; Nobles, Ryan (October 8, 2019). "Bernie Sanders to scale back campaign schedule in the wake of heart attack". www.msn.com. Retrieved October 9, 2019.
- Villa, Lissandra (October 16, 2019). "Bernie Sanders Leverages the Debate for a Comeback Just Weeks After a Heart Attack". Time. Retrieved October 16, 2019.
- Ember, Sydney (December 30, 2019). "Bernie Sanders Is in 'Good Health,' His Doctors Say". The New York Times. Retrieved February 2, 2020.
- Gass, Nick (December 7, 2015). "Bernie Sanders wins Time's Person of the Year readers' poll". Politico. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- Frizell, Sam (December 7, 2015). "Bernie Sanders Wins Readers' Poll for TIME Person of the Year". Time. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- "U.S. Senator Bernie Sanders honoured with Coast Salish name". News (Indigenous). CBC News. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. March 25, 2016 [Updated; originally published March 23, 2016]. Archived from the original on July 24, 2018. Retrieved July 24, 2018.
- Singman, Brooke (May 30, 2017). "Bernie Sanders slams GOP health care plans at New York college graduation". New York City: Fox News Channel. Retrieved May 30, 2017.
- Berger, Joseph (February 24, 2016). "Bernie Sanders Is Jewish, but He Doesn't Like to Talk About It". The New York Times. p. A16. Retrieved February 24, 2016.
- Sellers, Frances; Wagner, John (January 27, 2016). "Why Bernie Sanders doesn't participate in organized religion". The Washington Post.
- Zeveloff, Naomi (February 4, 2016). "Bernie Sanders Kibbutz Revealed at Last". Forward. Retrieved February 4, 2016.
- "Mystery solved: Sanders volunteered at Kibbutz Shaar HaEmekim". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. February 5, 2016. Retrieved February 5, 2016.
- Frances Stead Sellers (February 5, 2016). "The kibbutz Bernie Sanders stayed in may have been revealed". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 6, 2016.
- Kellner, Mark (February 10, 2016). "Bernie Sanders supported religious liberty in menorah dispute". The Washington Post.
- Ziri, Danielle (February 10, 2016). "Sanders may play down Judaism, but he played big role in Hannukah case". The Jerusalem Post.
- Johnson, Sally (December 9, 1988). "The Law; Menorah Ruling: Little New Light". The New York Times.
- "Some More Info on Bernie Sanders and Judaism (blog)". Chabad.org. Retrieved December 19, 2019.
- "Press Package". Sanders.Senate.gov. Retrieved February 5, 2015.
- Winston, Kimberly (February 4, 2016). "Bernie Sanders disappoints some atheists with 'very strong religious' feelings". The Washington Post.
- Friedman, Gabe (October 24, 2015). "Watch: Bernie Sanders talks spirituality, Larry David and marijuana on 'Jimmy Kimmel'". Haaretz.
- "Sanders discusses faith, Clinton grapples with rabbinical question on humility". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. February 4, 2016. Retrieved February 4, 2016.
- Kampeas, Ron (October 8, 2015). "Bernie Sanders Opens Up About Jewish Upbringing – at Last". The Forward.
- Mangla, Ismat Sarah (February 18, 2016). "Why Aren't American Jews Celebrating Bernie Sanders In 2016?". International Business Times.
- Sanders, Bernie (February 15, 2015). "Pope Francis". Senate.gov. Retrieved June 13, 2015.
- Heilman, Uriel (February 2, 2016). "New Hampshire Jews all over the map ahead of presidential primary". The Times of Israel.
- Horowitz, Jason (April 15, 2016). "As Bernie Sanders Heads to Vatican, a Visit With Pope Francis Seems in Doubt". The New York Times. Retrieved April 17, 2016.
- Thomas, Ken (April 16, 2016). "Pope: Sanders encounter sign of good manners, 'nothing more'". Associated Press. Retrieved April 17, 2016.
- NPR Staff (January 30, 2016). "Behind The Music: Bernie Sanders". NPR. Retrieved February 4, 2016.
- Stuart, Tessa (December 2, 2015). "The Untold Story of Bernie Sanders' 1987 Folk Album". Rolling Stone. Retrieved February 4, 2016.
- Blevis, Joe (February 5, 2016). "Bernie Sanders has appeared in not one, but two low-budget rom-coms". A.V. Club. Retrieved February 5, 2016.
- Wagner, Meg (February 4, 2016). "Bernie Sanders plays rabbi Manny Shevitz in 1999 romantic comedy, goes on long-winded Brooklyn Dodgers rant". Daily News. New York. Retrieved February 4, 2016.
- Sanders, Sam (February 7, 2016). "With A Little Help From Larry David, Bernie Sanders Does SNL". NPR. Retrieved February 7, 2016.
- "Can Bernie Sanders' Dank Meme Stash Swing the Election?". www.vice.com. Retrieved January 21, 2021.
- Ashkinaze, Josh. "Politicians Should Embrace Internet Memes". The Oberlin Review. Retrieved January 21, 2021.
- "The Bernie Sanders Meme Pile on Has Commenced". Time. Retrieved January 21, 2021.
- Ewart, Asia. "Bernie Sanders' Campaign Ad Became A Viral Meme & We Are Here For It". www.refinery29.com. Retrieved January 21, 2021.
- "Let the 'OK Boomer' Girl Live". www.vice.com. Retrieved January 21, 2021.
- Romano, Aja (January 20, 2021). "Bernie Sanders inauguration memes are liberal comfort food". Vox. Retrieved January 21, 2021.
- Ives, Mike; Victor, Daniel (January 21, 2021). "Bernie Sanders Is Once Again the Star of a Meme". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 21, 2021.
- Rall, Ted (2016). Bernie. New York: Hollowbrook Publishing. ISBN 978-1609806989.
- Rice, Tom W. (1985). "Who Votes for a Socialist Mayor?: The Case of Burlington, Vermont". Polity. 17 (4): 795–806. doi:10.2307/3234575. ISSN 0032-3497. JSTOR 3234575. OCLC 5546248357. S2CID 153889856.
- Rosenfeld, Steven (1992). Making History in Vermont: The Election of a Socialist to Congress. Wakefield, NH: Hollowbrook Publishing. ISBN 978-0-89341-698-0. LCCN 91034055. OCLC 24468446. OL 1553980M.
- Soifer, Steven (1991). The Socialist Mayor: Bernard Sanders in Burlington, Vermont. Westport, CN: Praeger. ISBN 978-0-89789-219-3. LCCN 90048954. OCLC 22491683. OL 1887682M.
- Biography at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
- Financial information (federal office) at the Federal Election Commission
- Legislation sponsored at the Library of Congress
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- Bernie Sanders at Curlie
- Column archive at The Huffington Post
- Issue positions and quotes at On the Issues
- Fact-checking at PolitiFact.com