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Bernie Sanders

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Bernie Sanders
Bernie Sanders.jpg
Sanders' official Senate portrait
United States Senator
from Vermont
Incumbent
Assumed office
January 3, 2007
Serving with Patrick Leahy
Preceded by Jim Jeffords
Chairman of the Senate Committee on Veterans' Affairs
In office
January 3, 2013 – January 3, 2015
Preceded by Patty Murray
Succeeded by Johnny Isakson
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Vermont's At-large district
In office
January 3, 1991 – January 3, 2007
Preceded by Peter Smith
Succeeded by Peter Welch
Mayor of Burlington
In office
April 6, 1981 – April 1989
Preceded by Gordon Paquette
Succeeded by Peter Clavelle
Personal details
Born Bernard Sanders
(1941-09-08) September 8, 1941 (age 73)
Brooklyn, New York, U.S.
Nationality American
Political party Independent (caucuses with the Democratic Party)
Other political
affiliations
Liberty Union (1971–1979)
Vermont Progressive (affiliated)[1]
Spouse(s) First wife (name and dates unknown)
Jane O'Meara Driscoll (1988–Present)
Children 4
Alma mater Brooklyn College
University of Chicago
Religion Jewish[2][3]
Signature
Website Senate website
Presidential campaign website

Bernard "Bernie" Sanders (born September 8, 1941) is an American politician and the junior United States Senator from Vermont. He has announced his candidacy for the Democratic nomination in the 2016 presidential election.

Sanders is the longest-serving independent in U.S. congressional history. A self-described democratic socialist,[4][5][6][7] he favors policies similar to those of social democratic parties in Europe, particularly those of Scandinavia.[8][9][10] He caucuses with the Democratic Party and has been the ranking member on the Senate Budget Committee since January 2015.[11]

After unsuccessful candidacies for Vermont's governor and U.S. senator, Sanders was elected mayor of Burlington, Vermont's most populous city, in 1981. He was reelected to three more two-year mayoral terms before being elected to represent Vermont's at-large congressional district in the United States House of Representatives in 1990. He served as a congressman for 16 years before being elected to succeed the retiring Republican-turned-independent Jim Jeffords in the U.S. Senate in 2006. In 2012, he was re-elected by a large margin, capturing almost 71% of the popular vote.

Since his election to the Senate, Sanders has emerged as a leading progressive voice on issues like income inequality,[12] climate change,[13] and campaign finance reform.[14] He rose to national prominence on the heels of his 2010 filibuster[15][16] of the proposed extension of the Bush-era tax rates for the wealthy. Sanders is also outspoken on civil liberties issues, and has been particularly critical of mass surveillance policies such as the Patriot Act.[17][18]

Sanders announced his intentions to seek the Democratic Party's nomination for President on April 30, 2015, in an address on the Capitol lawn.[19][20][21] His campaign was officially launched on May 26 in Burlington.[22] Unlike the other presidential candidates, Sanders will not pursue funding through a Super PAC, instead focusing on small individual donations.[23] His campaign events have been drawing "overflow crowds" around the country.[24] On July 1, 2015, Sanders's visit to Madison, Wisconsin drew the largest crowd of any 2016 presidential candidate so far, with an estimated turnout of 10,000.[25][26] According to a June 25 poll, Sanders is running in a "dead heat" with Hillary Clinton in New Hampshire.[27]

Early life and education

Bernie Sanders was born on September 8, 1941, in Brooklyn, New York, the son of Eli and Dorothy (Glassberg) Sanders.[28][29] His father was a Jewish immigrant from Poland whose family was killed in the Holocaust,[30][31][32] while his mother was born to Jewish parents in New York.[33][34]

Sanders attended elementary school at P.S. 197, where he won a state championship on the basketball team. He attended Hebrew school in the afternoons and had his bar mitzvah in 1954. Sanders attended James Madison High School, where he was captain of the track team.[35] While at Madison, Sanders lost his first election, finishing last out of three for the student body presidency. Sanders's mother died in June 1959 at the age of 46 shortly after Sanders graduated from high school.[30] Sanders went to Brooklyn College for a year before transferring to the University of Chicago. While there, he was active in the Civil Rights Movement, and a student organizer for the Congress of Racial Equality and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee.[36][32] One of the actions he took was the coordination of sit-in protests against segregated campus housing. Sanders also participated in the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.[37] He graduated from the University of Chicago with a bachelor of arts degree in political science in 1964. After graduating, Sanders spent several months on an Israeli kibbutz, and he moved to Vermont in 1968.[30]

