Haus am Horn
|Haus am Horn|
Haus am Horn, Weimar
|Architectural style||International modern|
|Town or city||Weimar|
|Renovated||1976, 1999, 2018-19|
|Owner||Klassik Stiftung Weimar|
|Design and construction|
|Criteria||ii, iv, vi|
|Designated||1996 (20th session), modified 2017|
|Region||Europe and North America|
The Haus am Horn is a domestic house in Weimar, Germany, designed by Georg Muche. It was built for the Bauhaus Werkschau (English: Work show) exhibition which ran from July to September 1923. It was the first building based on Bauhaus design principles, which revolutionized 20th century architectural and aesthetic thinking and practice
In keeping with the Bauhaus philosophy of teaching via practical experience and working with industry, a number students were involved with the building project.
In 1996 the building was inscribed as part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site now called the Bauhaus and its Sites in Weimar, Dessau and Bernau.
It is a simple cubic design with a flat roof, utilizing steel and concrete in its construction. The walls are made from two slabs of stone, with the inner space filled with peat as insulation. At the center of the house was a clerestory-lit living room, twenty-feet square, with specialized rooms surrounding it on all four sides. The smaller rooms were just 10 square metres each and located half-a-floor lower than the central room. The large windows were to the south and west, the northern side was almost without windows. Gropius described the room's design: "in each room, function is important, e.g. the kitchen is the most practical and simple of kitchens -- but it is not possible to use it as a dining room as well. Each room has its own definite character which suits its purpose."
The house was built away from the main Bauhaus campus, on land that was being used as a vegetable garden by the school. Every piece of furniture was made in the Bauhaus workshops by such renowned Bauhaus staff and students as Marcel Breuer, Theodor Bogler and Alma Siedhoff-Buscher. Bolger, a student, designed ceramics for the kitchen and Siedhoff-Bucher, also a student, designed the furniture for the children's room. László Moholy-Nagy designed the lights which were made in the Bauhaus metal workshop. Marcel Breuer, a student at the time, designed furniture, including the built-in cabinetry. Gropius stated that the goal of the house's construction was "the greatest comfort with the greatest economy by the application of the best craftsmanship and the best distribution of space in form, size, and articulation."
There was a lot of interest in the house during the Werkshau exhibition and streams of people came to visit it. The local residents gave it the nickname "die Kaffeemühle" (the coffee grinder) because of its square shape and clerestory roof, which resemble a typical early 20th century coffee grinder. The reception by the media ranged between sympathetic admiration and, more often, open rejection.
The Haus am Horn was built for the first exhibition of work by the Bauhaus design school in 1923, which had been founded in Weimar in 1919. The building was based on designs by Georg Muche, a painter and a teacher at the school.. It was thought at the time that it would be a model for houses on an envisioned Bauhaus housing estate in Weimar, but this never came to fruition. For this reason the house is sometimes called the "Musterhaus" in German, i.e. a show home.
The director of the Bauhaus, Walter Gropius, had planned to design it himself, but in a democratic ballot students chose a design Muche had originally planned as a house for himself and his wife. At the time the Bauhaus had no architecture department to manage the project, so Gropius' own architecture firm took on the work, completing the building in only four months. The construction was overseen by Adolf Meyer. The project was financed with an interest-free loan from Adolf Sommerfeld, German-Jewish Berlin real estate developer, for whom Gropius, with contributions from Bauhaus staff and students, had built the Haus Sommerfeld, a villa in Berlin-Lichterfelde, in 1920-21.
After the exhibition the house stood empty for a year. This was at the peak of hyperinflation in the Weimar Republic and it was not possible to repay the loan to Sommerfeld, so the property was sold to a lawyer, Franz Kühn, in 1924 and all the furniture and fittings where given to Sommerfeld. Most of these items have gone missing over the years, but the Bauhaus Dessau Foundation has a dressing table from the bedroom and a glass cabinet from the living room, both designed by Marcel Breuer, in its collection.Kühn added a garage and several small additions. In the late 1930s he sold it to the German Labour Front, who planned to demolish the house and build an educational institution on the plot, however World War II put a halt to these plans. The house was let to an officer in the German army and after the war the Weimar city council took over administration of the property.
In the early 1950s, under the communist rule of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany), it was transferred into Volkseigentum (public property). Several families lived there, although none were aware of the building's history and it was altered internally and externally. The family who lived there from 1971 until the late 1990s understood the importance of the Haus am Horn, and began the long process of getting it recognised as a protected historic monument.
Haus am Horn today
From 1998 until 2017 the building was owned by the City of Weimar, which leased it to the Freundeskreis der Bauhaus-Universität Weimar ('Friendship circle of the Bauhaus University Weimar) which instigated a general restoration in 1998-99. University staff and students used the building and over 30 exhibitions and 300 events were held in it. Since August 2017 the building has been administered by the Klassik Stiftung Weimar.
In 2018 the house is undergoing restoration in preparation for the 2019 Bauhaus centenary celebrations. It is expected to reopen to the public on 18 May 2019.
- "Bauhaus and its Sites in Weimar, Dessau and Bernau". UNESCO. Retrieved 25 November 2018.
- Snider, C., Bauhaus: Philosophy Archived 2016-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 21 October 2016
- Finsterbusch, Stephan (12 August 2016). "Bauhaus Nr. 1". Frankfurter Allgemeine Sonntagszeitung (in German). Drinnen & Draussen. Retrieved 16 August 2016.
- Raizman, David (2003). History of Modern Design: Graphics and Products Since the Industrial Revolution. Laurence King Publishing. p. 185. ISBN 978-1-85669-348-6. Retrieved 23 February 2011.
- Klassik Stiftung Weimar. Haus am Horn. Retrieved 24 November 2018
- Bauhaus100. Kitchen Set for the 'Haus Am Horn' (5 pieces). Retrieved 24 November 2018
- Bauhaus100. Alma Siedhoff-Buscher. Retrieved 24 November 2018
- Knorr, Susan; Kern, Ingolf; Welzbacher, Christian (2012) Bauhaus Reisebuch, Bonn: Dumont
- Bauhaus100. Entwurfsplan Haus am Horn, Weimar. (Haus am Horn planning application). Retrieved 28 November 2018
- Markgraf, Monika (ed.) (2018) Bauhaus World Heritage Site (English edition). Leipzig: Spector Books
- Bauhaus University Weimar. Freundekskreis. Haus am Horn.. Retrieved 25 November 2018
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Haus am Horn.|
- Application for a Building Permit for the Haus Am Horn, Weimar
- Bauhaus Dessau. World Heritage Site Bauhaus
- UNESCO.Bauhaus and its Sites in Weimar, Dessau and Bernau
- Klassik Stiftung Weimar. Haus am Horn