D1 motorway (Czech Republic)
|Length||352 km (219 mi)
Planned: 376.5 km (233.9 mi)
|From||MO in Prague|
|R56 in Ostrava|
|To||A1 border with Poland|
|Regions:||Prague, Central Bohemian, Vysočina, South Moravian, Zlín, Olomouc, Moravian-Silesian|
|Major cities||Prague, Jihlava, Brno, Přerov, Ostrava|
D1 motorway (Czech: Dálnice D1) is the main highway of the Czech Republic. Currently it connects the two biggest Czech cities, Prague and Brno, in the future it will link Ostrava and to the Czech–Polish border in Věřňovice (Karviná District) / Gorzyczki (Wodzisław County). It is 352 km (218.7 mi) long, but the planned length is 376.5 km (233.9 mi). It is the busiest motorway in the Czech Republic, with maximum AADT 99,000 vehicles per day near Prague.
The Munich Agreement in 1938 deprived the country of some fundamental road and rail routes. The government hurried works for the preparation of three major infrastructure projects to the new borders, the Německý Brod – Brno railway, the Plzeň – Ostrava road and a 4-lane highway from Prague to Velký Bočkov (on the Czechoslovak – Romanian border). On 23 December 1938 the government issued Decree no. 372/1938 Coll. about construction of motorways an establishment of General Motorway Directorate. Decree presumed construction of east-west motorway in four years.
As of January 1939, General Motorway Directorate has 108 employees. On 13 January 1939 the project for Prague – Jihlava – Brno – Slovak border was approved as well as start of construction on segments Chodov (now part of Prague) – Humpolec and Zástřizly – Lužná. As result Carpathian Ruthenia prime minister Avgustyn Voloshyn requested Slovak border – Chust segment to be added as well. Construction began on 24 January in Zástřizly in Chřiby mountains on the Zástřizly – Lužná segment.
The German occupation of Czechoslovakia brought only small technical changes to the project and the construction of another segment Chodov – Humpolec began in May 1939. The increasing demands of World War II slowed down the construction and the works were completely halted in 1942. After the war the works were resumed mainly on major bridges in 1946, but only with a small workforce.
After 1948 the works continued. But in January 1949 the segment in Chřiby was abandoned in 1949 and the segment Prague – Humpolec one year later. All 77 km of motorway under construction including 60 bridges remain in disuse.
In the 1960s, traffic was growing very quickly, and a new plan for a D1 highway Prague – Soviet Union border was formulated. Work on the Prague – Brno section started in 1967, mainly using the old route from first attempt. The 21 km long Prague – Mirošovice segment was completed in 1971, and the 205 km long route to Brno in 1980.
In the Slovakian part construction started in 1973 with the 14 km long Ivachnová – Liptovský Mikuláš section, together with the construction of the Liptovská Mara dam. The 19 km Prešov – Košice highway was added in 1980. In the late 1980s and the early 1990s the 19 km long Brno – Vyškov segment was built and another 20 km from Liptovský Mikuláš to Hybe in Slovakia.
After the dissolution of Czechoslovakia route changes, construction was no longer planned to Slovakia, but instead to Lipník nad Bečvou (the replacement of the planned route is the R49 expressway). Due to growing traffic near Prague, the first segment to Mirošovice was widened from 4 lanes to 6 lanes and there are similar plans for widening around Brno as well. After the dissolution, no new sections were built. In 2002, construction of an 18 km long extension from Vyškov eastwards started and it was opened in 2005. More extensions eastwards were opened in 2008, 2009 and 2010; in 2011 motorway reach the junction with R55 expressway and R49 expressway near Hulín, the route curled up to the north to the Přerov (and Lipník nad Bečvou).
Simultaneously the segment from Lipník nad Bečvou to Ostrava was constructed during 2004 – 2009 due to historical reasons as Motorway D47, however it was opened as part of D1 highway. The segment from Ostrava to the Polish border (and Autostrada A1) has been opened in late 2012, but only for cars under 3.5 tonnes, because Polish side had problems with the bridge at Mszana village. From 2014 the bridge is open, and everyone can ride from Ostrava to Polish Border, and further, to Katowice.
The only sections which are not yet completed are Říkovice – Přerov segment and Přerov – Lipník nad Bečvou. Přerov – Lipník nad Bečvou segment is under construction and to be fully completed by 2019. Construction on Říkovice – Přerov is yet to be started (planned in November 2018), with expected completion date in 2022.
- "Czech Motorways > Traffic volume". motorway.cz. Retrieved 18 February 2018.
- "Celostátní sčítání dopravy 2016, Středočeský kraj". Ředitelství silnic a dálnic. Retrieved 18 February 2018.
- "VLÁDNÍ NAŘÍZENÍ ZE DNE 23.12.1938 O STAVBĚ DÁLNIC, O ZŘÍZENÍ GENERÁLNÍHO ŘEDITELSTVÍ STAVBY DÁLNIC A O JEHO ORGANISACI". epravo.cz. Retrieved 18 February 2018.
- Lídl, Václav; Janda, Tomáš (2006). Stavby, kterým doba nepřála (second ed.). Prague: Ředitelství silnic a dálnic.
- Ředitelství silnic a dálnic ČR – Česko a Polsko spojila nová dálnice
- Dálnice D1 Říkovice – Přerov, stavba 0136 (PDF). Ředitelství silnic a dálnic. 2018.
- České dálnice > Dálniční síť v České republice > Dálnice > Dálnice D1
- Exit list of D1 highway
- Info on ceskedalnice.cz (in Czech)
- Info on dalnice-silnice.cz (in Czech)
- Info about pre-war bridges on dalnice.com