Early political career

Liberty Union campaigns

Sanders began his political career in 1971 by becoming a member of the Liberty Union Party, which originated in the anti-war and people's party movement. He ran as the Liberty Union candidate for governor in 1972 and 1976 and as a candidate for senator in 1972 and 1974.[38] In the 1974 race, Sanders finished third (5,901; 4.1%) behind the victor, 33-year-old Chittenden County State’s Attorney Patrick Leahy (D, VI; 70,629; 49.4%), and two-term incumbent U.S. Representative Dick Mallary (R; 66,223; 46.3%).[39][40] In 1979, Sanders resigned from the party and worked as a writer and the director of the nonprofit American People's Historical Society.[38]

Mayor of Burlington

In 1981, at the suggestion of his friend Richard Sugarman, a professor of religion at the University of Vermont, Sanders ran for mayor of Burlington and defeated six-term Democratic incumbent Gordon Paquette by 10 votes in a four-way contest.[41] Sanders won three more terms, defeating both Democratic and Republican candidates. In his final run for mayor in 1987, Sanders defeated a candidate endorsed by both major parties.[42]

During Sanders's first term, his supporters, including the first Citizens Party City Councilor Terry Bouricius, formed the Progressive Coalition, the forerunner of the Vermont Progressive Party.[citation needed] The Progressives never held more than six seats on the 13-member city council but had enough votes to keep the council from overriding Sanders's vetoes.[citation needed] Under Sanders, Burlington became the first city in the country to fund community-trust housing.

Sanders's administration balanced the city budget, and drew a minor league baseball team, the Vermont Reds, to Burlington.[31] The Sanders administration also "sued the local cable franchise and won reduced rates for customers."[31]

As mayor, Sanders "undertook ambitious downtown revitalization projects"; one signature achievement was the improvement of Burlington's Lake Champlain waterfront.[31] In 1981, Sanders campaigned against the unpopular plans by Tony Pomerleau, a Burlington developer, to convert the then-industrial[43] waterfront property owned by the Central Vermont Railway into expensive condominiums, hotels, and offices.[44] Sanders ran under the slogan "Burlington is not for sale" and successfully supported a plan that redeveloped the waterfront area into a mixed-use district featuring housing, parks, and public space.[44] This was greatly assisted by a 1989 Vermont Supreme Court ruling that under a legal provision, Central Vermont Railroad could only use the land for "railroad, wharf, and storage purposes"; 35 acres of railroad land reverted to the city.[44] Today, the waterfront area includes miles of public beach and bike paths, along with a boathouse, many parks, and a science center.[44] In 2015, Sanders announced his candidacy for president at Waterfront Park.[43]

After serving four terms, Sanders chose not to seek reelection in 1989. He briefly taught political science at Harvard University's Kennedy School of Government that year and at Hamilton College in 1991.[45]

U.S. House of Representatives

Elections

In 1988, incumbent Republican Congressman Jim Jeffords decided to run for the U.S. Senate, vacating Vermont's at-large congressional district. Republican Lieutenant Governor Peter Smith won the House election with a plurality of 41% of the vote. Sanders, who ran as an independent, placed second with 38% of the vote, while Democratic State Representative Paul N. Poirier placed third with 19% of the vote.[46] In 1990, Sanders ran for the seat again and defeated Smith in a rematch, 56%–40%. Sanders became the first independent elected to the U.S. House of Representatives in 40 years,[47] since Frazier Reams of Ohio. Thereafter Sanders continually won reelection with high margins, with his closest bid in 1994 during the Republican Revolution, when he won by 3.3 percentage points with 49.8% of the vote.[48]

Tenure

In 1991, Sanders co-founded the Congressional Progressive Caucus, and chaired the grouping of mostly liberal Democrats for its first eight years. In 1993, Sanders voted for a National Rifle Association (NRA)-supported bill to restrict lawsuits against gun manufacturers[49] and against the Brady Bill.[50] Upon the resignation of Democrat Ron Dellums in 1998, Sanders became the only Congressman to describe himself as a socialist.[citation needed]

Sanders voted against the resolutions authorizing the use of force against Iraq in 1991 and 2002, and opposed the 2003 invasion of Iraq. He voted for the initial 2001 Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Terrorists[51] that has been cited as the legal justification for controversial military actions since the September 11 attacks.[52]

Sanders has been a consistent critic of the Patriot Act. As a member of Congress, he voted against the original Patriot Act legislation.[53] After its 357 to 66 passage in the House, Sanders sponsored and voted for several subsequent amendments and acts attempting to curtail its effects,[54] and voted against each reauthorization.[55]

Sanders voted for a non-binding resolution expressing support for troops at the outset of the invasion of Iraq, but gave a floor speech criticizing the partisan nature of the vote and the George W. Bush administration's actions in the run-up to the war. On April 7, 2006, about the investigation of what turned out to be a leak of CIA agent Valerie Plame's identity by a State Department official, Sanders said, "The revelation that the President authorized the release of classified information in order to discredit an Iraq war critic should tell every member of Congress that the time is now for a serious investigation of how we got into the war in Iraq and why Congress can no longer act as a rubber stamp for the President."[56]

In June 2005, Sanders proposed an amendment to limit provisions that allow the government to obtain individuals' library and book-buying records. The amendment passed the House by a bipartisan majority but was removed on November 4 that year in House-Senate negotiations and never became law.[57] Sanders followed this vote on November 5, 2005, by voting against the Online Freedom of Speech Act, which would have exempted the Internet from the restrictions of the McCain–Feingold Bill.

In March 2006, after a series of resolutions calling for him to bring articles of impeachment against the President passed in various towns in Vermont, Sanders stated it would be impractical to impeach George W. Bush, given the "reality that the Republicans control the House and the Senate." Still, Sanders made no secret of his opposition to the Bush Administration, which he regularly criticized for its cuts to social programs.[58][59][60]

Sanders was a critic of Alan Greenspan; in June 2003, during a question-and-answer discussion with the then-Federal Reserve Chairman, Sanders told Greenspan that he was concerned that Greenspan was "way out of touch" and "that you see your major function in your position as the need to represent the wealthy and large corporations."[61][62] Sanders said in 1998 that investment banks and commercial banks should remain as separate entities.[63]

Republicans have described Sanders as "an ineffective extremist" for successfully sponsoring only one law and 15 amendments in his eight terms in the House.[64][65] Sanders responded by saying that he had passed "the most floor amendments of any member of the House since 1996."[66]

U.S. Senate

Elections

Sanders being sworn in by Vice President Dick Cheney

Sanders had mentioned on several occasions that he would run for the Senate if Senator Jim Jeffords were to retire, and after Jeffords's announcement that he would not seek a fourth term, Sanders entered the race on April 21, 2005. Chuck Schumer, Chairman of the Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee, endorsed Sanders, a critical move as it meant that no Democrat running against Sanders could expect to receive financial help from the party. Sanders was also endorsed by Senate Minority Leader Harry Reid of Nevada and Democratic National Committee Chairman and former Vermont Governor Howard Dean. Dean said in May 2005 that he considered Sanders an ally who "votes with the Democrats 98% of the time."[67] Then-Senator Barack Obama also campaigned for Sanders in Vermont. Sanders entered into an agreement with the Democratic Party, much as he had as a congressman, to be listed in their primary but to decline the nomination should he win, which he did.[68]

In the most expensive political campaign in Vermont's history,[69] Sanders defeated businessman Rich Tarrant by an approximately 2-to-1 margin. Many national media outlets projected Sanders the winner before any returns came in. He was reelected in 2012 with 71% of the vote.[70]

Tenure

Polling conducted in August 2011 by Public Policy Polling found that Sanders's approval rating was 67% and his disapproval rating 28%, making him then the third-most popular senator in the country.[71]

Sanders has an agreement with the Democratic leadership in the Senate under which he votes with the Democrats on all procedural matters except with permission of Democratic whip Dick Durbin—a request rarely made or granted—in exchange for the committee seats and seniority that would be available to him as a Democrat. He is free to vote as he pleases on policy matters, but almost always votes with the Democrats.[citation needed] Both the NAACP and the NHLA have given Sanders 100 percent voting scores during his tenure in the Senate.[72]

Budget

On September 24, 2008, Sanders posted an open letter to Treasury Secretary Henry Paulson decrying the initial bank bailout proposal; it drew more than 8,000 citizen cosigners in 24 hours.[73] On January 26, 2009, Sanders and Democrats Robert Byrd, Russ Feingold and Tom Harkin were the sole majority members to vote against confirming Timothy Geithner as United States Secretary of the Treasury.[74]

On December 10, 2010, Sanders delivered an 8½-hour speech against the Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010, the proposed extension of the Bush-era tax rates that eventually became law, saying "Enough is enough! ... How many homes can you own?" (A long speech such as this is commonly known as a filibuster, but because it didn't block action, it was not technically a filibuster under Senate rules.[16]) In response to the speech, hundreds of people signed online petitions urging Sanders to run in the 2012 presidential election and pollsters began measuring his support in key primary states.[75] Progressive activists such as Rabbi Michael Lerner and economist David Korten publicly voiced their support for a prospective Sanders run against President Barack Obama.[75]

Sanders's "filibuster" was published in February 2011 by Nation Books as The Speech: A Historic Filibuster on Corporate Greed and the Decline of Our Middle Class, with authorial proceeds going to Vermont nonprofit charitable organizations.[76]

Senate Budget Committee

In January 2015 Sanders became the ranking minority member of the Senate Budget Committee.[11] He appointed economics professor Stephanie Kelton, a distinguished modern monetary theory scholar and self-described "deficit owl," the chief economic advisor of the committee's Democratic minority[77] and presented a report aimed at helping "rebuild the disappearing middle class," which includes proposals to raise the minimum wage, boost infrastructure spending, and increase Social Security payments.[78]

Committee assignments

2016 presidential campaign

Sanders campaigning for President in Minneapolis

In an interview with The Nation on March 6, 2014, Sanders stated that he was "prepared to run for President of the United States" in 2016[79] but did not officially announce a campaign. On April 28, 2015, Vermont Public Radio reported that Sanders would announce his candidacy for the Democratic presidential nomination on April 30.[80][81] The official announcement came on May 26 in Burlington, Vermont.[22]

In a preview of his campaign, Sanders told the Associated Press on April 29 that he would release "very specific proposals" to increase taxes on the wealthy and corporations and offer tuition-free higher education at public universities. He also noted his support for more effective regulation of Wall Street and his opposition to free-trade agreements and the Keystone XL pipeline. On April 30, Sanders announced he was running for president in an address on the Capitol lawn, saying, "I don’t believe that the men and women who defended American democracy fought to create a situation where billionaires own the political process."[19][20] His entry into the race was welcomed by Senator Elizabeth Warren, saying "I’m glad to see him get out there and give his version of what leadership in this country should be." Senator Warren has resisted calls to become a candidate herself.[82]

Unlike the other presidential candidates, Sanders stated he will not pursue funding through a Super PAC, instead focusing on small individual donations.[23] Sanders's presidential campaign raised $1.5 million within 24 hours of his official announcement.[83] After four days, Sanders's campaign had raised $3 million from small donors, with an average of $43 per donation.[84] On July 2, the campaign announced it had raised $15 million from 250,000 donors. (By contrast, Barack Obama attracted only 180,000 donors during the first quarter of his presidential campaign in 2007.[85])

Sanders has used social media to help his campaign gain momentum.[86] Along with posting content on Twitter and Facebook, he held an "Ask Me Anything" on Reddit on May 19, 2015, where his answers garnered thousands of "upvotes".[87][88]

Sanders's campaign events in June 2015 drew "overflow crowds" around the country, much to his surprise.[24][89][90] Sanders said he was "Stunned. Stunned. I mean I had to fight my way to get into the room. Standing room only. Minneapolis was literally beyond belief."[90] On June 25, 2015, the New York Times noted that Sanders was "running right alongside [Clinton] in a statistical dead heat for the 2016 Democratic presidential nomination [in the New Hampshire primaries]", citing a CNN/WMUR poll.[27] The Guardian pointed out that when Clinton and Sanders made public appearances within days of each other in Des Moines, Iowa, it was Sanders who drew larger crowds, although he had already made numerous stops around the state, while it was Clinton's first visit of the year.[91]

On July 1, 2015, Sanders's campaign stop in Madison, Wisconsin, drew the largest crowd of any 2016 presidential candidate to that date, with an estimated turnout of 10,000.[25][26]

Political positions

Economics

Income and wealth inequality

A cornerstone of Sanders's campaign is to fight the decreasing income of the middle class and the increase of wealth inequality:

What we have seen is that while the average person is working longer hours for lower wages, we have seen a huge increase in income and wealth inequality, which is now reaching obscene levels. This is a rigged economy, which works for the rich and the powerful, and is not working for ordinary Americans … You know, this country just does not belong to a handful of billionaires.

The Guardian (April 2015)[12]

Taxes

Sanders supports repeal of some of the tax deductions that benefit hedge funds and corporations, and would raise taxes on capital gains and the wealthiest two percent of Americans. He would use some of the added revenues to lower the taxes of the middle and lower classes.[92]

Sanders has criticized offshore tax havens, saying, "[Large corporations have] evaded at least $34.5 billion in taxes by setting up more than 600 subsidiaries in the Cayman Islands and other offshore tax havens since 2008. As a result, at least a dozen of the companies avoided paying any federal income taxes in recent years, and even received more than $6.4 billion in tax refunds from the IRS since 2008."[93]

Wall Street reform

On May 6, 2015, Sanders introduced legislation to break up "too big to fail" financial institutions. With three of the four banks that were bailed out during the 2007–08 Global Financial Crisis now larger than they were then, Sanders believes that "no single financial institution should have holdings so extensive that its failure would send the world economy into crisis. If an institution is too big to fail, it is too big to exist."[94][95]

Trade

Sanders is opposed to the Trans-Pacific Partnership trade agreement, which he has called "a continuation of other disastrous trade agreements, like NAFTA, CAFTA, and permanent normal trade relations with China." He has said he believes Americans need to rebuild their own manufacturing base by utilizing American factories and supporting decent-paying jobs for American labor rather than outsourcing to China and other countries.[92][96]

Jobs

Saying, “America once led the world in building and maintaining a nationwide network of safe and reliable bridges and roads. Today, nearly a quarter of the nation's 600,000 bridges have been designated as structurally deficient or functionally obsolete...Almost one-third of America’s major roads are in poor or mediocre condition...,” Sanders has introduced amendments to Senate bills (S.Amendt.323) that promote the creation of millions of middle-class jobs by investing in infrastructure, paid for by closing loopholes in the corporate and international tax system.[97][98] He also supports legislation that would make it easier for workers to join or form a union.[99]

Employee ownership

Sanders supports the establishment of worker-owned cooperatives and introduced legislation in June 2014 that would aid workers who wanted to "form their own businesses or to set up worker-owned cooperatives."[100][101][99]

Sanders points to statistics that show that the United States is the only advanced economy that does not guarantee its workers some form of paid family, paid sick, or vacation time, and that there are significant disparities among the types of workers who have access to paid sick and paid vacation time. As an example, he notes that over 77 percent of management, business, and financial operations workers have access to paid leave, while just 36 percent of construction workers and only 50 percent of employees who earn $540 per week do, as opposed to 83 percent of workers earning more than $1,200 per week.[102][103]

Sanders’s Guaranteed Paid Vacation Act (S.1564) would provide 10 days of paid vacation for employees who have worked for an employer for at least one year. He is cosponsoring a Senate bill that would give mothers and fathers 12 weeks of paid family leave to care for a baby. It would also allow workers to take the same amount of paid time off if they are diagnosed with cancer or have other serious medical conditions or to take care of family members who are seriously ill. And Sanders has cosponsored a bill that would guarantee workers at least seven paid sick days per year for short-term illness, routine medical care, or care for a sick family member.

Sanders pitches these proposals as his "family values" agenda, in an effort to counter the Christian right's use of the term.[102]

Environment

Global warming

Sanders considers global warming a serious problem.[13] In a speech on the Senate floor on July 26, 2012, Sanders addressed claims made by fellow Senator Jim Inhofe: "The bottom line is when Senator Inhofe says global warming is a hoax, he is just dead wrong, according to the vast majority of climate scientists."[104] He was Climate Hawks Vote's top-rated senator on climate leadership in the 113th Congress.[105]

Along with Senator Barbara Boxer, Sanders introduced the Global Warming Pollution Reduction Act of 2007 on January 15, 2007. The measure would have provided funding for research and development on geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide; set emissions standards for new vehicles and a renewable fuels requirement for gasoline beginning in 2016; established energy efficiency and renewable portfolio standards beginning in 2008 and low-carbon electric generation standards beginning in 2016 for electric utilities; and required periodic evaluations by the National Academy of Sciences to determine whether emissions targets are adequate.[106]

Nuclear energy

Following the 2011 Japanese nuclear accidents, Sanders called for a moratorium on the licensing of new nuclear plants and re-licensing of existing ones, in an effort to slow down what has been touted as a nuclear renaissance in the United States.[107] Sanders wrote to President Barack Obama asking for him to appoint a special commission to review the safety of U.S. nuclear plants. Sanders also wants to repeal a federal law that he says leaves the taxpayers to pick up most of the costs of a major nuclear accident. He says, "in a free-enterprise system, the nuclear industry should be required to insure itself against accidents."[107]

Transparency and corruption

Campaign finance

Sanders supports the DISCLOSE Act, which would make campaign finances more transparent and ban U.S. corporations controlled by foreign interests from making political expenditures.[108] He has been outspoken in calling for an overturn of Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission, in which the Supreme Court ruled McCain-Feingold restrictions on political spending by corporations and unions to be a violation of the First Amendment.[14] Saying that he believes that the Citizens United decision is “one of the Supreme Court’s worst decisions ever” and that it has allowed big money to “deflect attention from the real issues” facing voters,[109] he has proposed a constitutional amendment to overturn the ruling.[110] He warns: "We now have a political situation where billionaires are literally able to buy elections and candidates."[111]

Media reform

Sanders has been a leader in calling for media reform and opposes increased concentration of ownership of media outlets,[112] as well as being a contributing author for OpEdNews.[113] He appeared in Orwell Rolls in His Grave and Outfoxed: Rupert Murdoch's War on Journalism, two documentaries on the subject.[114]

Foreign policy and national security

Israeli–Palestinian conflict

In 2014, Sanders said that Israel had "overreacted" in its response to Palestinian missile attacks, but at the same time noted that Hamas was firing missiles into Israel from “populated areas.” He concluded: "This is a very depressing and difficult issue. This has gone on for 60 bloody years. If you're asking me, do I have a magical solution? I don't. And you know what, I doubt very much that you do."[115] Sanders did not sign on to the Senate Resolution in support of Operation Protective Edge, a military operation Israel launched on July 8, 2014.[115] A statement published on his Senate website read in part: "Sanders believes the Israeli attacks that killed hundreds of innocent people – including many women and children – in bombings of civilian neighborhoods and UN controlled schools, hospitals, and refugee camps were disproportionate, and the widespread killing of civilians is completely unacceptable. Israel's actions took an enormous human toll, and appeared to strengthen support for Hamas and may well be sowing the seeds for even more hatred, war and destruction in future years."[116]

On March 3, 2015, Sanders was the first senator to decline to attend Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu's speech to Congress.[117] He said that the address, arranged without consultation with President Obama, improperly interfered with the President's role. He also argued that it was inappropriate for Netanyahu to use the U.S. Congress for his own political purposes so close to the Israeli legislative election.[118] After the speech, Sanders released a statement supporting the Obama administration's diplomatic effort to address Iran's nuclear program and regretting that Netanyahu's speech did not offer "any serious alternatives" to prevent Iran from obtaining a nuclear weapon.[118] Sanders has said, "I am not a great fan of President Netanyahu" and "I think in that region, sadly, on both sides, I don’t think we have the kind of leadership that we need."[119]

Iraq

Sanders strongly opposed the 2003 invasion of Iraq and voted against the 2002 resolution authorizing the use of force against Iraq. In a 2002 speech, he said, "I am opposed to giving the President a blank check to launch a unilateral invasion and occupation of Iraq" and "I will vote against this resolution. One, I have not heard any estimates of how many young American men and women might die in such a war or how many tens of thousands of women and children in Iraq might also be killed. As a caring Nation, we should do everything we can to prevent the horrible suffering that a war will cause. War must be the last recourse in international relations, not the first. Second, I am deeply concerned about the precedent that a unilateral invasion of Iraq could establish in terms of international law and the role of the United Nations."[120]

Surveillance

Sanders has long been critical of U.S. government surveillance policies. He voted against the USA PATRIOT Act and all of its renewals and has characterized the National Security Agency as "out of control." He has frequently criticized warrantless wiretapping and the collection of the phone, email, library, and internet browsing records of American citizens without due process:[18]

In my view, the NSA is out of control and operating in an unconstitutional manner. I worry very much about kids growing up in a society where they think 'I'm not going to talk about this issue, read this book, or explore this idea because someone may think I'm a terrorist.' That is not the kind of free society I want for our children.

Veterans

Sanders won the 2014 Col. Arthur T. Marix Congressional Leadership Award from the Military Officers Association of America for his leadership in support of veterans.[121] Sanders introduced the Veterans' Compensation Cost-of-Living Adjustment Act of 2013 (S. 893; 113th Congress) into the Senate on May 8, 2013.[122] The bill would increase the disability compensation rate for American veterans and their families.[123] Sanders co-wrote, with Senator John McCain, the Veterans' Access to Care through Choice, Accountability, and Transparency Act of 2014, a bill intended to reform the United States Department of Veterans Affairs in response to the Veterans Health Administration scandal of 2014.[124]

Education

Early childhood

Drawing figures from a recent report that ranks the U.S. 33rd out of 36 nations in reading literacy, 27th in mathematical literacy, 22nd in science literacy, and 18th overall in secondary education, Sanders has said, "In a society with our resources, it is unconscionable to that we do not properly invest in our children from the very first stages of their lives". He has introduced legislation to provide child care and early education to all children six weeks old through kindergarten. Sanders believes that "the Foundations for Success Act would provide preschool children with a full range of services, leading to success in school and critical support for hard-pressed families nationwide."[102][103][125]

College funding

Sanders is in favor of public funding for college students. He believes "we live in a highly competitive global economy and, if our economy is to be strong, we need the best-educated work force in the world." He further maintains that many other developed nations in Western Europe have long taken this approach to higher education. Sanders expects his plan to meet strong opposition from the Republican Party, but says it is ultimately "the American people" who will determine its failure or success.[126] On May 19, 2015, Sanders introduced the College for All Act (S.1373), which would use a Robin Hood tax of 50 cents on every "$100 of stock trades on stock sales" to fund tuition at four-year colleges and universities for students who meet admission standards.[127][128][129] In addition, the Robin Hood tax would include a .5% speculation fee to be charged on investment houses, hedge funds, and other stock trades. Additionally, a .1% fee would be charged on bonds, and a .005% fee will be charged on derivatives.[130]

Health care

Sanders is a staunch supporter of a universal health care system, and has said, "If you are serious about real healthcare reform, the only way to go is single-payer."[131] Sanders advocates lowering the cost of drugs that are high because they remain under patent for years; some drugs that cost thousands of dollars per year in the U.S. are available for hundreds, or less, in countries where they can be obtained as generics.[132]

As chairman of the Senate Subcommittee on Primary Health and Aging, Sanders has introduced legislation to reauthorize and strengthen the Older Americans Act, which supports Meals on Wheels and other programs for seniors. Sanders believes that supporting seniors "is not only the right thing to do, it is the financially smart thing to do”, because it decreases expensive hospitalizations and allows seniors to remain in their homes.[97]

NARAL Pro-Choice America has given Sanders a 100% score on his pro-choice voting record.[133]

Social issues

Gun control

Sanders supports background checks for gun owners, banning semi-automatic weapons, and the elimination of loopholes that allow buyers at gun shows to evade some regulations. He voted against a 2005 law to allow gun violence victims the right to sue gun manufacturers. Speaking to CNN's Jake Tapper on "State of the Union", Sanders said, "If somebody has a gun and it falls into the hands of a murderer and the murderer kills somebody with a gun, do you hold the gun manufacturer responsible? Not any more than you would hold a hammer company responsible if somebody beats somebody over the head with a hammer." Sanders has said, "we have millions of people who are gun owners in this country -- 99.9% of those people obey the law. I want to see real, serious debate and action on guns, but it is not going to take place if we simply have extreme positions on both sides. I think I can bring us to the middle."[134]

Criminal justice reform

Noting that there are more people incarcerated in the U.S. than any country in the world, at an annual cost to taxpayers of $70 billion, Sanders argues that the money would be better spent on education and jobs. He has spoken out against police brutality and the uneven rates of arrest of African-Americans and other minorities: "From Ferguson to Baltimore and across this nation, too many African-Americans and other minorities find themselves subjected to a system that treats citizens who have not committed crimes as if they were criminals and that is unacceptable."[135]

Same-sex marriage

In the House, Sanders voted against the Defense of Marriage Act in 1996.[136] Vermont was the first state to legalize same-sex unions in 2000 and in 2009 was the first state to legalize same-sex marriage. When the Supreme Court took up the issue in 2015, Sanders issued a statement reaffirming his support, saying gay Americans in every state should be allowed to marry: "Of course all citizens deserve equal rights. It’s time for the Supreme Court to catch up to the American people and legalize gay marriage."[137]

Immigration

Sanders voted for the comprehensive immigration reform bill in 2013,[138] saying, "It does not make a lot of sense to me to bring hundreds of thousands of [foreign] workers into this country to work for minimum wage and compete with American kids." Sanders opposes guest worker programs[139] and is also skeptical about skilled immigrant (H-1B) visas, saying, "Last year, the top 10 employers of H-1B guest workers were all offshore outsourcing companies. These firms are responsible for shipping large numbers of American information technology jobs to India and other countries."[140]

Church and state

Sanders is rated by Americans United for Separation of Church and State as strongly in favor of the separation of church and state.[141]

Personal life

Sanders married and then later divorced his "college sweetheart", and they had a child together.[142] Sanders is now married to Jane O'Meara Driscoll, a former president of Burlington College; and three stepchildren.[31][143][144] His brother, Larry Sanders, was a Green Party County Councillor representing the East Oxford division on Oxfordshire County Council, in England, until his retirement in 2013.[145][146][147] Larry ran as a Green Party candidate for Oxford West and Abingdon in the 2015 general election and came in fifth.[148][149]

Religion

Sanders has said he is "proud to be Jewish", but "not particularly religious."[3] Sanders credits his Jewish identity with teaching him “in a very deep way what politics is about," explaining that "a guy named Adolf Hitler won an election in 1932. He won an election, and 50 million people died as a result of that election in World War II, including 6 million Jews. So what I learned as a little kid is that politics is, in fact, very important.”[3]

Sanders has frequently expressed admiration for Pope Francis, saying: "the leader of the Catholic Church is raising profound issues. It is important that we listen to what he has said." On social media Sanders often quotes Francis on economic issues and has described him as "incredibly smart and brave."[150][151]

References

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  8. ^ Sanders, Bernie (May 26, 2013). "What Can We Learn From Denmark?". The Huffington Post. Retrieved August 19, 2013. 
  9. ^ Issenberg, Sasha (January 9, 2010). "Sanders a growing force on the far, far left". Boston Globe. Retrieved August 24, 2013. You go to Scandinavia, and you will find that people have a much higher standard of living, in terms of education, health care, and decent paying jobs. 
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  119. ^ Bernie Sanders: ‘I’m not a great fan’ of Benjamin Netanyahu ZAID JILANI, ALTERNET June 16, 2015 AT 07:22 ET, Raw Story
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Bibliography

  • Stone, Kurt (2010), The Jews of Capitol Hill: A Compendium of Jewish Congressional Members 

Further reading

  • Rice, Tom W. "Who Votes for a Socialist Mayor?: The Case of Burlington, Vermont," Polity, vol. 17, no. 4 (Summer 1985), pp. 795–806. In JSTOR
  • Rosenfeld, Steven. Making History in Vermont: The Election of a Socialist to Congress. Wakefield, NH: Hollowbrook Publishing, 1992.
  • Soifer, Steven. The Socialist Mayor: Bernard Sanders in Burlington, Vermont. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey, 1991.
  • Sanders, Bernie. The Speech: A Historic Filibuster on Corporate Greed and the Decline of Our Middle Class (2011)
  • Sanders, Bernie. Outsider in the House (1998, Verso)

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Gordon Paquette
Mayor of Burlington
1981–1989
Succeeded by
Peter Clavelle
United States House of Representatives
Preceded by
Peter Smith
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Vermont's At-large congressional district

1991–2007
Succeeded by
Peter Welch
Party political offices
Preceded by
Ed Flanagan
Democratic nominee for U.S. Senator from Vermont
(Class 1)
Affiliated

2006, 2012
Most recent
United States Senate
Preceded by
Jim Jeffords
U.S. Senator (Class 1) from Vermont
2007–present
Served alongside: Patrick Leahy
Incumbent
Preceded by
Patty Murray
Chairman of the Senate Veterans' Affairs Committee
2013–2015
Succeeded by
Johnny Isakson
United States order of precedence (ceremonial)
Preceded by
Ben Cardin
United States Senators by seniority
37th
Succeeded by
Sherrod Brown